INDEX nI' TIrE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ¡,'(ji,; Tl-'l.F 8Eoo~n SE;SSIO~ UF...
}

INDEX


nI' TIrE


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES


¡,'(ji,; Tl-'l.F


8Eoo~n SE;SSIO~ UF T'BE .li'lHtTY·1i'U{ST CONGR1<JSS.


VOllllEi1 1, frOlll No. 1 to Ko. 3o!.
VOlllllh~ 52, frolll No. :l:l to Ko. 72.
V\,hlll'e g, from No. n to Ko. 1'2::!.


\V ASUl~GTO.N.
GO VIi; H ,,~rF N T P R 1 N TI" G OFF 1 CF.


1 f\70.






lND~X
TU


HEPORT~ THE GO~J~fITTEES
... o¡: Tllf:


"llhj.·(·t.


.:\el'oHlit::-. of otlíc\'l':-\ 111 the btt, W~lT _ .. _ ..........•.
,A\lam." Th.·odoj'(· .........•......... " ......... : ................... ,
.AnlerH.'an 1onnag('" ('an:-;¡'~ ot t1((' l'cdlH'tloH u1. ______ .. - .• _ ~ .. _. ___ _
.\ppoint.llll·llt,; to tI", )lilitary amI ='Ia",,1 A(':\l1('ll1i.·, ............ .
\1',,1,,·1'. :-'a\',,1 At\,,,il'<-


("llited :--;t:tt(·~ ~hiV \YyOlllillg ....... __
CI",rl .. , \\". \\"hitllP'" ...... "" ...... " ....... " ..... ".
_\nlt~lI~ Edw',u illn aH.l Ilahol'·~


(;"IlI'I",,1 (l. 11. Ifow:ud.".
\'f"· ... )lilit:lI'.I" .\tl""il"-


l'\apol"oll n. (~i(ldill.L!,·~ .. _ .... _ .. _ ...... _ ..... __ . _ .. _
(:U1Ullt-l ~.J ;~lll(l~ Iklp:f'I'. _ . _ .. _ ..
:"-itat(' nt h .. all"'~I~" __ .•...


\. U-l'. ('tailll"';---
Il:tlli(·~ \1. 1·:I,~·(·


1:'


¡;alt, ('al'laill Ed\\ ,\Id
Halll"iug' 111111 ('UI'lI'IH',\. l'OJlLlllitt\'(" Pll-


1;,"ti,·ld-
IIl\·(·~ríg;I¡¡(\I\ 01 11H' ,:.!:old ¡t:Llli\


{bid· ...... , l'Ol('i~1I ~\jrail's--
( \1I1):!
~~¡n'lW;-" ( ..... ~\ll:ll1b. __ "
Uartol\. Edw;ln1. d 11/.
HI'h.!,Vl', ('ololH'1 ,fallll· ...
Bil;~J¡alll .. J"di,·i,"\-


. 1);111·1(,1.; \\'41tld"
Bll:-\ .... :tlld. ~\b .. ,jl'I'IIl:IJI ._
Honl'lJl'n b·, (;I'Ol'.~'¡' JI _ "'" ., '
l~ook('l', Fl'¡,,·dlll( 11'..; ,\¡'j':l il .... ---


J:lI'oh li. 1);1 \ i:-..
g"lldillot, ¡':Ii", (' ....... "".
];razillllail <ÍO':lllI-ltil' li",·
HI'io'os Alfn''¡ \1 """""" .. " ........ . Hl'<~7)'k:. (:t'or~'I: ~\I., E],','I il!lt~-·


Tllt·l,,!·\' /','ó. H'HI],.'j_
I íl'lI,"'PIlIIl'. l'n·¡l¡°l'i('I'I. _. , , . _ .. _ ... __ . o o ..... o o, v
nllildill!.!,'~ l't'lltt,tll,,\' Il\{' ~'t)\ ¡'nlHII'nl in lit,·
HlIl'lÍt'lt. EI('('lioll",-
~1',n.lt:¡!11 /' ...... l~\';tll


!:¡p'/ EI.·(otit)lI~- .


y"l, ]\"0. Part~.


1
., 1 Hl .,
.~~


'! ~2


W
.! tm
., 1'2}


1";
., ]UtI .,
'! li~


., ~ ,~.


.! H


:a


., ~()


., 7~ ..
:! li
.. 111!1


.. 1"~ •
,) ti;)
.. 11111


.. 1111
:! .-):¿
.. ~~
.) 1:1


'! JI


" 7p


,¡ lil


.!;¿ .,




IV INDEX.


Suhjl'cts.


Bnt],·r. D. F., .1I11lieiary-
Cu~t()mH reYt'lllle la\Y8 ........................ _ ..
IlIdcbteducss oí' 8outlH'l'u raill'o~ds ...... _.


Butler. n. H., EIf·"tiollR-
Vau YV,\'ck 1'8. GrE'f'ne .................. .
Zei¡!;ler /·s. Rice .................... '. ... . ....... .


Bntl<·l, H.IL C('lJ-llr,,/l ..•


r.


Calkin.-, Palclll~
Aln)..(uHll'l' c. fWÍnll1g. ___________ . _ . _ . _ ... __ .. _ ..


('apirrol ¡'llilfliH~" in Territories .•••.......... ' ................. .
Carllart, L'ydill E ............................................. ..
e arpl>1l Íl;¡', ,l. N .......................... __ .................. ..
(:;tHH'..., (lf H,pclnctiOLl 01' J.\llleriean TOllnag(~J ~'~'H'leet COU1n1ittr·(' 011-


LylH'h-
, H(,üuet.iol1 of A Illf::"rle,an tonu[q.~t-" .. _. _ .. _


Ct'lIH1:--. (itHll111ittt'e 011- -
(;artid,l-


Hl'IlOrt OH tlw lliuth ._
("h-JI'1. El<-,·tions-


.fllhll H. H,eading .. _ ... _. _ .' _ .. , .... __ . ___ .2. ____ . ~
\\'alJace /·Ii. Silllpson ............................ ..
H .. id /\<. Juliall .................................. .


CIH'l·(·k,·,· lH'utrallall(ls of E.ausas .............................. .
ehllr.!,;I1. EkctiollH-


('0,""<1,, r.'. Fo"t·~r ..................... _ .
(~porgia elaÍlnallt::-: 1'01' Hl'ats in COllgrt~tl-.'L __ .
"'hittlt,~py 1'8. IUcKeu~ie ....... , ............... '"
S\"it~kr 1'8. Dypl'. ............. _ ........ _ ........ _
i'lhielrl~ '·s. Van J[Prtl ................ _ ..... _. __


eL-., '. (·olllluitt,·,. 011-
Ayer-


, Daniel)1. Pagl'
('ohh, AIll:lR:l-


Atate oI' l\.allt-';l~ ... _. ______ . _______________ ~ _____ _
DI'. J,,11Il )lt-qIlO\\l! ...... " __ ". _ " .... ___
CO]Olll'l TI¡",l1aS 1' . .Me::.l:lIl11H ............ _. _ ...... .
~tate 01' '\lm~~aclltl:·wtt~, l'lIa~t (l('rl'J1~c ________ . ___ _


Ela-
Alfr!',l ~1. nl'ig·.u:s ....... _ .. _ ................ __ ._
t'tatl' of )la~,,](:hIlRcttH ..................... _ .... .
l~al'}jHl'a ~('h()IT ___________ . ______ . __ . ___________ _


::-;IItll,"lÍ,,1 FaLT ....... _ ........ _ ......... _
\ \ ollllaIJ-


.Johll \\'i1"'1l _ ."'" .. __ .. ,
r {Htl'hki~K-'


COllllIIOdol't\ ChtlJ'lp~ St'l':lillll:l1¡
~rn~'l'¡', .Jl'!-'~e H,-


:\ln; . . h"O' :\. Gl'e"ll ..... _
f~"()l'lfC .1. 1,;¡ll\l'\-()l'th\~ _\1'l1f~1I ~tllitll ~ _____ .',_
;-':Iill':--~


1:','11,\101 ~l. H()(l:~'()ll .. '._
.)aIJII·., \\ o;.·ks .. Jl'.
'-':tokl'~-


J,"ll'S. 1-'0\\\ 1,,1'. Kil'tlllll<l _\: r" ............ .
~trollg~


'\Villimu ,J. Clal'k, ,ullllini"ll'a¡¡,¡" <'\:(' _ .......•. __
Lne)' A. 8mitlL . _ .... _ _ ......... _


Washhul'll, Williall1 B.·--
(':l.},tain Jo;,l\\,ll['(t 13,"1. ,
{~4·(lr.L:.I· 1r. Bll1ll~lJrakl' .. _
E~ i \\ :1 H 1 I ~;¡ rtoll ('t ((, ____ _


Vol. I'ío. P;¡rt,


:.z ti6
:\ 7'"


1 ~!2
:1 lO;
1 :¡,!


., 112
"27 1 ~! 'j-'
.'é>


:.z 1" .. ,


".?...¡


"
.)


2 ;;0
2 71
:\ lU;
'~ ;,;1


Ir)
16


., 7:-,
:¡ lOH
:¡ 1 :¿l


:\ lID


:1 77
:: (lil
.) !Jl
.) !In


'2 1;1
.) ,i;
.> ~u
'.J ~I"


., 1 ,,~)


:¡ ,~'-:.


:¡ ~)~
:\ ~);)
.) 11;;


., ~):~ .)


., !hj .)


'.J "G
:¡ !),"';
.. !t7


'.J -ll
" H'(I ..
'.> 41 1




INlmx.


Suhjeet~.


Claims, Committt'e ou-
Wasl!IJIl1'Il, William B.-


Frt>deriek 1l1'0SCIllle . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................. '
.J. N. Carpenter .................................. :
'VashillgtOll ami Alexaudria Turupikll Compauy .. .
Hiram A. Cuttillg ............ , ................. ..
Willialll E!l!ly'~ hpirs ........................... ..
Calvill H. Fredt1l'iek ............................. .
Albert Greellleaf el al. .......................... ..
Gt,orge Hulltsman .............................. .
Mr8. Catharille .Tacksoll .......................... .
J. G. Lallc ..................................... ..
Hellry Lelllwrt. ................................ ..
Brazi I lIIail .................................... .
Dwight J. McCallll ............................. ..
John Milolle ...................... ~ ............ ..
JOllas \V. Kyf' ................................... .
Wallia Pattl'lI .................................. .
WiIliam Belden ................................. .
James F. Bhattnck .............................. .
Fredel'ick Smith ............................... ..
Green ami Traillor .................. __ .......... .
í;imoll Van Ettt'lL .............................. ..
Gcqrge R. Wright, admillistTator, &0 .......... , .. ..
Jalllt'H H. YOullg ................................. .


Clark, 'ViIliam J., adllliui~trator, &0 ................... _ ....... .
Clarke, ludian Atl'airs-


Ch"rokee ucntral !al\(ls of Kausas ................ .
Cobb, Amasa, Clrtirn~-


St,ate of Kall811s ................................. .
State, of Massaellllsett"", coast !lefense ............•
Dr .. Iolm H. MdJuowII ......... _ ................ .
Colonel Tholllas 1'. McMaulIs .................... .


Commerce, Conllllittec ou-
Sawvel'-


City of ~lilwallk"e .. : ......................... ..
CongressioIlal Glohc, eoutraet wit.h propridors ot". .............. .
Conuelly, Willialll ............................................ ..
Cook, J udiciary-


Private land grant" undel' treaty 01' Guadalupc
Hidalgo ...................................... .


Cooper, Chal'leR, d al .................. _ ..................... ..
Con8in, 13artholollle\L ......................................... .
Covode t'8. Foster. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... _ ,
Cuba ......................................................... .
Cullom, Tcrritoril'H-
l~xel'IJl,i(J1l of the laws in Utal! .............. .


Customs, reYelllll' laws ......................................... '
Cutting, Hiram A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .................... .


n.


Darrall V8, Bailey .................... .
Davis, Jacob R ...................... _ .. .
District of Columhia, COllllllitt:ee Oll-


Willia.ms-
Met,ropulita11 Polil"t'


lJomillguez, .To8P ...................... .


Eddy, WilIi:tlll, heirH ot". ....................................... .
Ed.ncatioll alld Labor, UOlllluittc(' 011-


Arlll'll-
Gen(\ral O. O. Howanl ................... .


Egglestoll 1'8. Strader. .. .... . .. .. . ............................ .


11
2' ~ 11 1
1.
1 I
:3 i
1
;}
1
~
3
1
:~
1
1
:{

3


2


3
1
1


J
1
:;
1
.,
.,


J
'2
.)


:!
:~


:!


.,


.)



:1


,


i


I


7
4:{
54


1O:J
til
411
45
55
11
8


10
84
5


101
(i


85
87


9
8:J
12
13
86
83
98


53


77
103 '
90 i
91


120
2ti
25


H
30


] ]7
1;,
80


21
66


lO;)


li~l
110


;-J~ ~
111


",1


121
73'


v


1.~! :;


1.2




VI INDEX.
-------~--~~--- -----


~ub.iectH.


Ela, Cla¡m~-
~lf!~~~C~~~8~;;~~S_-_._-_-_-_- .. _-_-_-_-_-.-_::::::::::::::::::: :
Barbara Schorr _ . _ . _____ .. __ . ___ .. _ .. _ . _ .... __ . __ _
Nathal1ipl Fan· __________ . ______ ._._ ..... _ ... __ .. _
~;¡ecti(}lI~, Conunittee of-


. B1'Ooks, Gcorgc M.-
l'ncker 1"S. Bookel' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ . ___ .. ______ . _ ..


Rurtlett-
Ncwsham 1',. Ryan _ . _________ ... ________________ _


Burr-
Van \Vyck t's. Greem'_ . ______ . _____ ..... , .... _ .. __


Hut.ler, R. H.-


i!~l~~~~~ ~f~~~~~~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Ct'ssna-


Johl1 R. Rcading ..... _ ..... ____ ................ ..
\Vallace -I'S. Silllpson __ .......... _ •..... ____ .... __ .
Rietl t·s. J nliaJl _ , __ ... __ ..... _ .... ____ .. ________ . _


Churchill-
Covode ¡'s. Foster _ . _ .............. ____ ... _ ... _ ... .
Georgia claiIl1:wts for seats in Congrt'88 _ .. __ .... _ ..
Whittlesey -¡-s. McKenzie .. __ ......... _ ....... _. __ _
Switzler t'8. IJyer .... '.0 ................... __ ... ..
Shields 1.'8. Van Hom .. __ ...... ____ .. __ ........ __ ..


Halc- I
Eggleslon -1'8. Stra<l,'r ______ .. ____ .. ____ . _. _ ... _ .... ;


Kerr- I
I1unt 1:8, Sheldon _ . _____________ . _ .. ____ . ___ - _____ '


MüCrary-
Barnes 1'1<. Atl:UtlH _________ ••• ____ •• ___ •• _________ _


Pa.ine-
Wallaccrs. Simpsoll __ .. __ .. ____ .. __ ....... - __ ...
J oseph Segar _ .. _ . ______ ... ___ . _ . - -. __ - - .. -- - ___ _


l{andall-
Covode '['8. }<'oster _________ . ____________ - - - - - ____ .


8tevenson-
Darrall t·s, Bailey. __ .. ___ . ________________ - - _____ .
Hunt t·8. Sheldon_ ...... _ ... ____ .......... - -- - -- --
Morey 1'8. McCrallC . ___ . ___ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ . ____ - _____ !
J. n. Sypher ___ . _ .. _ .. _____ . __ ... _____ .. -. - - .. _., :
JosC]Jh Segar _____ .. _ .. ____ ..... _ ... - - - - .. - - __ - - __ 1


F,


~·al'1l8WI>I·th. l'"st Ollice, an<l po¡,t Ron.d8-
. Post oftice lmildings ........ - .. ____ ... - - -- - - -- I


Fcrry, Naval Attairs- '
Cal'tain llmninkk Lyll<'h ____________ . _____ _


Fitüh, l'nblie Lands-
Stnrgeoll Hay ship-cnnal ____ - _____ - - - .. - - - - - - - - --
~'re(]erick, Cal v in H _____ . _____ . ____ - _ - - - - -_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
FOJ'f"i:,rn Affail's, Cünnnitt('\' ~nl-'


Hanks-
ClIba. _____ _


.JULld-
El11i1 Hug;el . ____ .... __ _ ... _______ _ .... - - - - - - . - _ - _.


Orlh-
Georg., F. l\Iasrl:l'lnnu :1lHl Port.']' ('. Dlis,; __ . - - _ ... '


Wanl-
TelegT<lphic c0Itn)n1likatin)j~yitll fOl'cign i'onlltl'it'~_


\Vilkinsoll-
Claiu18 01' Arncl'lcan c.itiz~:>ll':;¡' a,g:lill~t '"'"l'lw.znt-'ln


j<'reedmen's Affairs, C'ollllllitte". 011 - •
Rookel'-


Jaeoh H, Ih'ií~


VoL No. I Parts.
--- --~-,I'-~-


2


2


1
:1 i


2
2
~


1
1
:~
~
:\


:1


2


:\


2


1 ,


2
2
2
2
2


'!


2


'2
2


:\


'2


'2


:1


.,


"


49
76
92
413


41


(jI


22


22
107


50
71


116


15
16
75


106
122


n


88


74


17
51


1"


63
:313
62
(jO
;,1


JI"


r~ ,/
':>7
-!ti


;-'0


20
();,


:1::;


;(}


llÜ




INDEX.


¡;;ubjccts. •


G-.
Garfield, CenSUR-


Rcpol't on the ninth censu~ ...................... .
Garfield, Banking 3,1](1 Cnrrency-


Gold panic ...................................... .
Georgia, claimants for Beata as representativcs in Congres8 fmm


the State of .............................. , ..... .
Gid<1inga, :rapoleon B .......................................... .
Gilfillan, Rcvolutionary Pensions ................ '" ............ .
Gold panic, investigation of causes of the ...................... .
f:reen and Trainor ... * ...... ................ _ .... _ ................................................. .


g~::~: ~~s~~l~~!I A::: ~::: ~:::::.': :::::::::::::::: :::: ::::::::::.
Greenleaf, Albert, et al ...... .................................... '
Gnadalupe Hidalgo, private land grallts nnder treaty of ......... .


11.


Hale, Naval Aífairs--
Richard M. Green ............................... .


Hale, Elections-
Egglestoll t'8. Strader ...................... , ..... .


Ho<1gson, Richard M .......................................... ..
Holman, Claims-


John vVHson .................................... .
Hoíchkiss, Clairns- . I


Comrnodorc Charles SLetldman ...... : ...... ' ...... ,
Howarrl, General O. O .......................................... .'


~::~i:~;.e~~er~~~:~l. ::::::::::::: ::: ::: ::~ :::: ::::::::::::::~:::
HukhillgS, .1. 1\1., alld J. C. Lamon. pre·emption clftim 01' ......... ,


lndian Ajrail'~, COllllllittee nu-
Clarke-


l.


Cherokee Ilclltrallands 01 Kan~as ................ .
Van Horu-


lllack Bob ludian htntls .......................... .
Internal Revl'llue, pxamination of statements of Speeial Comrnis-


Aioner "f ...................................... .


.r.


Jacksoll, Mrs. Catharinf' .................. _ ..................... !
Janes, Fowler, Kirtland & Co .. :: ............................... :
Jenckes, PatclIts- i


Lydia E. Carhart _ .............................. .
Charles A. Pite/Jer. .............................. .


Judd, Forcign Atfairs-
ElIlil l{lIgl'r ..................................... .


Jndiciary, COl11mittl,c Oll-
Binghultl-


Patrick \Yooü" ......... . .............. .
Blltln, H. F.- .


CustonlR tevenue la\"\"8. _ ... _ ~ __ .. _ . __ ... ___ . ___ _ ". _ I
Ill<lehtedll"~8 of H()nth~l'll railro,,,l, ............... .


Jlldiciary, Cornrnitt!'l' 011-
Cook-


Privato laml gr:llltS linde .. treat,~ ,){ Gnadalul'e
Hidalgo ....................................... .


Kerr-
Elias C. BOlHtinoT ............................... .
Charles Coo[>l'r et al ..... _ ....................... .
MOllllt Yerno" n,lil'"................ . ....... .


VIl


Yo1. I :ro. I Part.A.
I
-------1-


:~ I


:11 "


1 ](j ,
1 18
1 2[)
1 ;~1
1 12
1 24
;1 94
2 45
1 14


24


:3 93
:3 93


:J 89


:3 RS
:3 121
2 68
2 , 38 1,2
1 , 2


:¿ ¡ 5:3


3 118


2 72


11
'2 66


2 ;3:3
:J2


20


:3 105


-! 66
:3 7~


14
.~ I !)2
1 :30
2 3(i




VIII INDEX.


--------------- ---


Suujects.


ludiciary,' Committee 011-
Peters-


Pay of members while absent .................... .
Julian, Pnblic Lallds-


Pre-emptiol1 claim of J. M. IIutchings and .J. C.
Lalllon ..........•..•..•..••...••.••...........


José Dominguez ................................. .


K.


Kansas-
Cherokee nelltrallands of ....................... .
Claims of the St-ate of ............. , ............. .
Claims of tho Stato of ........................... .


Kerr, Jmlidary-
Elias C. ROlHlillot .............................. ..
Charles Cooper et al ...•...... _ ..............•....
MOlll1t Vernon relics ......... '" .......... " ..... .


](err, Eloctiol1s-
HUl1t '1'8. Sheldon ................................ .


L.
Laflill, Printing-


Contract with propriet,ors of C ongressioual Globe .. ,
Lane, J. G .................................................... .
Langworthy, George J .......................................... :
Lenhart, Henry .. , ............................................. !
Logan, ~lilitary Affairs- I


Settlemellts of accounts of officers in tbe late war·1
Appointments to tho Military and Naval Academies.,
R. F. Whittemore ............................... .


Lyncll, Captain Dominick .................................... ..
Lynch, Select COlllmittee- .


Cnubes of the recluctioll of American tOllunge.


}l.


~Iallnt'1ctllrers, Committee 011-
Morrell- ,


Statement of the Special Cornmissioner of InLerual I
Hevenlle ....................................... i
i\1as~achu~etts- '


Claim of the Stat,c of .......................... ..
Coast defense of tlle State of. ..............•......


Masterman, Geol'ge F., an(1 Porter C. Bliss ...................... .
)fcCann, Dwil--\'ht J ............................................ ..
l\feCo!'llJiek, Pllhlic Lallds-


llartholomew, COl1Sill ............................. i
)fcCrary, Elections- '


Harnes V8. Adams ................................ .
)lcCmry, Naval Affairs-


JoseJlh IIumphI'ey~ .... _ ........................... :
::\IeMauu~, Colon el Thomas P .................... _ ............... 1
::\fCQUOWIl, Dr . .John H ........................................ ..
Memllllrs of Congre~8, deductiolJs from pay of, 011 aCCoullt ()f ah-


sellee ......... , ............................................. .
l\fetropolit-all Polie" ............................................ .
)lilital'y Aftitirs, COIllmittee 011-


ARP'W-
Napoleoll B. Giddings ............................ .
Stat,e of KanRas ... -............................. ..
Colonel James BeIge!' ............................ .


Logan-
Settlemellt of accounts of officers of the late ,yar ...
Appointmcnts to tlle :Military_aud Na.val ACI\\lemies .:
B. t'. Whittt'more ......................... " .... .


Vol. Ko. Parbi.


2


1
3


2
2
:l
2
1
'¿


'.!


1
1
:3
1


1
2
1
'.!


1


'2


3

2
1
.,
.)




'2

:1


¿
2


1
'2
:l


"l


1


2
111


5:1
64
77


f)2
30
3(;


3'3


26 :
tJ


95
10


1
4,¿
29
67


28


72


7()
103


m,
;)


117


74


68
91
UO
37
,,9


110
(B


109


1
4:¿
'.W


'2


!




INDEX.


Suhjeets. V oJ.


\'Ii!itar~' .'i!;til's, COInlllittPf\ 011-
~tollghtoll-


11. K BnLler ...... ' .. ,........ .................... 2
:\liJOll(', Joiln...... ....... .... ...... ...... ......... ............ :{
:\1i1wi\llk,"', ,·it.\' nf. ............................................. ' :{
:\1ines uud .:\Iillillf-!:. COllLlnittpp Oll-
~arp;ellt-


Su tro t.ll 11 11 el. .................... , ..... .......... 2
:.vliIlIlesota-


COlIstnwtioll nf ("'rtaill la.\\'.'4 gr:lIlting l:mcls to t·lw ,
Statoof,foraState llniven;it,Y .................. ,


}fool'n, .l(."" B., Clainls- :
Ml'H .• Jan" A. Gn·(·.n .............................. ..
neor~t·.J. Lall~\\'orth'y .. .. ______________ . ___ . _____ :
Amtoll Slllith .................................... .
~1orey ., .•. Mr:Crani" ............................................ .
Morrell, )Ianllfi¡('IIll'('N-


l:x:ullillatioll oi' sh,t(,IlIl'llts oí' tlw SpeciaJ COllllllis·
sioller of llltCl'llall{cvelllw ..................... .


MOllnt V('J'IlOIl relieR ........•...................................


X:¡yal At\,¡lir.<, COlllmiteo Oll-
Al'c1wl'-


x.


Charks A. Whih,oy .............................. .
Ullit,·¡\ Sta1l's shil; Wy01llillg ..................... .


T"rn'-
(]aptaill Dl>Itlinil,k LYllch ...•......................


lIale-
HielHm1 J\L G1'l:Im ........................... , ... ..


MeCrary-·
,Jos;'plt lIllllll'lm'yH.' .........•....................
~tt1l'kWl':ltIH'I'-


TIII:o<!ore Adallls ............................... __
.\e,,·sham '¡'R. RyUll .................... __ .................. : ... ..
\'ye, ,Jonas \V .... " .. __ ....................................... ..


o.


Utlieel's in the lat .. \Var, settlmnellt of tite aCCollnt, of. .......... .
Or't.h\ Fo]'(~iglL Af1~lil's~


MaHtcrlllan aw1 BI iós. __ •.................... __ ....


P.


Page, Dani,·ll\f .. __ .. __ ........ ______ .. __ ... __ .. __________ .. oo __
Paute, .EJ¡.(~tioll~-


\\'alla('.I\ I'R. Sillli'"lIt _'OO'" __ ...... __ oo . __ .... __ __
.Jo.:wpll H{'gar. ....... _. ___ . ___ ., . ______________ ._.


Paine, R"collolLnu:t iOIl-
S,,;¡ islall,ls, lkaut"ort., Sout.h Caro!imt .. oo .. oo __ oo __


Palmer, Sd('d C"""llitt.<-e-
I'ost:d Ít'}¡o~l'apJ¡ H~'Htelll .......................... .
Paragna~Tall in vp~ti~at iOIl-


Bli" alld Mast<:l'lll:lIl ....... __ ............... __ ' __ .
Patents, COl!lmiU,;(' Oll-


JIlllClH'H-
Ly<lia E. CarharL.oo __ .. ____ ......... oo __ .. __ oo ..
Charles ¡\.I'itd,,·r ...... _ ..... oooo ••• oo. __ oo. oo ..


CalkillH-
All'x:!IH]('r C. Twilllng _ .............. oo .......... .


Patte:(', \V,¡]lis .............. oo .......... __ .. oo •••• oo __ OO" oo __ ••
Pders, .IIIdiciary-


D,,<luction fmm pay of Illl'rnbRrH of Congress on ae·
couut of abselleo .......... "'" ............... .


tI l~ O


3

1
2


2
2


2
1 i


2


1


2


3
2
1


1


2


3


1
i!


3


3


2


i!
1


3
3


2


IX


No. Parts.


:w
lIIl
l,¿O


40


4


94
!);,
1:;
62


72
:{¡¡


69
19


137


i!4


68


119
(jI


(¡.


1


(jf>


99


17
,,1


lOa
11"


13"


:1:3
a2


lli!
8"


37




x HiDEX.


Snbjecls.
I


I Pite1H'r, Chnrl"s A .... -- .... ' __ ... - ...... -..... ____ . _ -. _ ... -.. _ --1
Poland, Sllleet C~)]n,lllitte;'-: i


\,;, Scott I'\lIl1th ____ ........ - .. - ........ - .. -. ____ .1
Pohwtl, Reyisioll lIf ti", La\\"~-


Stealllhoats at"l otller y(,ssf'ls O\Ylle¡¡ illloyal States.1
Pomeroy, Territol'ws- - I


Capitol bllilding::; in cprtain ________________________ :
Postal Telpg'l'al'hs, Sp)Pe(, CIJlIllllittee 011- 1


Wa,hhul'n, (j, C- '
Unite<1 States Jlustal teleg-ra,ph systelIl


Pahllel'--
lJnitt'l] St,ÜI,S pflstnl tplpg-raph SySkIU ....•.. _


Post Omees alll] p,,,¡, Humb, COlllluitt.,e Oll-
Ya 1'11 s\Yol'tll-


Post. otTIcc hllilllings .. _. ",_"."" __ .. __ ._
l)rillting, Ctlllllllittee 011-


Lafiin-
(;ll1Itl':I<'t \dth pro]>rietors of COlIgrcssiollal Glohe._


Puhlic Lmllls, COllllJliltec Oll-
Fitt'h-


St,Il'g<'OIl Hay ship-callal. _____ .. _ .... _. ___ .. __ ....
JlIli",,-


l'l'e.PlIlpti"ll clailll of .J.I\!.lllltellillsanll.J. C. LaIllOll.
.J()H(~ ])onlill~l1f'Z ____ . ______ . _ .. ___ . _________ o. ___ _


McCorJIIÍt'k-
13"rt hollllnew C01!f,in ......... _. .. _ .. _ ..... __ . _.


,Yilsol)' E. -'1.-
J\lillllt'sllta Stale Ulliven;ily . _. _ .. _. _ .. _ ........ _._


,Yinans-
Littk Roek anll l,'ort 8111i th railroall ____ . ___ .. ____ .


R.
Ruilroufls-


Little Hock :111(1 l,'ort Smith .. ___ ... _____ ..... __ . _.
Ruudall, Elcetiollt;-


Cllyo<ln ,.R. F\()~ter ... __ . ______ . __________________ _
.Tohn n.l~t~ading .. ___ . ______________________ A ___ _


Rearling-, John H __ . ______ . __ .. ______ ..... __ . ______ .. ______ . __ __
Recunstl"lwtioll, COllllllittee un-


Paill"-
S"lL i~lHlJ(ls of Beallfort, South Caroliu:J,. _ .. " __ . __ ..


Retreuchmcnt, Conllllitke UII-
\velk"l"-
Bllill]in,~'H renl'-:II hy tlH\ gnvIOrllllll'llt in tlw llist,rict,


ot'Uo)lIl1lhia. ______________________ 0 __________ _
Hi"l] I'X. ,Jnliall ____________ .. __ . ______________ ....


Revision of tl,e Laws-
Polantl-


t-it",ullhoats allt] nt,lwr Y"SH"¡S n\YIIPd illloyal States_
ReYolution:1r~T Pt'IlRiollc-1, ()ollnnitt.f~e 011- ~ I


Gillill'LlI-
Rug~¡~ii,~il:~~\I_~.O_1~1.11:1}~r_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-._ .. _~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ _~~~ ___ ~~~


S.
Sarglo.llt" Mines nml Mining-


Hntro tUIIIII·I ___ .
Su,wyer, CflllllneJ'('~'-


Cit;v nf Mil walllwe ... _ .... ___ ..... _ ............... _ ..
SdlOIT, ]\a1'I':lr" _ _ . _ ... _ ..... __ .. " ... .
S"'t islallfb, Ih'auj(H'I, :--\onth Carolina _" _ ..... __ ........ ______ . _.
S{~.i!.:lr, JOKt'1111 __________ . _________ . _ . _________ . _____ . __________ .
SeldelL 'Yilli,,," ... __ ........... _ ..... _ ... __ ....... ___ ...... __ .
Selllet COIIIlII i tt I'es- ~


Lylll'h- I
• Causes of tlw l{"d'lction of AlIlCl'iean Tonnago. _"',


Yol. ! Ko. Part".


:;:~


:1 lO-l


;¿:!


~7


:~ 114


:1 11G


~ ;)8


2:i


"2 G7


1 "2
:1 III


:3 117


1 4


2 :~4


2 :\4


1.-, 2
~ ;0 :1
2 ;:0 l.~


:1 108


~ 70
"


llii


2:\


~:)
>¿O


;2 40
., 1:!0 ..
:1 ~ ):!
"


111,
:¿ :,1 1,2
"


d7


2--3




Select ComrniHePR--
l'olalld-


INDEX.


Snhjeets.


W. Sentt Smith ... _ ............................ __
'Ya.,lthtll'lJ, C. e.-


Postal Tel"g'raph, in the United States ...... """ .
Palnwl'-'


P",tal Teleg'raph Sy~telll .................. "' .... .
Shattll('k, .I'lIl}'·" F ....... __ ................................... ..
Shields 1'.'. Van Hora ................... _ ... _ ................... .
Shi!', tlH' lJllit,·,lStat<·" \V'yomillg' ............ _ ................ .


¡~;~jil¡,j:·.:l ~\I}:(l~;i~.l~~~(:I.l. ]_{~l_J~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~::: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: :::: ~ ~:: ~:: ~: ~ ~:: ~: ~ :: :
Slllith, Ll](',V A .. _ .................. '''''' .................... .
Slllith, ,Y. S"otí .............................................. .
Slllitlt. Al'IItoll ............................. _ ...... _ ............ .
SÜ·;l(ll!lall. (;OHI111ol!oH' (11 Ia 1'1{':o;. __________ • _____ • ____ •• ____ • ____ .
Stark\\"'atlwl', :'ia.Y:l.l Att':ll1",N-


TJH'IHlol"c AdnlilH. __________ . ____ . ___________ . ____ .
Sr"alllho"t, iln<l ot.h"l' n·,,,·l, oWlleu in tIte lO.lal SUlles ........ _ ..
Stcvell,';oll, J1:I",:tioll!-'.-


Dat'I':l1l1'8. U:liky ............................... ..
Hll11t 1'8. Sh"ldOll ." ........ _ .................... ,
l\Ior .. ~' /'8. ~leCnlllil' ...................... __ ....... '
.J()~(~ph ;;.)"g:ll' ___ . _______________________________ _
.J. H. SYl'lLUr .......... _ ................... _ .... ..


Stilcs. ClailllH-
. H.icltanl :M. Il(),lg'HOll .... _ ........................ .


.J:l.III<" \\,,,('lis, jl' ........................ ''' ..... __
Stok'·H. Claims-


. .fan .. " Fowler, li:il'tlullll & Co .................... .
Stollghtoll, Militar.\' Affairs-


H. u. Bl1tl .. r __ . _ ...... ______ . _ .. __ .......... __ .. ..
Ktrong', Clai111t-;~


Lile,\' A. Fílllith ............. __ ....... _ ......... ..
Willi¡¡m .1. CI", k, fHltnillisÍl'ator, &c .............. .


Sntro tl111ll('1. __ ...... _ ........ ___ ......................... ' .. .
S\YÍtzlt'l' 1'8. ]),\'('1' ." ... " .............................. ''''''' __
SJ'ph,·Y,.1. ¡¡"I,, __ .............. ''''''''' ...................... .


T.


Tan, l'\all"'lli,'l .... __ .................................. _ ... _ .. .
TeJt.gT:l] ¡J!ir ('lIll1lll1111ieatioll \\" j t.11 forcign eOLlut.riüH . ________ . ____ . ,
TCl'l'ltol'L-x, Coilllllittee 011-


Cllllo111-
EXPlmtioll nI' (,h" la\\H in lJtah ... _ ... __ .. __ .... _.


POlllt'l'll'y-
Capitol hnildillgH in TelTitori"s ......... _ ......... .


TUf:ker 1'8. Book"r ............................................. .
TUfl1pikl< ('UBll'HllY: 'Ya:-;hiIlgttlll all<1 Georgetowll _______ . _______ _
Twinil}g~ AJeX:1lLtkr e _____ .. ____________ .- ____ . ____ . _. _________ _


Utah, exeeution oI' tIte law~ in tl100 Territory of ..... .


v.


Vllll Ett .. n, Simon ..................... __ ....... _ ...... _ .. ' .... ,
VIlII IL'I'II, lndial1 Atfnirs-


B1ad, lloll ludi",1I l¡¡lIds .................... __ .. ..
Va 11 \\-,\"('k 1':-1. (i}'t't:llt' __ . __ . ____ . _______________ , ___ . __ _
V(~lll'Í'.!:( L¡~ cl:IÍ}j¡8 (jf Allll'l'Ú'.i.ill ('il izeuH tl 6 UÜlSt ti.H~ gOYI'l'llllil'llt oL


w.


\\-:l]]f;('" 1'x. Sillli'SOll .............. _ .... _ .. _.


XI


Vol. No. Part,.


:3 10-1


:3 114
~ 11,) .,
1 ~)
;~ 1,¿,¿
1 El
~ :)7
:~ 8i
.) ~,¡
., 104 .)
;1 lU
" ~b .,


;{ 11\1
1 ~:¡


2 G:{
~ :1"
2 ()~
~ [,1 2
2 (iO


3 !J:¡
;1 U()
2 GG


2 39
;¡ 97
.,
., Dt'I
~ 40
., HU .,
2 (jO


2 48
~ :s5


1 21 1,2,3


~i
~ 41
:¿ ;'4
;¡ 112


1 ,¿l 1,2, ;¡


1:3
., ll.'l .,
':!~ 1,2


., 7U ú


1 17




XII INDEX.


--,---.- -- . I


Sllhjects.


Wallace 1'8. Silll]lSOIl ............................................ .
"Vanl, Foreigll Ati'airs-


Tdl'graphie comll1l1uieation witlt foreign countl'ics.
\VaHhlmrn. VV. B., ClailllS-


. C:IJ.taill ErLIYal'd Hall ............................ .
Eüwat'(l llartoll el aL ..... ....... 0- ••••••••••••••••
Gp<n'gB H. Bouehl'ake. _______ . __ . _________ . ______ _
Fr .. derk.k BroHellne .... o- ........................ .
.J.:'\. Cal']lellttT .......... " ..................... .
Hirmn A. Cnltillg ............................... .
,\Yilliam Eddy's.h,·irs ............................ .
Cahin 11. Fredenek ... 0- ....................... ..
1\11I('1't Gre"lIlt'af et al. ..... ...................... .
G('Ol'gP, \V. Hnllt:-.Ill:l11. _____ . ______ • ______ . ______ _
~lI'H. Cal harill!' .JacksoIL ................... 0- ... o-
.1. G. La lIe ...................................... .
1l1'1Il'~' L,,"llarL ... 0-" .............. '."" ..... .
Brazillllail. ................................... ..
nwi¡!·]¡t .J. ",1('Ca1l11 .............................. .
.Jollll ;\1il0111' .................................... ..
JOllas \Y. Nye ................................... .
\V:'¡lis 1'''lt''., ................................... .
\Yillialll ti"ltlCll .... 0-" • "0- •• 0- ............... ..
Jallll's F. Shattnek ...... ""' ................... .
Fl'l'd,·¡-jck 8111ith ................................ .
Gr('cn :uul Tnl ínor ____ . ____ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _________ _
~illlUIl Vall Etten. ___ .. ". _. ____ . ____ . ____ . __ . ___ _
'\\'aHhill¡!·toll nll(l All'xtllldria Turllpike Cornpany .. .
George S. \Vright" adlllillistratoI', &c ............. .
.1 alHt-'1'l R. Y oUlIg; _____ • _______ • ___ • _ • _____ ••••••• _


\Vushburn, C. C., Hel"ct, COTlllllittee-
Postal telegraph ................................ .


Wl'eks, James, .ir ................................. '''''' ....... .
V.'elker, Retrellehtllf;lIt-


Bnilding, rl'-lIted by thc governm('nt, in tlw Di,triet I
of Colnm [,b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .................. '


Whituey, Charles "v ...................................... 0- ... .


~l:mr~~~;e;;.~·1\~::Kt;~~¡~.' ~ ~.' ~.'.' ~ ~ ......... ~ ''-'-.'. ''-.'. ::: ::: .:: ::: ::::: ~ i
Willdnsoll, Foreigll Alfairs- I


Claillls of American citizens agnillst Vellr:;mcla ....
Williams, Distriet of Colnlllhia-


MetropolitulI Poliee ............................. .
WilsOll, E. 1\1., 1'IIblie Lalllb- ,


Millll('sota State ulliversity ....................... 1
WilHon, .Tolm ............. : .................................. ..
Wimws, l'uhlie L:IIuls-- !


Little Rock am1 Fort Smith railroad ............... '
Woo(]s, P:ltriek .............................................. ..


• \Vright, Geurge S., adllliuistra.tur, &c_~. _______ ...... ____ ._._ . __ _


YnHll_~, ~r :nn~~s 1:, ______ . _______________ -. __ . ____ . _ . ___ . _____ .. __ I


z .
.
Z;eigl(~r 'l's. Hi('e. _____ . __ . __


Vol. l. No. 'Iparts.
2 71


2 :~0


2 H
2 47
:¡ lIJO
1 7
2 4.; ,
:¡ 1O~
:3 ~l
2 4,;
~ 4;,
2 G5


, 1 11
1 ! M
1 I 10
;¡ 134
1 , ;,
.> 101 .,
1 (j
:¡ 1':,
:¡ tl7
1 ~)
:3 H:!
1


, l;¿
1 1') .)
2 [,4
:l 81;
3 8;¡


:¡ 111
:3 Hu


2 70
2 W
1 ~v
:l í[)


:l 70


~2 W


1 4
:3 BU


2 :14
:¡ lO"
:l tlu


83


107




HST CO:~WRB~~, }
2d Session.


HOüSE OF IUJPBE~E:XTATIYES.


SETTLE.MENT UF U}j'FICJ:<~I{~~ A.CUOUXTS.
['I'o accornpally hill H. H. ;\io. ,¡".t.]


.L\:-:lJARY 11, 1870.-0rc1erec1 tu Ilt~ l'l'illtt'd.


{
HEPORT


XO. 1.


:MI'. LOGA:N, í'1'01ll tbe UOllllllittee on Ylilitary .\' ffainl, ma(h· the followillg'


REPORT.
l'he Oommittee on JJlilitltry A...tt'ltirs, to u'hom wm'e !'Ij'ured the petitüml5 of


numerOl/S o.tficeTs 'Icho sen'ed in the ((T1ny dUTing the late war, (tsking [ot'
legislMion to enable them to settle theij' account.~ 1Dith fhe l't'easm'y Depa'/'t-
ment, Tespectjully submit the following Teport :
Tbe aet oí' ~lay 18, 1826, (4 Stat., 17:3,) autborizC8 t11e Secretary 01' \Var,


on onc 01' more üepositions, to relieve oflicers charged witb issues oí'
elotbing or otber 8upplics f"rom respoJlsihilitx for dpfieierwies arising'
t'rOlll unavoidable accident,or I08t in a C'Íll íl] 8eryiep withont fault on
their part. .


The seeoml 8eetiolI of tho aet. oí' Fe1ll'wlry 7, 18Ii;~, (U Stat., Ij41,)
autborizes the affidavit of the commanding officcr of a eompany to be re-
ceived by the Sccrotary of 'Val', to Rbow tlJat a üeficieney iu ltis ¡¡(~eounts
for clotbing and other supplie8 was occasio1l(·(l hy llnHvoidllhle a('cident.
01' lost without fault on his parto


The act of May 9,1806, (14 Stat., H,) alltllOrizes tIre UOIll't uf Ul<lillIS to
determine the daims of disbursing oftieers, 01' of their exeeutors, &e., OH
aecount of ]os8es by eapture, or otIrerwise, (while in liIIf~ of dut,Y,) oí'
funds, vouchers, records, amI papen; in their eharge, an(1 for whieh thcy
were rcspollsible.


'fhe aet of l\IareIr Hi, 1868, (15 ~tat., ±~,) allthorizes the acc01mting
oftieers to allow eredits i'or overpayJllents matle in good faitll hy pa;vma:-;-
tors sinee tIte commencemelIt of the rehellion ílml prior to th(· pasl'iílge
of that acto


These are aH tIre statutes upon the subjeet exeept "tIre aeí of ,Tul", ~8,
1866, (14 Stat., 845,) '\\'bieh autborizes the aceounting oflieers, witb the
approval oí' the Secretary of the Navy, to a!low sueh cl'cdits to disllllrs-
ing offieers 01' the navy ({nd lIwrine corps 1'01' 108ses of propel't.y and
funds as have occurrod dUl'ing t11e l'ehellioll rllld for whidl the,v \H'I'f' not
justly responsible.


Tbere are large numbers oí' aee01lIIts, botIL 1úr mUlle.y amI Pl'OlJel'ty,
where both have lIO doubt hecn oxpend('d ill good fÍlith fin' the goyel'll-
ment, though the proof is defeetive, and in whieh it would be for tlH'
interest oi' tho government to autlJOrize the aecounting oíficers to clost'
the accounts. The Second Auditor 08timates that the expense of bi¡.;
office will be rt>duced at least twenty thousand dolla1'8 ayear if Con-
gres8 wouId provido at'once for elosing tIre pI'opel't.y aeeounts of OffiCel'R
of the late war. Their returns were generally defcctiyo aml their issues
irregular, but in a great IDíl,iorit,\- of cases therp is not tile slight.est




2 SETTLE:\lE}/'l' Ol<' OFFICERS' ACCOlJ"NTS.


doubt that tbe propel'ty \Yas used fuI' gon~rnmellt IHlrposes, alld that it
",onId be ulljust as \n'U as useless to CUltlll1CnCC legal procee!lings
against them fu!' theil' appal'Pilt Ínüebtf'dllpss 1(¡l' property reeeived.


The eommittee l'epOlt tlle aceompall~·jllg bill, and rccomrnelld its passage.
Thp time to \dlÍeh the bill applies has llOt heeu malle to cxtend beyolld
thc 20th of Allgnst, 18Gfi, inai5mneh as that datl' wm; fixed by the Presi·
dent's ]Jl'oelamatioll as tIle t,inw of tllp elltil'e RllPIH'('ssioll of fo]¡e rebellioll:
mul \Vas su1JsP(pwlItly l'P('og'nií:ed by CÚllgl'eSS in the aet of :lHarch 2,
18G7, (1-1- St,at" -1-22,) a1](1 it is not intplIde(l to 'JIIakP tlw hill apply to
aef'Ollllts l'PlJ(lpl'ed in timp of peace.




.uST CONGRESS,}
2d Session.
-_.-------


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES .


.T. 1\1. HUTCHINGS, J. C. LAl\IOX
['1'0 nccompnny biU n. R. No. 184;]


JAXL'.\HY U" 1870.-0nlcl'eu to be priutctl .


{
REPORT


No. 2.


.:\11'. JULIAN, fL'OIll the COltlrnittee on tIte Public Lallds, malle the fol-
lowing


ltEPOl\T.
T/¡e (JMn1nittee on the Pttblie Lanc1s, to whom wctS referred House bill No. 184,


entWed "An aet to eonfinn to .J. 111. Hutehings and ,J. (J. Lamon theír pre-
emption clai1ns in the Yo-Semite Val/ey, in the State of California," have
!tad the same mlllcr eOllsidcration, ((na nOle respeeifully sllbmit the follow-
ing report:
By act of Juno 30, 186-1, Cougress granted to the State of California


the "cleft" 01' "gorge" in the granite peak of the Sierra Nevada moun-
tains, in Mariposa Couuty, 011 the heacl-waters of the :Mercecl River, aml
known as the Yo-Semite Valley. 'rIle act stipulated that the prelllises
i'ihoultl be hela uy the Sta te " for public usc, resort, ancl recreation;))
that they sltoula "be inalienable for aH" time;" but tllat "leases llot
exceeding ten years" might "Oc grallted fol' portiolls of said prcmises."
The act further proyiaed for cstablishillg the bounclaries of the yalley
hy tile sur"eyor general of Califomia, who¡,;e official plat, "\vhen affirmed
by the COlIllllissioner of the General Lana Office, is made tile evidence
of the " 10cu8, extent, allll lilllits" of tIle grallt; and tile premi¡,;e¡,; are
to be managell by the governor of California, with eight other eommis-
siollers, to be appoillted by himselC On the seeoncl day 01' Apl'il, 1866,
the legisbtnre accepted the graut., "llpOll tIte eOlHlition¡,;, re:'iervutions,
a1l(1 stipulatiuns contailleü in said act of Congress."


The marvelons beauty ami grandeLlr of the loeality pl'ompted this
legislatioll. Among the great natural wOlldcrs of the world it stands
unrivaled. Tite "e]Pft" in tllc lllotmtaim; whiel! ÜJl'lIlS this yallcy is
sorne scyen miles lOllg, amI of Yal'yillg width, 1l0t' exceeding' t1lree miles
at auy point, an!l is "\vaUed in by precipitous mOlllltains 01' gr:mite from
three thonsalld to fo1ll' tllOmmnd 1i ye ltU\l(lrf'!l feet in height. Over
tllese walls, which are gcncmlly perpendicular, the waters of tIw lUereed
River and its trilmtal'Íl'¡' fall i!lto the yalley below, fOl'l11ing t1le most
beautiful casca.des in t11c known "\\'ol'lt1. ~o deseription coul<1 do jus-
tiee to the dazzling fleclles 01' lOH'lille;;s mal mngniJlcenee wl!ich feast
thn eye and g'ladüt'll tltp heal't in eH'l'.)' }lart oí' this "\yollderfull.y ap-
poil1ted yalley. It \yas fe1t, allrl lllost llaturally, that a RpOt so sacred
lo beauty alld tn worsllip Rhol!ld Ilot u() apPl'opriated to private owner-
sltill amI exelusiYl~ 11:-;(', bnt sllon1l1 be IWeSeryetl free alHl open to tlle
worlll; allfl Congrpss, OH the nSiluntnee that no sdtlemeuts luul hcen cs·
tablislJ('d ill the yalh'y llllde!' the laws of t1le l'llited StateR, macle thc
grallt to whh:h ''Oe hayo rcfél're(l, "'hieh California accepted.




2 J. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON.


The faet was, however, that prior to the passage of the aet of Con-
gress donating the valley to California, two enterprising gentlemen, J.
M. Hutehings and J. C. Lamon,' had settled in it under the pre-emption
laws of the United States. MI'. Lamon has been a settler on one hun-
dred and sixty acres of it since the year 1859, having repeatedly visited
the vaJley prior to that time, and purchased the claims of others who
had duly acqnired title under the possessory laws of California. Mr.
HutchillgS also pnrehased the possessory rights of those who had been
in continuous possession for years before him, though his actnal resi-
dence in the vaUey was not consummáted till the spring of 1864. Both
gentlemen were pioneer explorers of the valley, whose intentional resi-
denee long preceded their actual. Both were smitten with the rare
loveliness, of the region, and exposed themseh-es to great hardships and
dangers in the effort to seenre their homes. Mr. Hutchings, espeeia11y
by his early interest in the valley, his various publications on the sub-
jeet, and his lithographic amI illllstrated views of its seenery, has done
mucIl to awaken the general interest now felt in the place. These set-
tlers have built their cabins, planted extensive orchards and vineyards,
eonstructed bridges and other improvements, and expended thousands
of dollars in money in establishing for themselves comfortable llomes,
while encountering for years a11 the perils and privations incident to a
life remote from society and civilizütion.


But tIlese faets, when they became known, did not prevent the com-
missioners appointed by the govel'llor of tIle State, in pnrsuance of the
aet of Congress, from proeeeding to bring an ejectment against these
pre-emptors. They appealed to the legislature of California, whieh
passed an act allowing them one hundred and sixty acres each, to be
taken in sueh shape and form as to include the lands oeeupied and im-
proved by them, 01' those under whom they held prior to the 30th day
of J une, 1864. The grant is 'upon the condition that the State, through
her board of eommissioners, shall haye the powcr at any time to layout,
construct, and maintain such roads, bridges, paths, and avcnues, as
may be neeessary for the convenience of the public and visitors to the
valley. The aet furtber provides that it shall take eftcet froIll arrd aftei'
its ratification by Congress. It passed the assem bly by a yote of fifty-
five ayes tó ten nays, and the senate allllost unanimously. The gov-
ernor returned it with his veto, but it was passed ayer his objections by
a vote in the assembly of forty-one ayes to eleven nays, and in the
senate by a ,ote of twenty-seven ayes to ten nays.


These are the substantial faets whieh belong to the history of the bill
now reported to the House by this cornmittee, and which simply enacts
that the act of the legislature of California securing to these settlers
their pre-emptions shall be eOllfirmed. It proposes to place them exact.ly
where they would have been but for the aet of Congress, ancl whieh act,
your committee are weH eonvincecl, would 11ave excepted the claims of
these settlers, if their existence had been known at tIle date of its pass-
age. Tbis 115 the iS8ue presellted to this Honse. The faet i8 abnndantly
establishecl that Hutehings amI Lamon were actual settlers on the land
elaimed by thcm at tlle time of, und priol' to, the date of the passage 01'
the aet of Congress. This is not disputed. It is eqft;llly evident tIlat
they were settlers and pre-e.mptors in good faith. Shall their rigllts be
proteetedJ Shall the govel'Jlment rnaintain 1ts plighted faith~ This is
the questlOn, alld it inyo1;-cs not Silllply tIte rights of two men, lmt of the


. whole U;l'my of settlers undel' tIle pre-emption and homestClHl laW8 01'
";~ Uruted States. Have the.r any rights which the governrnellt is




J. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON. 3
bound to respect, 01' are they mere trespassers, 01', at best,tenants at
will?


The committee regret to Hay that this questipn has of late been treated
as an open one. They regret still more that the Executive Department
of the government has decided it against our pioneer settlers; and we
shall, tberefore, examine the position with more care than 'conld otber~ise
have been deemed necessary. The very point arose in 'a case which was
submitted to the Interior Department under the last adm~istration.
Greatly to the surprise of lawyers, and to the serious disappomtment of
the settlers whose rigbts were involved, the Secret'ary of the Interior
referred the question, as a doubtful one, to Attorney General Speed~
who advised him-


Tbat a settler, unde1' tho pro-emption laws, acquires, ancl can acqllire, no vestcd in-
terest in tho land he occupies hy virtlle simply of settlemcnt; and that no vested in-
terest iB olJtained nntil the sett.lel' has takcn all the legal steps necessal'y to pe1'feet .an
entranee in tbe Land Officc. Before sllch steps are taken he has nothing bnta eontin-
gent, personal privilege to become, withont cornpetition, the first pnrehaser of the
property, whieh he may never exel'eiso, 01' which he may waive 01' abandono Dnring
the interval betwcon theinstitntion of the settlement and the establishment of the claim
by proof, and payment of the consideration nominated in tho law, Congress has power
to dispose of the land at its pleasnrc. It may recall the privilege previoulily eonferred,
01' invest any one clso with the same privilege, or it may make an absolnte grant of the
land to other pal'ties, with 01' withont cOIlsidemtioIl.


This opinion was aecepted by tho Sccretary of the Interior, MI'. Har-
lan, as law. In accordanee with it he allowed the land department of
the govermnent to be used in dispossessing the settlers concerned, in
contravention of the whole spirit and policy of the natioll, in violation
of the plainest principIes of justice as wen as law, amI in opposition to
numerous and uniform decisions oí our federal courts. This decision of
the Interior Department is still adhered to, and it necessarily strikes at
the homestead settler as well as the pre-emptor, and equally perils the
just rights of both. Let us briefly refer to the authorities on the ques-
tion. The Attorney General failcd to support his opinion by referenee
to any decisiollS whatever; but it will not be difficult to find decisions
directly against him.


In the United States V8. Fitzgerald, 15 Peters, 407, it was docided
that no reservation 01' appropriation of ptlblic land can be made after a
citizen has acq llired tho right of pre-emption. It is true that in this
case the defendant had not only made his settIement and entry, but had
paid his money to tho receiver; but we are unable to see how this fact
affects the principIe establishod by the docision. If Congress may dis·
regard the rigbts acquired by actual settlement, and the expendituro of
labor and money in erocting improvements and reducing the land to _
cultivation, it must possess un equal right to refuse a patent to tho pre-
emptor after he has added to these considerations the payment of the
purcbase money. Tbe mere fact of payment can make no difference if
the pre-emptor is ready to puy, and offers to make payment at the proper
time, and is preventod by the government 01' its agents from doing so.
Bis right is as pe1'fect in this case as if he had actually paid his money,
sinee an offer to perform conditions precedent in the time and manner
required by law is equivalent to performance, and tile performance is
excused by tbe act of the other party in preventing it. This principIe
was declared by the Supreme Conrt of the United Statos in the case of
Lytle 1.18. The State of Arkansas, 9 Howard, 333, in which the court
says:


It is a well establishe(l principIe that where an imlividllal in tho prosecntion of a
right does evel'ything which the law requil'es hirn to d(), allu ho fails to attain his 1'ight
by the miscondnct or neglect of a pnblic officel', the law will protect him. In this case




4 J. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON.
the prc-emptioll right of Cloyes having been proved, and an oiIer to pay the money fol'
the land elaimed by him, uudel' the act of 1830, uothing more could be done b;r him,
and nothing more could bo required of him, under that acto And subsequently, when
he paid thé money to the l'eceivel', uuder subsequellt acts, the surveys being retnrned,
he could do nothing more than'ofier to enter the lands, which the register would not
permit him to do. Thia clairn of pre-emption stands beforo ns in a light not lJsR favor-
able thall it woul<l havo stood if Cloyes, or his representatives, had been permitted by
the'land officers to do what, in this respect, was offered to be done.


'Ve understand it to be conceded on an sidcs that when the pre·emp·
tor, in addition to the other acts required of him, has paid for thc land,
he has acquired a vested right ·to it, and it thenceforward becomes
obligatory on the governlllent to conYey to him the title. To concede
this, we submit, is to concede the whole case. 'Ve can see neither justice
nor law in tbe argument that thc' prc·cmptor, after having made valu-
able improvements' and expended his money thereon, and fully complied
with all tho contlitions of title, saye actual payment, which he was
ready to make 1mt was prevented from making, may nevertheless be
driven fi'om his possession, his improvements confiscated, and the land
conveyed to another, with notice of an tho facts, who can hoId it dis-
charged froni all the equities of the pre·emptor. The sanction of such
a principIe as Iaw would be a fiagrant insult to .instice, and would go
far to bring the law itseIf into contompt.


In the case of Barnard's IIeirs t'8. AshlcY'il heirs, 18 Howard, 43, the
court says:


In Lytlc's case we declured tllut tho occupant ",as wrong[nlly deprived of Ilis lawful
rights of entry, nndel' tlle pre-emptioulaws, amI the tiUe set np 1111dm' the seleetioll of
the governor of Arkallsas, was decreed to Cloyes, the claimaut, this comt holding his
clailll to the laml to have heeu a legal right b~' viduo of tllc occupalley anel cultiva-
tion, subject to be defeated ouly by a failurc to llCrform tlle con<1itio11s of making proof
und tencleri11g the lHu'chase mOllcy.


This is a strong case, ancl we think it settles tIlo qllestion under dis-
clUlsion, if any judicial decisio11 cau. CIoycs, the pre·cmptor, soIected
hi8 claim nnder the act of Congress of -:\Tay 29, 1830, :mthorizing and
regulating pre·emptions. A later act, dated June 1i5, 1832~ granted to
the Territory of Arkansas one thous:md aCr('8 for a conrt-houso and jail,
at I~ittle Rock, including tIle tract claillled. Before this grant the pre·
emption right of Cloyes had accrlleu nnder the act of 1830, amI he had
pro ved his right, and done everything he couId do to porfect it. Tho
court declared that, "By this grant to Arkamms, UOllgrcss could not
have intended to impair vested l'ights. The gl'ants of tilo 0110 thousand
acres and of tilo othor tracts must ue so COllstrued as not to interfero
with the pre·emption of Cloyes." And as if to removo aU doubts as to
the right of the pl'e-emptor and the natme of llis claim, tbe conrt adds:


Tlle elaim of pre-clllptiou is uot that shaümvy thiug which by some it is cousidered
to be. Until sallctione(1 by law, it has no existencc as a substantive right; hut when
eovered hy the law, it hccomes a l¡>,gal right, suhject to he <1efeatcd onl~' by a failllre to
pcrfonn tlw cOIluitions annexeü to it.


In giving tbis opinion, the comt adds :
The a¡[yenturous piouee1', wllo is fouud in adnmee oí' 0111' settll'illcnts, encollnters


Irlany hanlships, and not llnfreqllent,}y dangers frolll snvage ineursions, He is generally
l)oor, and it is fit that his cutcrprise shoult! be rewa.:nled by the pl'ivilege of purchasing
the f:worite spot selected by him, not to exceecl ono 11llndre<1 alld sixt,yacres, 'l'hat thÍf;
is the llational poliey, is shown by the C011n;e of lcgislation for many years.


In Delassnst'8. tho United States, !) Peters, 133, Chief Justiee ]lar·
sb;¡tl says that "No IH'incipal is better settled in this country than that
an.inchoate.title to lunds is property." AmI, agnin, ho says: "'1'1e in-
qUlry then lS, whethür tbe coneession was legally made by the proper
~uthodties, and might han; beoll perfected illtO a complete title." His
mference was that the inchoate l'ight which might have uoell perfected




J. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON. 5


into a complete titlü was "property." This view is confirmed by the act
of Cóngress of March 3, 1843, which provides that if the pre-emptor
8hall die while the conditions are being performed, his claim may be
perfect~d by thc heir-at-law, to whom the patent sha11 be issued. (5 Stat-
ntes at Large, page 620.)


In Smith VS. The Unitcd States, 10 Peters, 330, nIr. Justice Baldwin,
in delivering the opinion of the court, says:


It was neyer uoubteu hy this court that property of evcry ucscription in Loui8iana
was protected by the law of nations, the terms 01' the trcaty, and the aet of Congress;
nor that in the term "property" was comprehendef\ every species of title, inchoate 01'
perfcct, cmbracing thosc rights which Hc in contract, th08e wlrich are exeeutory, as well
as those whieh are exeentefl. (See also Rice rs. Railroad Company, 1 Blaek, 35fl.)


.Jnstiee Story, in commcntillg upon tlle constitutional prollibition
against Iaws impairing the obligation of contracts, uses this language:


It. 11a8 heen aeeidetl upon solemn argument, that contracts and g1'ant~ made by a
State are not lcss within the reach of the prohihition than contracts and grants of
private persolls; tIlut tIle 'luestion is not, whether 8uch contracts or grants arc mado
directly hy htw in t.l18 form of legislation, or iu any other form, but wliether theyexist
at aIl. Tho legislature may, hy a lnw, directly lllake a grant; amI snch grant, when
once made, becomes ÍlTevocable, and cannot lJC constitutionally illlpaircd. So the leg-
islatnre may makc a c011traot with inrlividuals directly by a law, pledging the State
to a performance of it, ana then, '\']¡pn it is accepted, it is e'llluIly under the pi"oteetion
of the ConstitutiOll. (ColIllIlcntarics OIl tLo Constitution, vol. 3, page 257.)


In illnstrating this principIe he addR that "a grant amounts to an ex-
tinguishlllent of the l'ight of the grantor, and implics a contract not t()
reassert it." (See }'letcher 1'8. l'eck, () Cranch, 87, ]~)5.) .


In vVilkills0n P8. Leland, :! Petel'R'S Heports, page 657, the court sáys:
That govermnpnt can scarcely be rleclllecl to he free, ,,'bere the rights of propertyare


left Holely depelldent u]1on the will of a legislatiYo hOfly, without any rcstraint. The
fundamental muxims oI 'L freo g;oYCnUncllt scem to require that the rights of persont¡l
liberty and priyate propcrty shollld he hcld saereu. At least no court ofjustice in this
conlltr~- wonM be \\"llrrantNl in assnming th3t the power to violate and disregard them
-:1 power so repugnant to tite eOllllllOll principIes of justice amI ciyil liberty-Iurke(l
nnder nny general grant nf legislatin Hllthorit'y, or ollght to be implietl from any
general expression oftllo ,,~ill ofthe people. 'rhe people imght not to he presnmed to
part with rights so vital to their well-heing, "ithont n~ry strong and direetexprcssions
nf snch intention. In Tenctt 1'8. Ta~'lor, 9 Craneh, 4~l, it was hchl by this court that a
grant or titl" to lan(18 once made by tlle legislatnrc to ally 11erson or eorporation is
ÍlTcyoeahle, antl C:LllllOt be n'assumet! by any Ruhse'luellt legislative aet; antl that a
differe.llt t!octrine is lltterly inCollsistcnt wiLh (hu grcat and fundamental principIe of a
repllblican gove.rml1(;nt, aml ,,~ith the right 01' tlw ('itizcns in the free cnjoyment of
their proporty lawfuIly acqnirc(l. ,\'0 lmo,," of no case in which a legislative aet to
transfer the property of A to B, without hi.s consent, has ever heen held a constitu-
tional oxcrcise of legislative pmycr in any State of thA Unioll. On the cOlltrary, it nas
1)een cOllstalltly rejedc<l as iuconsistent wit.h just prilldpleH by eyery judicial tribunal
in which it ha~ be en attclllptcd to Le eu[orecd.


The committee lmvp aIready l'eferrecl to the strange opillion of Attor-
ney General Spced, rC8pccting the right of pre-cmptiol1. Wc now cite
a directly adverse opinioll of .Attorney General 1\1a80u, of April 25,
1846, on a ca¡.;e arising IlIH1er tltc pre-cmptlon act of 1841. He says:


The ohject 01' the 1aw is bClleiicent, nnd it is cntitlcd to a liberal construct.ion in aid
ofthe ends to be attained. Bnt to accomplish this, surll a construction must be given
as will protect tho settler in hiR nltimate right; flrst, for thirty daJ:s frolll the date of
his settlement; amI' socond1y, for twclYc lllonths írom the same time. 'rhe settler i8
entit1ed to this protection against the c1aim8 01' entries of otl1(;1'8. From the moment
therefore that he euters in porson 011 lana open to 8l1oh a elaim, with the animU8 ma-
uentli, or ruther with the illtcntioll of a\"ailing himsclf of the provisions of the act
rcfcrreu to, and !loes any aet in execntiol1 of that intention, he is a Rettler. He must
afterwards give his notice 01' iutention, inhabit, illlpr,Oye, huild his house, and make
Eis proof and payment within tIlo time stipulated, to perfect his right. Bnt in every
stagc he is protected llutil he f'lils on his part to comply with the conditions of the
law. (Opinions ofthe Attorney General of the United States, doc. 55, pagcs 1795-6.)


:rhis opinioll waR accepted by the land departlllent, and has been




6 J. M. HUTCHINGS ANDJ. C. LAMON.
followed ever since with the exception of the extmordinary ruling
referrei to, and the action of the Interior Department in conformity
thereto.


It would be easy to cite further authorities, but it is not neccssary.
That' the o1'/:'e1' of ahorne to the settler through the pre-emptioll li:tWS, on
specificd conditions, and the acceptance of those conditions by him, con-
stitute a contract, which cannot be constitutionally impaired by Con-
gress, is a proposition which we believe has never, until very recently,
been disputed. It is not only supportcd by thc autIlorities we have
cited, and by obviollS principIes of justice, but is in harmony with the
well-known policy of the nation. The encouragemellt of emigration,
the popu1ation and settlement of our vacant Territories, and through
these means the increase of our national strength and resources, have
becn among the cherished purposes 0[' the government. It was in view
of these ends that our pre-emption Iaws were enacted, offering homes to
those who will seIect and occupy them in persoil, improve them, and pay
for them at a fixed rateo Thc govcrnmcnt is as much bound by its off'er
as an individual wou1d be in ana10gous circumstances. It is true the
settler has the option, at any time before eompleting his payment and
receiving his patcnt, to abandon his c1aim; but this option Ís a part of
his contracto The government gave it to him as an inducement to
becomc a settle1'. If the sett1er abandons the claim there is no loss to the
governmeut, for it rctain.s the title and has parted with no value. It has
been likened to a contract for the, sale oí" 1and, in which the owner
retains t1lC tit1e as security for t1le ,purchase money. The purchaser, in
the absence of stipu1atiolls to the contrary, may at any time abandon
his improvements, and leave the property to its owner wit.hout. further
liability. And yet, if he should rcmaiu aml comply with the terms of
his agl'eement, the owner would be b,ound to him for the title; and in
the meantime the purchaser would have an eqllitab1e interest, of which
no power could deprive him without his own eonsent, un1ess taken by
the government for public use on payment of its value.


The doctrine that the settler's right of pre-emption is a mere" bounty,"
whieh the goverumeut may at any time reca11, has, therefore, no just
foundation. lt. prohably grew out of our early land policy, whieh treated
sctt1crs upon tbc public domain as trespassers, and threatened them
with penalties. This short-sighted aud ullgcnerous policy was gradually
abandoned. Laws were passed givillg sett1ers tbe privilege of pr~-empt­
ing their respective quarter sectiolls on certain specified terms. The act
of September 4, 1841, was finally passed, prospective in its operation,
p1edging the faith of thc gOYcrumellt that it would grallt to all future
settlers possessing cCliain prescribed qualifications, alld who should
make certain improvements, the privilege of pre-emption. The old Iand
policy is thus wholly revo1utionizcd, amI this act 1l0W constitutes our
general 1and system on the subject. Under it the sett1er who cnters
upon the public lands and complies with its terms, has the right, by law,
to demand bis tit1e from the governmcnt, by thc terms of his contract,
and not as hounty 01' gratuity, which the government is at liberty to
grant 01' withhold at its pleasure.


The obligations of the settler and the government are mutual, and
the eonsideration oi' t1e eontract a va1uable one, namely: a benefit to
the government if the work is performed, amI a disadvantage to the
sett1er who performs it and expends his money. The settler not only
lays out his mOlley and bestows his labor OH the land, thereby enhancing
the va1ue of adjaccnt lancls, ancl adding to the taxable wealth of the
country, but he pays a fixed price for his homestcad bcforc he can 1'e-




J. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON. 7
ceive his title. What he asks at the hands of the gover-nment is not
bounty, but justice, through pertect good faith in the execution of its
contracto As tbe pioneer of progress and the strong ally of our civili-
zation, that contract Rhould be liberally construed in his favor. He, if
any man, should be regarded by the law as its favorite. It makes no
sort of difference that tbe pre-emptor, if disowned by the government,
cannot sue the United Statcs for a specific performance of' the contracto
That goes to tbe remedy, and not to tbe right. It ple'ads for further leg-
islation in aid oí' the settler, but certainly does not release the United
States from those obligations of' good faitb which the law never fails to
impose upon individuals, 01' warrant tbe federal courts in declaring tbat
might makes rigbt. .


But in the case now under consideration the force of this reasoning
is sougbt to be evaded by the position that the lands in the Yo-Semite
Valley were unsurveyed, and therefore were never subject to pre-emp-
tion. This is gravely asserted by the Senate Committec on I'rivate
Land Claims, in a report submitted in the last Congress on tbe very
bill now before this Honse, whicb was then pending in the Senate.
But the truth is, most unfortunately for tbis argument, that the right
of pre-emption does and díd extend to unsurveyed lands by law. If the
Senute Committee had turned to tbe United States Statutes at Large,
volume 12, page 410, section 7, they would have found this enactment:


And be it furtlwr enacled, That in regard to settlements which by existing laws are
authorized in certain States and Territories upon un8urve')¡ed land8, which privilege is
he1'eby extended to California, the pre-emption claill1ant shall be, and is hereby, &c.


The act further proeeeds to define the duties of pre-emptors on this
class of lands after they have been sUl'veyed; but as the lands in ques-
tion bave never been surveyed, no duties were incumbent upon Rutch-
ings and Lamon, except actual residence upon and improvement of their
elaims, and these duties tIley performed. This act of Congress is dated
J\Iay 30, 1862, and settles conclusively the right of' these settlers to pre-
empt their claims, under the laws of the U nited States, at any time sub-
sequent to that date, and prior to the grant of the valley by Congress
of date J une 30, 1864.


The Senate report referred to says :
It has bcen ascertained that the whole area of t4e valley is about 1.100 acres, and


that it appears from diagrama presented .to the cOll1ll1ittee that the tracts grantcd to
Hutchings and Lamon control, to a vcry great extent, if not altogether, the use and
enjoyment Di the valley.


These statements are sustained by Professor 1. D. W"hitney, one oí
the government commissioners, who certainly possessed the means of
knowledge. But tbe area of the valley and the advantage secured to
these settlers by allowing them their pre-emptions, are matters purely
collateral. They certainly could not affect the quest.ion of legal right
undel' the laws of the United States. As tho faets stated, however, if
true, must tenel gl'eatly to prejudice the claims of these parties, the
committ€e have takon pains to ascertaill f'rom undoubtecl oflicial
SOUl'ces the truo arca (jí' the yullev. The Commissioller of the General
Land Office, at tIte request of tliis committee, has prepared a careful
estimate of tho arcas oi' the Beyeral portions of tIte Yo-Semite Valley,
according to the official map of the same, which he submits as follows:


1st. Thc valley cmbraced withill it8 walls, (illcluding 3,109 acres
meadow land) ... _ . __ .. __ ... ____ ..... __ .... __ ... _ ..... __ _


2d. 'fIJe area of tIte northel'll wall of the valley. __ .. _ .. __ .. __ _
311. The urca of the soutllern wall of the valley _ .. ___________ .


Acres.


8,480
2,070
3,680




8 ,J, lIf. nUT,cIlINGR AND ,J. C. LAMON.


4th. The are a of tlle bottOIll lamls on hoth sides of the valle,)'
embraced within t1le exterior honndaries of the Yo-Semite
grant .. ________________________ .. ___ _


Acres,


21,881


l\Iaking a total area of thc grunt .. ___________ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3G, 111


lt thus appearsjhat the facts referred to are utterly (liscredited. The
whole area of the valley is 1l0t 1,1.00 acres, hut 36,111. The pre-emptiolls
of Hutchings andLamon are cOllsiderably less than the one-Imndrellth
part of this. Thc valley propel', embraced within its walls, is 8,480 acres,
01' twenty-six und a half times larger than the pre-emptions. Ifwe come
dOWIl still lower amI take oHly the meadow lamI of this valley proper,
we have 3,109 acres, of which tIte claims of these settIers wonld constitute
but little m'er one-tellth parto lt seems to HS, therefore, utterly preposter-
ons to SUppOi'le that "Hntehings and Lamon eould control, to a vf'ry great
extellt, if not altogether, the use and enjoymellt of the vaHey." Theil'
power would necest·;arily he limitetl by their little possessiolls. Ami
tItesc facts :mswer a kindl'c<1 argnmcllt, \Vhich has heen vcry rar-
nestly pressetl hy those '1'ho oppose thcse settlers, namely, that if theil'
claims are allowed the vallev would f¡lll "into tlw hantls of those who
wouId levy tribnte npon tIte traYü1ing public, and make this bealltiful
valley odious for t11e extortions oí" its greedy auu l'iordid possessors."
In tIle very llatnre of tIlings these l'l'sn1ts eonlü uot follow, amI IlO
faets are ShOWll, affecting tIle eharaeter of thefle settlers, or their COll-
duet as such, to Wal'l'allt tIte intimatioll that tlll'y ltan~ auy pnrpol'le
whatever unfricmlly to the valley 01' its fi.'ee pnhlie use alld enjoyment.
Besides, as \Ye lmve aIready recited, the publie is prot('(~ted by the act oí'
the Oalifornia lcg-islatnrc, g-ranting to those mCIl their }ll·e-emptiolls.
The "grant is npon tho conditioll that tho State, tltl'ong-h tlte board
of Yo-Semite COllllllissiollers, sItall llave tIw po\Y(~r at atl,Y time to layout,
eonstruct, all<l maintaill sueh 1'oads, bl'ülgcs, paths, amI a1'cnul'S upon
ancl through tite said lamls, as muy be lleecssary 1'01' thc COllyelliellce.
of the lJnblic alld yisitors to the sai<l valley." lt 8eems to tIte eOIH-
mittce that this effed.na1Jy disposos of tlle argnmcnt llIHler ]loti!'l'. The
",hole valley, scyen miles long, and cOlltaillillg OYC1' 3G,OOO ae1'l's, is pIaced
nndel' the eouÍl'oI of tIte State eOHllnissiOllel's. 'l'he RlIlall fmetiolls oí'
this elaimcd by thc Rettkrs are malle l'inoo1'dillate to tIw use of the
publie. Of the yallcy ¡)rolle!', on'l' 8,000 acres are len to tl}(~ State, oí'
which llearly :3,000 ael'es are meado\\' lalH1, amI mnch of i.t as good as
that e1aimed by IIntehillg's amI La'IlOlI. By wlmt meallS tJll''y eouId
establish a dangm'OlUl 01' OÜi(~llS snpremaey ill the yalley, mHl eompd thc
world to render tbem unwillfllg' trilmtl.', tlw eÚllllllitten aro Ilot allle to
perceiye.


But it is argue<l that, eOlleedillg aH tlti;;, tIw e\ailllR of tIlOSO settlers
mnst yield to tbc right oi' the goYcrnmellt to take ])l'inlte prOllcrty fol'
publie uses. 'Ihis right iR no!, disllllteü. .A pl'inltp Illisehief i3 to 1)(,
enduretl l'ather -ihall a [In hIie il)(~Ol\Yell Íen('('. rrl)(~ g-on~l'llll1('nt ('au ap-
propriatc pl'intte property as a lllilitary llCe('flsity in tillle oí' \\'al'. J!oma's
lIlay he l'az(~ll to tIte gTOlllHl lo 1)l'(~Y(,ll t t!w ,;pl'ead oí' II (~ollt/:¡gJ'Mi()ll.
Prin1te propcrty mllst yic}(l tn general illtcrcsts in otl)('1' emws. 'l.'he
right. of emillP¡lt !lolllain, (JI' ÍIIl!prellt. SO\-pl'pig'll pO\\'(~r, g-iH~S to tl)(' Ir'g'is-
latu1'e eOlltl'Ol oi' pl'iyate property fol' 1mhlic 1[,;¡':'. !toads allll eaIwls may
be cut. throagh tlw l:md" oí' illdiyidua]s wiUlOlit th"ir eOlll'lCllt. Lalllls
a<).joining a eity may lw i:il'iz('!l alltl sp<'eütl1y app1'opriatell ,,-ith a yiow
to preserve its hea1th. In tll\':w :11)(1 killdn'(1 CHI'lPR tlw gTolllHl of aetina




.1. M. HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAMON.


is public utility and necessity. If this is wanting the act is usurpation~
If the legislature should take the property of A. and gi\'e it to B. it would
be an abuse of its power, a fraudulent attack upon private right, and
the law would be clearly unconstitutional and yoid.-(2 Peters's U. S.
Reps.,6.58. See also Varick l'S. Slllith, 5 Paigc's R. 159, 160.) And in all
these cases the act of appropriation must be accompanieu. or preceded
by cornpensation, 01' the tender of it, to the individual. A law taking
prívate property for puulic uses, without pmnding for cOlllpensatioll,
willnot, perhaps, be yoid, for it may be done by a subseqnent law, uut
the execntion of tbe Iaw wiII be enjoined until the pro\'ision be made"
and the paylllent ought to be simllltalleous with tbe actual appropriation
ofthe property.-(Kent's COIll., vol. 2, pp. 338-'9, and notes.) "Ve refe!'
to these principIes for the purpose of showing their bearillg UpOll the
case under cousideratíon. Here, granting that the act oí' Congress made
sllch a disposition of tLese priyate claill1s as would come within the
settled meaning of tbe phrase "public uses," no steps ha ve been taken
to divest the rights 01' tite parties. The act was silellt on the subject of
compensation, and tIwir cIaims were unknown at tbe date of ibqmssage.
No compellsatiou, 01' the teuder of it, has sinee beell made by the United
States, 01' uy the State of California, while these pre-emptors have been
summarily brought faee to faee with an aetioll of ejeetment for the pos-
sessioll of their lawfully acquired homes.


But the truth is, that tlle property in these cases was IIOt appro-
priated by Congress fol' puh1ie uses in auy just 01' legal seuse. The en-
tire yalley was granted to the State of California, amI the jurisdiction
of the United States ove1' it has totally eeased. lt helongs to the
State, subjeet to the uses amI purposes speeified in the aet, and the con-
trol of the State commissioners, amI is IlOt a national reservat.ioIl 01'
park at all. The simple faet is that the aet of Congl'ess uIldertakes to
rob these men of their cstates, alHI grallt tltem to another party, nameIy,
a politieal corporation ealled the State of California. It falls witbin the
miscbief of the rnle established by the authorities, that the government
canIlot take one man's property from him and ghTe it to another. Tite
fact that the act requil'es these pre-emptioIl claims to he set apart for
"public use, l'esol't, and reereation," makes not the slightest di1ferenee.
The g'overnment has no right to take pri\Tate property, fairly yested UIl-
del' the laws of CongTess, for the purpose of cOllvel'ting it iuto a play-
ground for tite people of California. Tite rule recognized by tite law is
tltat of rmlJlie neeessity, as illnstrated in sueh innlllllerable illstances, by
the appropriatioll of pri\'ate pl'operty in aiU of works of l'ublic im-
provement. Neitltel' can tllE' questioll be affected by the faet that this.
valley is a great physieal WOll(]Pl'. \VhiIe its tcrritory was su bject to
pre-emptioll, we snppose settlcrs on it, llIulpr the laws of tite United States,
could acquil'e precisel.r tIte same rig'hts in the yalIcy as if it.s secuer.y had
been eoufiidembly Iess suuliml'. Onr great Western States amI Territo-
ries are fuII oí' natural \Vondel's, as weH as oí' beallty. There are IIlltuy
lovely valleys amI beautiful waterfaUs in oU!' conntl'.r besides those of
the Yo-Semite, anll we me quite sme tite 1aw has not as .ret established
any stanllaru. oí' heauty aue! sublimity by whidl the l'ights of pre-empt-
ors 011 the pulJlie lallds ;,¡hall bp determined. That tIte vnlley is a 1l10st
eha[']ning plaee fOl' general" l'esort amll'eereation" is undonbtedly true;
lmt thc l'ight of ellliucllt domain rests upon llO su oh sltadowy founda-
tiol1. En~n if jt did, it would 1I0t í\)llow that these t\\'o small home-
steads, alread'y heltl subjeet to the uses oi' the Sta te, could be lawfully
approllriated by thc gon~rlllllent. As \Ve lUl\'e s('ell, they cOI1Rtitute 80·
slllall a fl'aetioll of the entire valley, that tlteir private owuership cannot,


H. Hep.2--2




10 .T. M, HUTCHINGS AND J. C. LAl\ION.
interft're with its pulJlic enjoyment as a pleasnre-ground aml a spectacle
oí wOllder. l\Iost eertainly it eannot jnstify the expulsion oí tllese
claimants as a publie neee8sity un!!er tite law. 'l'he votaries {)f illpasure
can stm ha,-e the amplest room for gratif,yillg their desires; wllile tite
worshippers oí lJeallt,y willlleed no legislatioll to pl'otect the ilIlperish-
allle fiH'llls of splendor which the haml of naturc llas layislled 'npon
the "alle;y, aml spread out to the feee gaze of the world.


Er¡ually futile is tIte arg'umcnt sometimos urged agaillst these clnim-
ants that thi8 is "a question of fort,Y millions of pcople llgaill8t t\\'o
men," aml that " tlle rights and interests oí t\\'o iudi vidnals should be
snhonlillate to tllOse of the maIlY." Questiolls of legal rigIlt are 1I0t to
be determined OIl the prilleiple oí' numbers. The illtrodnetioll of ~meh
a rule into onr jnrispnlflellee \\'ould ma ke the adllliniHtratioll of jnstice
a faree. Those \VIlO employ sueh an argnment should lilwwise relHcmlJer
tlJat the ,laws or Congrcss nndpr ,,,liÍl:h OUl' I:'pttlcrs acqnire title are
malle lJy the people-the " forty milliol1s." This is the thcory of OHl'
go\-ernmellt. "TIte two IIlel1" amI "the fort,)' lllilliollS 17 are 01! t11e
same si de of t11e qnestioll. 'rhcre is 110 confliet in pl'im:iple, and there
shonld be llone in fado As regareIs tbe qlH'stioli oi' a plemml'e-gl'onnd,
it ollIy COneel'IlH the eompal'ati\'e few ",ho ",ill ha\'(l thp means mv1leis-
ure to visit tIJe valley, a\l(l these eould see mld enjoy qnite as IIllH~h if its
thousallds oi' acl'l'S ,,'ere earved U]) illto smiliug' hOllH?Hteaf]s, "'hose m\'Il-
el'S wouM proha llly gnllnl tlle vallpy as em'Cf'nlly m; mI,)' offieial appoillted
by tile State. The illterest of lIutdlÍng,; amI LallloD \\'ill he to p1'eHCl'\'C
amI all(l to thp hpantieH of tlleil' hOllle8, \\'hile it has hPl'll \ren ohservell
that tlle gralldem oí' the valle.y is llot llestruetilJle hy tite halll!' of lltall.
They are IlOt, as ha,> lJeell l'epl'esente(l, "speeulatin\ Hf]Uattprs,:' lJut ad-
ycnturous pioneers, allxiou;-;, in goorl faith, to aeeept the offel' mallA by
tlle gO\TcI'llment or a 110111(\ in tlJe \'allp,y, aud lll'rfpetly in loye with the
seeues of wondl'r amI lleant,r \"ithm its walls. ~ eithpr are tllPy "van-
daIs," \y!to would waste 01' lllal' in Hlly \Vay tlle ol~jeets of llpanty a1l(1
10velinesH aroUlHl thClll. 'rhey bdoug' to tlJe gl'pat, adYHUcing eolnrrm
of settlers ",110 explore and snbdne onr diHtant hó]'(lt'r;;;, l'lH~()l1lltrl'illg
savap~; amI "i1d lJFasts inla;yillg tIte foundatiolls of Dew commOllwcaltlls.
They are the onl.\' men holding any ]ll'c-emptioll l'ights ill tl:c yallt,y, anll
the attcmpt to dispossess tlH'lll, ir slleeeHslul, wOllld ún'c8ha(!o\\' sl'1'iollS
tl'ouhle to all Hcttlers nuder the pn',olllption a]](l IlOlllpstmullH"'s of tlle
Unitetl States. lt ,,"o!lld thl'nateu tIJe (>lIti1'o o\'Cl'thro\V oí' tIw lanll
poliey nf the gOH'rnmcllt, nnd tIlO re-l'8tabliHlllllt'ut 0[' tIte "idon;;; ]ll'in-
eiple that settlcrs OH tIte Imulie (lomain nro trespas8crs, ,,,itlt w}¡om 110
terms are to he kept. 'l'he eOll1lllittpc slwak wit h carllestlless a1l(1 cm-
phasis on this qut';;;tion, lleeanse the,\" decm it a "ital OIW. H gOt'H dOWll
to the yer.\' t'rmndatioll ot out' imlllMl'ial deydoplllcnt a1l(I wltional
pl'ogress. To the wisdom aud jnstiee 01' our poliey, as ('tllhodicll in the
pre-emption amI homcstead laws, is tite Ilatioll Inl'gl'ly indl'hte(] 1'01' its
mal'\'elOllS progTPHs, :md fol' tlle plaee whidl it llOlds mllong other
llat iml8 of the world. To tritle ,yith this poliey is to tri tIc mt lt tlll' gravest
puhlie illterests. To strike lit thcse two HPttlers, is to Htrike nt milliolls;
and tlle natioll eonhl as inTloeently relmdiate the (kM \,,!tiell it inclirred
in t'lIyillg its OWIl Jife, as to "inlato its pJighterl faitlt to Olll' piOfl(,(,l'S
that tltey slmll ltaye hOIll('s 011 the pnhlie r!Olll:lill Oll pl'PSl~]'i¡ll'd cOlldi-
tious, whieh aro honestl.y aceepted and cOlllplied witlt OH their parto


o




41ST CO:iilGRESS, ~ HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
2d Session. f


NINTH CE~SUS.


{
REPORT


No. 3.


JANUARY 18, lS70.-Laid on tite table and ordered to be printed,


)lr. GARFIELD, from the Committee on the Ninth Census, made the
following


REPORT.
The Committee of the House of Representatives on the Ninth OenStlS, hat'·


ing Itad tite subject under consideration, beg lecwe 'respectfully to submit
the following report :
The relations of a census of the Ullited States to the general subjeet


of statistics are so intimate that the co.mmittee have thought it proper
to oJIer a few prelimillary suggestiollS on th~ general subject oí' statis-
tics, amI tosubmit a brief history of snch inqniries made by anciellt
and modern natiolls, together with an exhibit of the statistical metIlods
now in use in each of tIle states of Europe. They have also added a
Ilistory of statisticaL inquiries, including censuses, made in tIlis country,
from tIle beginning of tIle colonial pedod to the presento


'I'he great change made in the basis of popular representation by the
thirteenth amI fourteenth amendments to the national Constitution
made it necessary (91' the committee to examine the constitutiollal and
statntory provisions of the seyeral States of tIle Union, in Ol'der to as-
certain what would be the effect of tIle constitutional amendments re-
ferred to upon tIle repr6flentative population of each State. '1'he com-
mittce addresscd a circular to the governors of the several States, for-
warding to each a copy of the clauses of the State constitution and
laws whieh define the qllalifieatiolls of a voter thereill, and requesting
him to cause the same to be cxarnined, cOTreeted amI anthentieated.
The results of that investigation and correspolldenee are snbmitted in
the appendix to this l'eport, mal'ked "A." In appendix "B" will be
fOlllld the proyisions made by the different Statcs of the Union in re-
gard to takillg' eensuses alld making otIler statistieal inquiries. Ap-
pendix " C" is a papel' luid before the eOlllUlittee by Dr. Edwl\nl Jarvis,
of Doreheste1', .MassacIlusetts, relating to vital statistics, and snggest-
ing what inquil'ies ollght to he ruade eoneernillg population. lt is be-
lieved that tIle several suqjects diseussed in this report and in the ap-
pendix will be oi' suffieicnt interest to wurrunt the committee in laying
them before the House.


CENSUS-TAKING AND STA'l'ISTlUAL INQFIRY FROM TIlE BARLIEST HIS-
'l'ORICAL PERIOD TO THE BRGINNIKG OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.


The seience of statistics, of whieh eensns-takiug is one of the praeti-
eal applieations, is of modern growth, but its germs are found in the
earlicst pcriods of known history. 'l'he llecd oi' a positive knowledge of
the social 1'orees at play in communities of men appears to have been




2 NINTH CENSUS.
felt frOID the timo wllell the human raoe fil'ilt segregatod into distinct
social and political bodies. Statistical observation, indeed, may be said
to be coeyal with the Yery organization of societ,r and goVel'lllllcnt.
Everv reader of the Bible is familiar with tll0 cnurncration of the trioes
of Israel iustituted by Moses during tho oxouns, amI tbe disastl'Ous C(éll-
sus of Kiug DavitL AUJOug tbe Cbinese, public statistics \Yere colloctod
tbonsands of ,years before t,}w Christian cra. vVe havo a distÍllct ac-
count of the census ordained by tho Empcror Yee, 2042 years B. C.
Tbere is a record of a ceTlSUS in Japan, nndor the .:.\iikaclo Su-jin-tonno,
in the last century B. C. Under the reigll of tbe I neas, as rolatod by 1're8-
cott, in his history of the conquest of Peru, statistical information was
assiduously gathered. Some oí' tile rulers oí' allcieut Porsia made sta-
tistical data the basis of taxation. In old Grceco, registers 01' citizens
wore kept at Athens, amI in otIle1' cities, alld tltatistieal researehes made
iu varions directions. Hcrodotns, Aristotle, Straho, aI\(l Pausanias,
maele use of statistical material in their writings. In Rome public 8ta-
tistics bocame tIle very t'oundaüon oí' goycrmnent at an early periodo
Prom tIle time of King Servius Tnllins, througb t11e whole republican
enl, t11e periodical eemms, whieIl comprised botIl persons amll'l'ol'crty,
and attaíned a Iligh degree of exaetitude, seryecl to regulate tlle duties
of tbe eitizens towaru tbe tltate. Under tbe emperors even more atten-
tion was paid to puhlie statisties. Augnstus clllarged tIle seope of tlle
census, auu improved the mode of takillg it. He had tlte elltiro popu-
lation enumeratod; tIte whole empire surveyed amI tbe RationanUll im-
perii; a statistieal exposé 01' tIle warlike amI other resourees oí' tIJe
state, compiled. Dnder tIle more enlightened of Ilis sU:ceessol'S t1le eol-
leetion and preservatioll oí' statistienl illformatioll was eontinued amI
developed into a regular braneh ofpuhlie businetls. UlHh~r Constantine
tllero existed what Hlay be st,yled tIle 1lrst statitltieal hurean uJl(ler t.he
llame of Scríllium J\Iemoriae.


In t.he middle ages the general decline of intellectnallife confined the
_ pursuit óf statistical kllowledge witIlin the nalTOWCtlt limits. The tel'm


"eensns" still appeared i11 polítical Ilolllenclatul'e, lmt ,,,ith thc discon-
tinuanee, nron tltc collapse ot' tbe Romau empíl'e, oí' t110 pnulic act wliicIl .
it significd, its original mcnuing ",as lost. ]11 lllcdiamll times it ,ras
applieü almost exelusiyoly to cadatltral operations. Fp to tIte thi1'tccl1th
eentury, there is no record of a distillet enumeratioll oí' the population
in the auuals oí' auy people. Still, frolll tile Snpl'eUlllcy ill that dark pc-
riod of tIle law of force, wlticIl rClHlered a knowledge of snchelemellts
of offensive amI defellsin' HÍl'eugth as tbe poplllation eapable oí' beal'ing'
arms anc1 its taxability imlispem;a hIt' to ralcl'!', it Illay oe llI'etll1lned,
though we have Httle proo!' 01' the faet, that intormntioIl reganling t11e
llUluuer anc1 means of the tlnhjpet¡; was gClH~rall'y soug11t 1),)' <li1'ferollt
methous. But, while tIle practico ot' regnlar popnlatioll eensntlctl tlcems
to have heell unknowlI, we find, here aud tIlme, eddellee oí' spatllllodic
Htatistical activity on the part oí' botl! govel'Jltuellts amI inuiyiüuals.
C11arlomagne instituted tIle missi dominici, 01' illfluirics iuto tIte capal'ity
oí' the soíl aud the cereal.produets of an t11e lll'ovillces of his yast em-
piro. The famous Doolllsday Book of \Yilliam the Couqueror 1.01'0
sorne resclllblallee to a modern census. The eadastral inquiries illtlti-
tuted in <le limited measure by some oi' the Gorman emperors partook of
tho nature oC puhlic statisties. TIle aetive geographieal labors of the
Amos hot,,-een tIle eloventll and fourteenth eellturies produeed, illci-
dl'lltally, so me yaluable statistical material. Tlle hest kno\Ylt googra-
phel'tl, alllong tbelll El-lUaslludi, Edl'is(', and Chalil-Bcn-SehallÍll, were,
in a certaill, sen se, statitltical writers. TIle only medüeyal populatioll




NINTH CENSUS. 3
censuses of w hich there seems to be any record, are tho¡;;e of the Mongo·
lians in the thirteenth a1l(1 of Peter of Al'agon in the fourteenth cen·
tury. In tIte fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, some of the repuhlican
governments of Ital-r, amI amOl1g them especially that of Venice, at·
tached mlleh ünpol'tanee to tIte eolleetiOll of l'eliable data concerning
the material resources of their own territories as weIl as of foreign conn·
tries. In the last IlaIIled century a popular ellumeration took plaee in
the kingdom of Castilia. Philip II of Spain commeIlced t11e careful pre·
servaLioll of statistical matter, relating to his vast dominioIls. Among
his . cotemporHl'ies were several eompilel's of geogl'aphieal·statistical
works. Pope Pius II compiled his Dcscriptio Asim atqllc EUl'opm. In
1544 Sebastian J\lneneter printed his weH knowl1 eosmography in Gel'·
many. In 1i"j(j3 tlle Roman Franeesco Sansovino pllhlislterl all 1weonnt
of twel1ty aneient and modern states. In 1591 Botero· brought out ,lt
Rome his Relazioni Un'ilJcrsali, in whieh he describes aIl the states of
Europe. J\faehiave1li's aeeou11ts oí' his nnmerous missions abroad, and
bis enrollment of tIte military population of the ]'lorentine Republie, de·
serve to he lllllued in the same conneetion. In the sixteelltlt eelltury
the praetiec of kccpingchureh registers 01' uirths, marriages, anu deaths,
whieh formed the lwgillning of the modern s'ystems oí' reeonlin·g the
lIlovements of popnlatio11, be(:Hme general. .


Aeeording to tIte authority of a British writer on statisties, a complete
survey was made of the Bnglish realm under the reign of Hfml'y VIII,
in the firsthalf of the sixteenth eentnry, in whieh tho numbcr of the in·
habitants, their ages, professiolls, wealth, and increasc, were aseertaiited,
but there is no known record of tbis eensus.


In the seyenteenth eentury, while no exact popular cnumerations were
made, the neeu of a more aecurate aequaintance with tIle resonrees oí"
tIte stato fol' tho sncüessfnl conduot oí' government was felt in tlw more
progressive countries. Tbus in Pranee, Sully, tIle great mil1ister of
Henry IV, exerted himself to COllstitute the administratioll oí" tIte puulic
finanees OIl a statistical basis. Louis XIV, upon the adviee of tIte cele·
urated Fénélou, required the illtendants 01' governors of pl'OVillÜes to
furnish thc 1ll0St acenrate data that üoulll he obtained relative to ÜOIll·
meree, agrieulture, and illdnstry ; the clergy and nobility; the populatio}l
in general; public roads; illland navigation, and othe1' material illterests
oí' the several proyinee,;. '['he reports were puulished in a series of forty.
two folio volumes. They contaim'd statistieal taules of popuJation, amI
a vast amoullt of ot11er yaluable information; but the wallt oí" a uniform
plan of inquiry, amI tIte different degrees of diligence, cOlllprehellsive·
nesB, and exaetitucle sl1ow11 in the reports of tIte several cOlllpiler,;, de·
traeted eOllsitIerably tI-OIll the yalue oí" the reports as a whole. In 1698
the Freneh governlllent also üOlllmcneed t11e publieation of tIte Almanac
Royal, a Rort oí" nlue Book. In England, the compilatioll and publieation
of general eOllllllereial statisties "'ere üommcneed upon the establishment
of the office of inspector general of exports alld imports, towanl the
close of the sevelltecllth eenturv.


Mueh private lauor was likewise given in the same centurJ' to glean.
illg and even praetieally applying statistieal information. Di,'anti, in
1612, brought out his "Btat des Empires, Roymunes et RépnuUques."


Yan vallLeet publishedItis "RcspubliereElzeviriamB,;' bet\',een 1624-
lfi40. The great work oí' Pierre el' Avity, on "Les EtatR et Empires {In
1\fonlle," appearell in 1(j~(j. In l(j(j() John Graunt, tIte fouwler of politi.
cal arithmetie, brought out his "Observations on the BiUR of Mort, Uy,"
whieh had tIte effeet oí" awakening a more general intercst in yitul stat·
istics in England anel Franee. Helenus Politanus's "lHicroseopum Stat·




4 NINTH CENSUS.
isticum" came out in 1672. Sir William Petty, besides Dumerous other
politico-economic writings, in 1690 published bis "Political Arithmetic,"
in wbichbe gives many curious statistical facts regarding the nnmber
of inhabitants, resources, public revenues, &c., of England at that
time. In 1693 the celcbrated Dr. Edmlilld Holley printed tbe first mor-
tality table foI' insurance purposes, calculatcd on the mortuary statistics
of tbe German eity of Brcslau. In 1605 Bois Guilbert brougbt out a
large statistical work cntitled "Le détail de la :France sous Louis XIV,"
of wbich several editions appeal'ed. .


The eighteenth century may be said to have witnessed the birth of
official statisties. In the course of it some of the leauing governmcnts
took measnres looking to tbeir systematic eollection. In Russia partial
censuses were taken by order of the government in 1700, 1704, 1705, and
1710. In 1718 Peter the Great promulgated an ukase requiring all
landed proprietors to make abona fide deelaration of the number of serfs
belonging to eaeh, and of their location. In the following year he organ-
ized a special eomlllissioll amI ordered it to visit all the provinees oí' the
empire (with few exccptions) for the purpose of llluking a gencral census.
The commission was eharged to asef'rtain the exaet number of peasants,
meehanics, domestif's, alld perHons without regular employment, and to
return the wholc popnlation, including old and young, lmt excepting
femaleH. TIle provincial authOl'ities were rcqllired at the same time to
return the number and population of all the towns, villageR, and landed
estates within their respective jurisdictions. A suhHeqnent ukase of 1722
directed tIte rev58ion of tlle returns in order to ascertain the number of
insane and illfirm pcrsons witllout means of subsistenee. TIte exeluHion
offernales from the census, which was takcn solely for p11rposes of rev-
enue and military cOllseript,ion, llatnraIly impaired its stati¡.;tical valne.
The ukaHe of 1722 directed that a eensus sItoulll take place every twenty
years: Bnt tllis intel'val of time ,,'as not regularly obsel'Ycd during the
relllaiIHler ()f the ccntnry. The first census afte!' tIle revisiou of 1722 was
takpl1 in 1742, followed by others in 1762, 17R2, a 11(1 1796. FCll1ales wcre
inclnded after a time in the enumeratiol1, but returned with less exacti-
tnde than tlle males. The takillg o[ the eeususes eventnally (1e"01"e(1
on the central administration of the seyeral provinces, which were held
respollsible fOl' tIleir eorrcetness.


In Prussia, eensus-taking was inaugurated nTll1er Kiug Frederick
vVilliam I, who wholly re-ofganized tlle civil adlllillistration of tllC
kingdom. By his order tIle ministers amI provincial anthorities took
measnres to aseertain the number of tIte popnlation. For this purpose
a series of qUf'StiOllS wcre addressed to administration ofiicers, t.he re-
"pom;es to which were based, however, Tlot. on an actual eensns, lmt on
ealeulations from various data. Tbis imperfeet syHtem \Vas greatlJ' im-
pron~d by l,'rederick TI, who gase the Híati"tical illquiries a. lllore regu-
lar eharaetcr. From 1748 till tlw ('lose oi' the century, a general censns
was taken animally f\xeppt dmillg a few yearR, whell wal' rendered it
impossible. Tite snecessiye enumerntions oí' tIte popnlatioll were made
by the snperior authoritieH oí' eaeh prOyillee. Separate lists for town
amI country were prepared. A ttempts \Yere madp to COllIlf~ct, with tlw
census the eollcction of statistü~s SllOwillg t.lte aJllmal erops of cereals,
bnt tl](~y met with meager f.1ne('ess.


In Swedell a law making the keeping oí' ehnrdl l'egisters hy tlw elcrgy
obliga.tol'y was promulgaü'd as earl,\' as lIi8G. From that time np to the
present day the clel'gy han.\ heen tIle ex-oftieio colleetors of popnlation
statistics in that eoulltry. The la\\' in (lnestioll rcqnired tllCm to keep a
register: first, of maI'riages; seeond, of ll'gitimate and illegitimate




NINTH CENSUS. 5
births; third, of deaths; fourth, of perSOllS who removed from alld set-
tled in the parishes; fifth, of aU the inhabitants, arrallged by habitations
and households. ~ O effort was made to compile fmm these registers
any consolidated statement until1746, when the 8tockholm Academy of
Sciences published, for tlle first time, a taule showing the total population
of the realm, based on extracts from the parish rcgisters. At the re-
quest of the academy, tIle diet caused uniform schedules, accompanied
by explanatory instructions, to be prepared and distributed among the
twenty-fi\-e hundred parisiles of the kingdom, with a viow to obtainillg
annnal consolidated retums. Snch auuualreturns were made regularly
by the clergy after 17M). They showed the lIumber of births aceording
to sex and legal character, with the age of the mothers; of marriages ;
of deaths, arranged according to sex, age, alld cause; of dissolutiom, of
marriages by death. The schedliles were enlarged from time to time.
Besides the allIllml rcturns from the clergy, separate general ccnsuses
were taken yearly between 1749 and 1751, eve!'y three years between
1751 and 1/75, and every fi ve years after 1775. These cenSllses were
takclI by police officers, toward tIle close of the year, and verified by
personal investigations of the clergy. They showed the number, sex,
agp, amI oeeupatioll of the inltabitants; the n Ulli ber and sex of mal'ried
alld sillgl~ persons, widows ami wÍllowers; the number of blind, deaf
aud dumb, and insane persons; the number of pnpils of educational
esta blishmellts; the number of persolls not belonging to the established
church, and the number of the inmates of hospitals, asylums, and pris-
onR. In 1756, a regular statistical cOllimission, cOllsisting of superior
officials and mernuers of the Academy of Science, was created by the
government, which continued in fnnction until the present century,
wItell it \Vas superseded by a regular burean of statistics attached to one
of the ministries.


In Austria census-takillg dates from the rniddle of t11e eigliteenth
century. Snecessive impel'ial decrees in 1753 and 1754 ordained a
double general enumeration for German Austria, and Bohemia, l\loravia
and 8ile8ia, to he eondueted separately by the clerical amI secnlar au-
thorities. Tile first cellsn8 was to be taken in 1854, ancl to be followed
bJ~ a general enumeration every three years at the begilluing of the solar
year. TIte rtim of tIte cemms was to aseertain the actnal, as distingllished
from the legal, population, accorcling to age, sex, and ci vil relatiolls. The
results of the tirst census were worked np into snmmaries, in which the
popnlatioll was grouped into fOlll' classeR according to age, sex and ciYil
status beiug exhibited in each class. TIte males of towns and villages
were besides enumerated separately in three groups accoJ'llillg to age.
The ummtisfactory resnIts of the first ceususes taken uneler this plan
caused several modifications of the original schedules. By degrees pro-
vision was made to obtain speeial exhibits of the number of cities, towns,
hamlets, villages, and landed estates; the num ber of families with and
without honses, tog-ether with that of the clergy, nobility, public oflicials,
domestic servants, artisans, tradesmen, and inmatesofhospitals. EftürtR
were also made to ascertain the moyements of the population. In 1770,
the enlightened Emperor .Toseph ordered, with a viewto a more general
distrilmtion oftlle burden of )I1ilitary service, a general so-caBed COll8crp-
tion cenRus, by Rpeeial commissioners appointcd for each province. In
conjunction with it al! enumeration of draugbt animals was to take place.
Bnt the execution of the measnre '.~~as foünd difficult and had to be tempo-
rarily abandoned. In1776~ the subject "as tnrncd over to a speeial com-
mission, on the strength of whose report an imperial patent, in 1777,
ordered a general enumeratiou of both sexes to be made by the adminis-




6 NINTH CENSUS.
trative authorities on tlle basis of the legal popnlatioll. The census was
to be taken .by household suhedules, for thc return ofwhiuh thl'ee months
were allowed. The sehedules, ealled fol' llominativc lists of all thc mem-
bers oí' caub household, showiug their age, sex, civil sta te, aml religion.
The sodal positioll,'oceupatioll, legal domieile, alHI residence of males,
were also l'eturned. No statemeut of age was required of clel'gymen,
lIoblemell, public officials, .Jews, the followers of eertain liberal profes-
sions, amI females, as lIut lia.ble to military service. A. I1ew uecree, in
1781,requil'ed an aimual revision oi' the eeusus in tbe months of Mal'eh,
April, amI :ftfay. In 1784 a similar enumeration was ordered fol' tbe
Kingdom ofHungary aud depenuelleies, whieh was execnted in tIle fol-
lowillg year. But the war with the Tul'ks and the death oí' Joseph II
prevented its repetition. Under .Joseph's suecessor the conscriptioll
ceusns laws became ineffective during the remaindel' of the century in
the eastern portioll of the empire.


In Switzerland cemms-taking also commcllced in the eighteenth eent-
ury. About 1733 a census took place in the canton oí' Znrich. Other
cantons í'ollowed the example.


In Spain u censns was takeu under the ministel' Florida Blanca, the
results of which were published in 1787. Another was undertaken in
1798, the retul'Ils oí' which were printed in 1801. 'fhere are reeords oi'
two cnnmeratious in Cuba, oue in 1775 and 1791. A general census
took place in 1795, in the Batadan Repub)ic, (Hollanu.)


In Frailee the goverument did vel'y liUle toward the advancement of
public statisties during the first half of tbe eighteellth eentury. But
individuals performed sorne highly valuable labo1's in statistical fields.
First amoug the fruits of these in point of time and rncl'it was the
famons "PrQjet d'une dixme royale," by the l\fal'shal Vauban, an elabo-
late pl'opositioIl based on a statistical e,IJ]José uf the reSOUl'ces of Franee
for a r~forrn of the system of taxation oí' the kiugdom, whieh was pub-
lished in 1707 and attracted general attelltion. In 1715 appearecl the
"Descriptioll de la France," by Piganiol de la. Foree, a statlstical, geo-
graphical, and historical compilation, and next to the re))o1'ts oí' the in-
tendants the most valuable work oí' the kind of tbat periodo '1'11e Abbé
Expilly wOl'ked np a good deal of statü;tieal illt()rrnation in his works
entitled " De la Popnlation de la ]'rauee," aud "Dictionaire Géographi-
que des Gaules et de la Franee." Deparcieux made his illvestigations
into the laws of mortality. Other publieatiolls of minor importunce in
the same period attested the inc1'easing interest of eultivated French
minds in statistical seienee.


In the latter part oí' the reign oí' Louis XV, the French govcrnment
commenced to occupy itself more seriously with publie statistics.
::\'L de Gournay, minülter oi' eommeree, organized a "lmreau de renseig-
nemens" in his ministry, ehargecl with extraetiug the re])orts of the
goYel'nors of provinces, illspectors of manufactures, consular reports,
and otIler puhlie docurnents. l\IU(~h attentioll \Vas gi nm by this bnreau
to the subject of populatioll. Under its auspices 1\1. :\fessallee pub-
lisbed a treatise on the poplllation of various provinces in 1766. )1.
:ftIoheau, attached to the lmrean, umlertuok some eomprehellsive statis-
tical inqniries by order oi' the government, the results of which were
llnblished in 1774.


Many valuable contributions to statistical science appeared in several
of the periodicals oí' that time, HIllOllg whieh tbe "Jourual Economi-
que" and "Joul'nal des Arts, du COll1rneree, et des Finallees" deserve to
be I'ankecl.


A pl'ofouud ilnpression \Vas producec1 by the appearance, in 1784, of




NINTII CENSUS. 7


the work of nI. Necker, t11e falllous lllinister of finance of Louis XYI,
entitled "Traité de l' administration des Finances." It dealt largely
in statisties, cOlltaining as it did detailed acconnts of the territorial ex-
tent, population, products, anu cOlllmerce of each province; aneI tabn-
lated statelllents of the resources anu expenditures of t1le king(lolll as a
whole. Nccker illangurated the practice of publishing periodicall,V
elaborate statements of the condition 01' the public finances, (blldgets,)
which was afterward adopted by the g"overmnents of aH ciyilizcd coun-
tries. He rcorganized the "burean des renseigllelllens," giving a wider
seope to its labors.


In 17S9 .1\1. de POll1melles, an army offieer, published a work on tho
state amI movelllent of the population of France, remarkable for extcllt
and originality of research. At about that time t1lere appeared, also,
1\1. de Beauf'ort)s " Gmnd Porte-fenille politique," eontaining aU the in-
forl1lation then extant relative to the government, population, al'my ami
navy, revennes and expcllditures, dehts, agricnlturc, cOlllmerce, manu-
factures, &c., of the leading countries of Enrope, as also the wol'k
of the celebrated Count l\'Iirabean 011 the Prussian, Saxon alld Austrian
governmentR. Numerons srnaller works of a statistical natnre, mostly
froI1l governlllent officials, appeared between 17nO and 1800. Toward
the close of tIte century, tIte" Dietionnaire Universel de Géographie
Commerciale," the most extended statistical work produced by priyate
enterprise in Franee up to that time, commanded tIte general attentioIl
of the publico


The new political era which opened in France upon the downfall of
the monarehy, stimulated the development of public statisties. The
constituent assembly had no sooner ohtained undisputed sway thau the
revolutionary law-makers showed their elear pereeption of t11e truth,
whieh found formal recognitioll at ahont the same time Ül the organic
law of tIle yOllllg repuhlic of the United States, that healthy legislation
can ollly tlow from an exact knowledge of tIllO eondition and wants nf
the people, a1l(1 that population is the proper busis of representatioü in
a free Stnte. Statistical inquiries were, without delay, ordered to he
made by administrative und municipal officers. Rnt the rcturns of the
latter regarding population, obtailled 01' made up froll1 the civil registers,
were found to he nnreliable, owing to the telllptation whieh rnanyoí'
them were Hot conseientiollR enough to l'esist, of overstating the popu-
lation in order to Recure a larger reprcsentation in the national legis-
lature. In the subscquent inquirie¡.; into the population undel' the re-
public, the reverse took place after population ha<l been made the basis
of taxation, as the OffiCNS chnrged ,vith making the r?turns sought to
lighten the burden of taxatioll in their respecth'e localities, hy nnder-
stating the actual figureRo In the tenth ;real' of the repnblie a regular
enumeration of tIte populatioll was orc1ained to be made by the justices
of the peace, which furnished bette1' lmt not whol1y satisfaetory results.


The "bureau des renseignemens" of the monarchy was Rupplanted
nnder the republie by the bureau of tlle " balance du commerce," witb
more limited statistical functions. vVhen IJueien Bonaparte became
minister of tlle interior after the commencement of tlle reactioll, he
endeavored to promote public statistieR by combining the lahors of
officials with those of inc1ependent men of science, and by making the
results of their inqniries available to the gOYernmellt alld the public
through the agency of a statistical burean which he organized in his
ministry. His objeet was, to obtain a complete statistical eo'"cposé of
}'rance; but while a good deal of valllable material was collected under
his direction, his pnrpose was llOt ful1y rcalized, owing to the want of a




8 NINTH CENSUS.
uniform plan of operation. Uuder bis succe¡.;¡.;or sueh a plan "as devised,
and t1le admilli¡.;trative officers required to adopt it.


While- a fair beginning in census-taking was tlms made by tbe govern-
wents of ·various eontinental conntries, the eighteellth century dosed
without anything having been attempted in the same diredioIl in
England. Considering that that country before the outbreak of the
French Revolution was more advanccd, materially aIHI politieally; t11at
cOlIllllereial and financial statistics had been colleeted at tl10 installee
of its governments for generation¡.;; that economic science had alrcady
attained a high degree of development in the Britü,h IsleH; that mauy
minds had successfully investigated and written UpOll statistical snu-
jeets, and that cemmses had beim periodieally taken, by order of thc
home government, in the American colonies sinee lhe seventeenth ceu-
tury, this backwardness is no liUle surprising. But it is an historieal
fact that enm at the time whell Adam Smith wrote and up to the
begillnillg of the ninetcenth century, the most crroncous notiolls
pl'evailed among Englishmen on the subject of t1le population of
their country. The population question was illdet'd the sllbject
of Ü'efjUent controversy. T11e current estill1ates were just one-half oí'
what the numbe1' of suhjects subsequently turued out to be, amI J,et no
eJlort was made to solve it by actual inquhy unti11790, wheu Sir ,John
SillClail', a high authority in mattel'S of public finan ce in his time, and


. aman of 1'are intelligence., entel'pl'ise, alld perseveran ce, undertook the
eOll1pilation of a complete poplllation, agri cultural , eomll1ercial, aud
industrial census of Scotlalld. For this purpose he addressed one hUll-
dred and sixty questions, on as many dift'erent su~jeets, to aU the clel'gy-
me.n oí" tbe. Established Uhurch. He had much difticulty in obtaining
answcrs from them, but hy dint oí' persistently repeated appeals he sue-
ceedf'd in tbe course of time in securing rcturns from nearly all the
parishes. The retuI'lls were published by h1m suceessively in a series
of twellty-one volumes. The energy of this remarkable lIla11 may be
judged from the fact tbat be secured no less than nine hundl'ed contri-
butors to his census, amI that the whole compilation and pubJieatioll
were completed in just scvcn years. He subsequently prepared a mas-
terly compendium of the series, entitled an "Analysis of the statistics
of Scotland." His statistics were 110t absolutely aceurate, hut thcy
í"ormed, although the work of a single individual, a more complete ceu-
sus tban any yet undertakeu by any governmcnt. Sir .John Sinclair
may be said to ue the founde1' oí" British public statisties. For it \Vas
mainlJ' at his suggestion that Parliament, on Decembcr 31, 1800, paRsed
an !let providing foI' a general enumeration of tlle population of Eng-
land, Wales, and Scotland, in the following spring.


In addi tion to tlle considera ble progresR of official statistics, t11e
eighteenth ccntury was 1'emal'kable for tlle formal recognition of statis-
tics as a distinct science. Thl'onghont the middle aucl tIle later ages,
statistics were treated by writers on the sul~ject as a suIJo1'dinate ele-
ment of geography and demogl'aphy, rather t11an as a separate field of
intellectuallabor, capable of indepcn<lent cultivatioll. Leetures on sta-
tisties (collegicc statisticcc) were institnted, it is true, at two Ge1'Illun
universities respectively in the last but Olie deeenuiulll of the seveu-
teenth and the third decennium of the eightccnth celltu1'y. But, never-
theless, the elevation of statisties to the dig-llity of an indepClHlellt
science was due to Gottfried Aellell \Va 11 , the Gel'lIlan professor who
taught it as such for the first time i1l1748 at the Universiíy ofGrettill-
gen, which was at that time largely Ü"e<]ucnted by studellts of politieal
science from aU parts of Europe. Tho work of AeIleuwall was worthily




NINTH CENSUS. 9


continued by hb; pupil Sehloezer, a profollndly erndite and philosophic
minu, to whorn the irnrnortal definition, " History is eurrent statisties;
statistics, history in repose," is due. IIow clearly Schloezer perceived
alld defilled the nature of statisties is ShOWIl by the fact that his theory
of it has the wcight of authority to this day.
G-ROWTH OF PUBLIC STATISTI0S A~D STATISTICAL SCIENCE FRO~I TITE


DEG-INNING- OF 1'HE NINETEENTH CEN1'URY 1'0 l'HE PRESENT.


Like every other branch of human activity, statistical knowledge has
experienced a fuI' more rapid amI extellsive developrnent in tbe ninc-
teellth eClltury than in any prcceding periodo With the steady progress
of most civilized states during the last two generations towards more
liberal polítical institutioIlS, public statistics, as the most reliable g'auge
of the true illterests of both governments and g'overnea, have become
more and moret he basis of the enactrnent and admillistration of laws.
Alld again, the greater conccrn of man in man, growing out of the general
adyancement of society, has naturally tended to increase the Ilurnber of
those who privately devoted themselvcs to the study of statistical facts,
and to the building up of the science oí" statistics to tIle commanding pro-
portions which it has now reached. In the followillg an aCcOlwt will be
gi\'en-first, oí' the growth of the systems of public statistics practiced
under the lcading European governmellts; and, secondly, of the labol's
of associations and individuals in doveloping the scÍence oi' stl1tistics
anUl1pplying its teachings to the affairs of mimkind.


SíSTEMS OF l'UBLIC S1'ATISTICS IN THE LEADING- CO"C"NTRIES OF
EUROPE.


The l{ussiall goVel'llIUent, thongh one of the least progl'essive in otber
respeets, continued its efforts-begun under .Peter the Great for the
developmeut of publie statisties-very actively during the present een-
tury. A" central bureau of statistics" was ol'ganized as early as 1802,
under the direction oí' the ministr.'t' of the interior, to which the results
of the statistical inquiries of the several departmellts of the govern-
mellt \Vere l'eferred. In addition to the digestion of these results, the
lmreau illstituted inquiries of its own on such subjects as did not come
within the scope of the several ministries. Statistical exhibits of the
public administration, population, territorial extent and subdivísion,
agriculture, COll1merce and industry oi' the ell1pire, were published from
time to time by the bureau in the official organ of the ministry of tIle
interior. The central bureau was aidcd in its labors by statistical com-
missiollS, consisting oi' administrative officers alld competellt private
imlividuals, which were organized by degrees in aU of the tbirty-three
governll1ents 01' provinces of tho 1l10narchy. These comll1issions were
required to maintain direct relations with the central bureau, and to
furnish it with any desired information. The methods of procedure are
carefully iudicated to thom. Besides these statistical organs, special
commissions are attached to partieular branehes of the administration.
Au illdcpendent statistieal commission, composed of tIle professors of
the University of Kiefi:~ has ahm rendered valuable services.


Ánotber peculiar instrument, ernploycd by thc Russian government
for statistical pllrposes, is the "stl1tistieal expeditions," which, since
1852, are sent out regularly into the several provinces for the purpose of
ll1akillg original inquiries on the spot, relative to populatioll alld other
subjects, recti(ying alld supplemellting statistieal returns, &c. Tbese




10 NINTH CENSUS.
"expediHons" consist of practiced statisticians attached to the several
ministries. The local administrative authorities aro roquired to lend
them their assistanco.


The "central bureau of statistics" was reorganized in 1853, under
the name of "statistical commission." It receivcd anothor transforma-
tion in 1858, when it was re-constituted under the name oí" "central
statistical commission," and divided into two sectioml, Yiz, one charged
with the supervision of the whole fleld of administrativo statistics, and
another with the duty oí' conducting an inquiries pertaining to the abo-
lition of serí"dom. '1'he statistical :section was composed of represent-
atives oí" the seyeral ministrics and other central allthorities, and given
power to initiate statisticallabors in the several departments. Under
the direction of the new central authority the provincial statistical
commissions were also reorganized.


One of the main functions of the several organs of public statistics
has been tho taking of population censuses. Of these, five have taken
place in the present century, viz: 1812,1815,1834,1850, and 1860. It is
intended hereaí"ter to take a censns every ten years. Up to 1860 the
range of inquirics in tho successive censuses was very limitcd. Thc
la,st ccnsus, taken in the· year named, was a considerable improyement
on the preeeding ones. As a preliminary measul'e, a complete list of
inhabited places, including isolated habitations, was pl'oparcd. This
furnished the basis í"or the census, in which the legal population, by
sexes, the number of honses in to\Vns, and oí" estates in villages and
country; the number oí" churches and chapels, benevolent institutions,
schools, fairs, markets, post-st.ations, as wen as that of manufacturing
and other noteworthy establishmonts, was comprised. The census was
taken by means of printed schedules distributed by the localadminis-
trative authorities, which are responsible for proper returns. The gOY-
ernment fixes the time in which the census is to be taken, a longer term
being allowed for the Asiatic than for the European pl'ovinces. The
consolidation and dig-éstion of the cellSUS retuI'IlS devolves upon the
central statistical authorities.


In the province of J;'inland a separate mode of census-taking prevails,
which dates from tho timo when that prm,inco was still a Swedish pos-
session. It is taken by the civil authorities in conjunction with the
clergy, and relates exclusively to population. A separate statistical
bureau exists for that province.


Besides the census operations, separate in quiries have been carried
on under the dil'ection of tho different ministries reg-arding the distribu-
tion and condition of real property, the extent of seignorial possessions,
the movement of the population, public education, the administration
of public justice, industrial prodnction, comrnerce, the number oi' live
stock, the econ'omic organization and revenue of cities ami towns, ami
the banking institutions of the empire. Numerous staff officers are.
sent out regularly by the government to study tho resourees oi' the dif-
ferent provinces from a military point of view. Their labors furnish
valuable contributions to the statistics oí' the country.


While the statistical machinery of Russia is, as has beon shown, vel'y
extensive, the results of its working are not as satisfactory as could be
wished. 1\1ost oí" its failures are duo to the ignorance of the. subordi-
nate oflicials in many oí" the provinces. Still, the fruits oí" Russian pub-
lie statistics, as a whole, have pro ved valuable additions to statistical
knowledge. The oflicial literature is already quite voluminolls, and
sorne of it possesses no mean merito Among the leading publications is
the work entitled "Inhabited places ofthe Empire," which contains statis-




NINTII CENSUS. 11
tiea1, ethnographieal, geogTaphical, and historieal accountS of each of
the thirty-three provinces, in as rnany volullles. The" Statistieal An-
uual" of tho empire appears in anuual volnmes since 1866, and eontains
the latest statistics of population, habitations, commerce, and industry,
public finanee, education, justiee, &c. A llumber of millO!' \Vorks, mainly ,"
monographs, have heen hrought out under the anspiees of the central
stati8tical cmnmission. The reports 01' the 8taff officer8 referred to,
form already a series of not far from a hundred volumes.


Some of the statisticaI lahO!'s of certain departments of the government
are not allowed to be published, but this is rather exeeptiomil, publicity
being the rule.


A new impulse was given to public statistic8 in Pru8sia by the organ-
ization in 1805 of a central bureau of statistics, whieh has exiRted, with
progressive changes in it8 eOIlRtitution, up to the present day. The
labors of the bureau tonehed upon, 1st. General statisticR; 2d. Birth8,
marrülges, and death8; 3d. Schools and churches; 4th. Medical statis-
tics; 5th. Statisties of rneehanical trades alld mallufaetures. At first,
inquiries iuto these various 8ubjeets were made every year, but from
1820 information relative to the first, third, fourth, and fifth subjccts
was colleeted only every three years. The movement of tIle population,
however, eOlltinued to he aseertained annually. U pon tIle esbtblish-
ment of the Unstoms Union in 1834, triennial population censuses were
adopted, which practice has prevailed up to thc p1'esent time.


The illlmediate object of the Customs Union census is, aceording to
its constitlltion, to furnish a basis for the pn) mta distribution oí" the
receipts of the union amOllg its members. But in the dift'erent States,
forming the union, the tl'iennial census was made to serve fol' statistieal
purposes beyond the mere enumeration of the population. As taken at
first in Prussia, it comprised the following subjects of inqniry: The actual
population, according to sex, age, (arranged in yearly classes,) birth-
place, and ciyil condition; mental and ph;\Tsical disabilities; sehoo] attend-
ance, religioll, illllIligration, and emigration. In 18-10 the enumeration
was made nominative, whieh resulted irnmediately in a large in crease
in the population retums. In 1846 the number of families was· de~
termined, and in 1849 tlle distribution of the population by habitations.
In 1858 t11e persons of the two sexes, between sevcllteen amI forty-five
years of age, were returned in five classes. In 1861 the unmarried and
widowed \Vere speeially elassified. vVith the census of the same year
an inquiry into the linguistic relations, and the social eondition and
oeeupation of the popnlation \Vas eonnected. The Prussian eensus is
taken by civil offieers, in the month of Dccember, on one day, by means
of printed schedules. Great expeditioll is ShOW11 in the publication of
the census retums.


Besides the census, a great number of other interesting 1nquiries have
been made in Prnssia with gratifying results, partly at the instance of
the statistical bureau, and partly nnder the direction of the several de-
partments of the governmellt. Among the principal subjects inqnired
into are the natnre, extent, distribntion, movement, value, and indebted-
ness of real property; the numerical strength of the CatIlolic and Pro-
testant churches; wages and salaries; goods' traffic on railways; the
vitality and mortality of the civil and military population; assllranee,
mutual aid, and co-operative societies; commerce and industry. The
results of these special in quiries have aH be en made public, and rank
alIlollg the most creditable ac11tevements of statistical seíenee. The dif-
ferent eompilations on the snbject oi' real property, and more especially
those treating of the distrilmtion and agrieultural eharacter of real prop-




12 NINTH CENSUS.
ertYi thé statistics of wages alld salaries; the vital and mortnary
statistics, and the statistics of societies, deserve to be specially mentioned.
The statistical bureau, whose head, Dr. Engel, has a world-""ide repn-
tation for intelligent, original, and untiring industry, issues several
periodical pnblications, of which the "Statistical Year Book," tbe "Jour-
nalof Statistics," a quarterly, and the "Occasional Papers on Prussian
Statistics," are the principal ones.


Tbrough tbe efforts of Dr. Engel a statistical seminary was established
at Berlin some-years since, in ""hich youlIg mcn receive a regnlar educa-
tion in the theory and praetice of the science. lt is open to aU, natives
as ""en as foreigners, who prove themselves possessed of a certain degree
of general education. Dr. Engel, animated by the conviction that publíc
states can only reach a high degree of perfection when the intelligent
public co-operate with the government in the prosecution of statistical
inquiries, is now making strellUOUS cfforts to organize statistical societies
thl'Oughout the kingdom.


Public statisties are assiduously cultivated in al1 thc minor German
states. Nearly aU of them maintain bureaus of statistics, tbe cbiefs of
some of which are highly distinguished statisticians. Uuder tbese
bureaus statistical researehtl are earried on very methodieally. In most
of these states the censns is taken triennially under the regnlations of
the Customs Un ion, differing but little from the Prussian. In Bavaría
a spedal census is taken, besides the Cnstoms U nion eensus, every twelve
years.


In Austria the main object of public statistics, during the 11rst half oí'
the present century, was, as in the latter half of the last, the determina-
tion of the popnlation liable to military duty. In 1804 the conscription
system in the' western provillces of the empire, ntlrth of the Alps, ""as
newly l'egulatcd by imperial rescripto Each province was dívided into
thirty-six conscription districts i each district lnto a certain number of
sections, and again each section into other subdivisons. Although insti-
tuted fol' military ratller than for general administration purposes, the
conscription censuses, taken by virtue of the edict of 1804, became the
instrument fol' general ennmerations of the population, and for determin-
illg its movement during a given periodo They furnished the basis foI'
a classi11cation of the population by age, sex, family, social condition,
civil state, relig'ion, occupation, and legal and actual domicilc. In-
quides as to the number of dwellings and useful domestic animals were
likewise regularly connected with them. Printed schedules were used


, in obtaining the prescl'ibed data, which were collected by conscription
commissioners, consisting of milital'y, administrative, and municipal
officers aud the clcrgy in each territorial subdivisioll. The clergy were
especial1y charged with making returns from the civil registers. The
conscription lists were carefulIy rcvised at regular periods. The con-
scription proper took place at the beginning of eaeh solar year, and
continued for weelrs and even months.


Separate laws were in force in the ltalian provinces of the empire.
By the imperial decree of September 17,1820, each commune was re-
quired to prepare tabular statements of its population, including the
number and numercial reIatiolls of families, and the age, sex, civil state,
religion, und occupation of each member of the commune, together with
the marriages, births, deatbs, alld rcmovuls.


In the kingdom of Hungary and its dependencies the edict of 1804
did not apply. In 1802 the Diet enacted a law for a general enumera-
tion of the population ,,,ith specialreference to conscription. It exempted
the nobilityand clergy from enumeration. The civil authorities alone




NINTH CENSUS. 13
were to take tbe census. A general enumeration aeeordingly took place
in 1805, but it remained the only one under tbe Iaw of 1802, so that tbe
sourees of information relative to tho population of the kingdom during
tbe first balf of the celltury are very meagor.


In Transylvania amI tho terl'itol'y known as tbe military frontier sep-
arate systems of enumeration prevailed, with militar~' eonscription as
the main object. "


Tbe tendeney to ccntralization wbich cbaractcrized the governlllent of
the elllpire, after the opening of the revolutional'Y era of 1848, led to all
extensiou of the conscription census system oí' tbe western pro"duces
over the whole of tbe eastern part of tbe monarchy. A ullit(mn enu-
meration was made tbroughollt the elllpire in 1851, but its un satisfactory
results led 1,0 the appointrnent in 1855 of a cOlllmission, eOlllposed of
high administrative officers, and charged with thc elabomtioIl of a new
eensus law. The commission submitted a project of a law early in 18,')7,
which received the imperial sanction, aIld was soon anel' ofllcially pl'o-
mnlgated.The new law was a great impl'ovemellt upon the old system,
inasll1ucIl as it made the milital'y needs oí' the State no longel' the main
motive of public statistical inquirics, bllt l'ecognized their indispensa-
bility fol' the safe conduct of public aff\ül's genel'aUy. It pl'ovided that
a census should take place every six years. TIle enumeratiolls were to
comprise the population and the useful domestic animals, and were to
be conducted exelusively by the civil authorities.


Thc actual popnlation was to be thcoasis of tlle census. Printed
schedules were distributed by municipal and administrativo officcrs, to
be filled up by the heads of families, owners of tenement honses, amI
those in chargc of convents, schools, and pnblic institntiolls. Detailed
printed illstrllctions as to the filling up aCGompanied the scllcdnles.
Those that intentionally failed to furnish the desired information were
punished by fine and imprisonment. The schedules uscd in the eenSllses
taken nnder the law of 1857 called for information nnder the following
beads: Com])osition of familics including' servants, age, sex, munos an!1
titles, civil sta te, social cOllditioll, Teligion, oceupatioll, marriagcs, births,
and "deaths; tite 1Iumhor of cities, tOWllS, hamlets, villages, dwe1lings,
and rentors. Thc numbcr of Anstriall snbjects living in foreign parts
was ohtained through the imperiallegations. The census of the naval
amI military popnlation \Vas separatel,r taken by the pl'Opor antborities.


Up to 1828 no officia) organ oí' pnblic statistics cxisted i1l Austria. In
that year, however, a hurean oí' statistics was established b'y imperial
order. lts fnnction, as tIten defined, was to fUl'nish g()Yf~rllment with \
sllch statistical information as it might need for administratiyc pnrposcs.
The bureall \Vas attaelwd to tlle supremo court oí' control alld made Uf'e
mainly of the data obtained by the several authorities of eontroll'oporting
to tile COUl't; but aU departmf'utf' of the government were required to re-
spond to any calls fol' illfoI'matioll it rnight make UpOll tIlom." Yearly
1'eports of tilo management of publie affairs by the diff'erent ministries
were maue np hy tho bureau and cirenlated in official cireles, no general
puhlicity being givcn to them.


In 1840, in order to ,viden the range of public statistics ~nd to unite
their scientific with their f'imply administrati ve part, the" direction
of administrative statistics" was established. In 184-8 the chief super-
visor of publie statistics was assigned to tIle ministry oí' commercc and
~ublic works. A further statistical anthol'ity was subsoquently !lreated
iTI the Iorm of the "central statistical commission," whieh has had the
supreme g"nidance of the !lltire statistical serviee to this day. This
body is cOlllposed of the ablest officials connected with and representing




14 NINTH CENSUS.
tbe several ministries and ot11er central authorities. alld of men not di-
rectly connected with the go\-el'llment but eminent 'as statisticians and
econolllists. T11c commission has power to secure, in particular inquiries,
t11e services of specialists. The composition of t1le commission insures
a perfect understalldillg and t11orough co-operation lJetwcen it and the
great departments of t11e government. The "direction of administrative
statictics" serves as t11e executiye organ of t11c central commission, ex- ,
ecuting its ordcrs as to th8 manner 01' conducting statistical illqlliries
and oí' preparing their results for gcneral use.


The ccnsus returns collected b;r municipal amI administrative author-
ities are consolidated througb the central statistical organs. Tbe
published celUms reports show a stcady progresH in tbe IIIethod of the
successive enumerations. ln addition to t11e cellsus, lllany otller statis-
tical inquiries are carried on, UluIer the geuel'al direction of tbe statis-
tical authorities, anu' through the agellcy oí' tlle diffel'ent ministries.
Thns within tbe lust twenty ;years, statistics of laud anu water eOUlllllUlÍ-
cations, thc Ilistribution of real propcrt:r, of l'1ll'al ecoIlolll'y, (collected
lllainly through agricultural societies, organized through tlw efi'Ol'tR of
the goVel'llmellt in mORt of the proviuees,) of llliuiug aud lllanufacturing
industry and meehallieal trades, of internal amI external commerce, of
railways ancl telegraph lines, of sehools of every grado, of civil ancl
criminaljustice, have been amI are beiug careflllly collected.


The oflicial Htatisticalliterature of Austria Ilas nHaillecl very consid-
erable proportiolls during t11e last gelleratiou. The most voluminous
publication is the series of largo yolmnes entitled "Grauel Statistical
TabIes," and comprising t11e whole of the statistieaI infol'mation gath-
ered, relati ve to public adminiHtl'1ltion anu Rocial eeouoll1y in genera],
together wit11 cxplanatory texts. An abstraet of tlle large series in
convcnient form is printed every yea1', under t1le title 01' "Statistical
Aunual." A condeusation of this abstract fol' popular use is also pub-
lished, uuder tbe title of "Statistieal _Manual." The" StatiHtieal Com-
munication," a mouthly publieatioll, sen-es as the llerio<1ical ol'gan of
the Central Statistieal Oommission. The millistI''y (Jf eOlllll1el'ef\ prints
a statiRtical journal aH its own organ. Among t1le speeial publieations
of the statiHtieal authorities deseI've to be mentioneu, 1st. "TIte Btlmo-
grapby of thc Blllpire," consisting of a ehI'OlllO-lithographic ethno-
graphieal map of the mOllal'ehy, with a eomprehellsive text treatillg 01'
t11e history of the gOYerUlllellt, establishell religiolls, arts and seiences,
amI a topographical amI gpueral statistical dOi'>eription of tlle eountry,


1 and spocial 8tatistics showing tho distl'ibution oí" t110 differellt wltion-
alities OV8r the Anstl'ian territory. Sixteoll ;'Ieal'H \Yero oeeupied in the
preparation of this UBique wmk. 2d. _Al] elaborate. work deHel'íptive of
laud amI water üoullnunieatiolls. 3d. TIte Htat,isties of tlle iutemational
commerce on tho river Dallube, from its sources to its montll. 4th. An
indllRÍl'ial atlas in sixty-four sheets, s11owing" the distrilJutioll of maUll-
facturillg inünSÍl'iei'> oyer the empire. 5th. Tlle statisties of eomrner-
eial corporatious ami soeieties. 6th. The statistics of tho ox.po1't, illlllort
and transit trade 01' t11e empire.


One of t11e lllO¡.;t promisillg measures in the intcrcst of statistical sei-
en ce taken by thc Austrian gOYCI'lllllellt iR t11e establishment in the
capital of the empire of a statistical seminar,\', an iustitution fol' t1le
training of tho youllgel' ;ulmill¡8Íl'a1ive oflleers in tIle tbeory mHl pme-
tiee of public statistics. '.che i(lea of tllis Í1lstitution was ius]Jil'ed by
the similar s('hool in Berlín, aIread.)' referred too


As shown in the previouH ehapter, eenll11S takillg in Sweden is nearl,r
two hundred years old. To the sulJjeets oí' t110 iuquil'ie8 in tIle census




NINTH CENSUS. 15
as taken sínce 1775, there wel'e added, in 1804, the number of vaccinated
persolls; in 1821, the numbcr of first, second and tilird marriages, tile
age of the mal'ried, the number of legitimate ehildren deceased when
less tilan one yeal' 01<1, the lllunber of immigrants and emigl'ants; in
1831, tho llumber of marriages, births and deaths alllong all cIasses, tho
number of legitimate and illegitimate chilelren, still-born anel eleceaseel,
in their second and tilird year (by montils,) the number and age 01'
persons deceaseu in hospitals, asylurns and pl'isons, aml the Hlovcment
of the population not belollging to the established chnrch. A sepamte
census of the Laplanders and Fins is taken since 1805. The census for
the kingdorn at large is taken every five years by mcans of printed
schedules, through, as in past times, the jOillt agency of the ciyil and
clerical authoritieil. Tile governors of provinces are required to make
up statistieal suItulluries upon a variety of subjects not inclndeu in the
census, every fiye years.


Tile statistical cornlllission organized at Stoekholm in tlle last centul'y
continued to exist untiI1857, when it was superseded by the organiza-
tion of a central statistieal bnrean, chargeu with the sUlwrint{mdence
of popnlatiol1 statisties, and with such statistical inquiries as do not
come \vithin the seope of the seyeral ministries. A central statistical
commission \Vas aIso sllbsequentl,y organized, consisting of high fimetioll-
arieR attached to the differellt ministries, and chargeel with iusmillg the
uniformity 01' administrathre statisties, maintainillg the Ilecessary COIl-
nection betweell them, and making thern :1yailable for scielltitie aml
goYel'lllllent purposes. In tIle pursuit of these ends the COllllllission eo-
operates with the statistieal burean.


The offieial statistieal publications of Sweelen eomprise the long serios
of volumes containing, under the title "-~Iaterials fol' the Pu1Jlic Sta-
tistics of Swedell," the census returns proper as weIl as the l'esuIts 01'
in quiries into agrieuIture, millillg and manufaetnring industry, interior
ami exterior eommerce, public health, jndieial'Y, penitelltiar'y, telegraph,
railroad, and post ofliee statisties. The bureau of statisties also prints
a periodieal (~ntitled "Journal of Statisties."


In Norway a tloeenIlial eensus was instittltecl in 1815, amI eontinuetl
U}) to tilo presont time, comprising illquil'ies as to age, sex, eiyil state,
num ber of familieR and habitations, nsefuI dOlllestie anima1R, and the
territorial area 01' each distl'ict. A burean of statistics is in existence,
whieh attends to aH tho brauehes 01' oftieial statisties except those per-
tainillg to th!] admilliRtration oí' justiee, pnblie eüucation, anu financial
admillistration. Qninqnerlllial iuq lliries are made as to tbe eOlltlitioll of,
indnstl'Y. AllIlual exhibits are made up of bi1'ths, marriages, aud deaths;
of eommeree and nayigatioll, amI 01' the adrninistratioll of jm,tice antl
the population suffering from pbysieaI aud mental disabilities.


'rIle governors of pl'O\-inees are requiretl to make up qUlnquenllial
reports, as in Sweden. These, together with the regular ceusns retnrllS,
and all other material ohtained by the eivil authorities, are published
by the burean of statistics. The last census was takcn ÜI the tir:;;t days
of January, 18üü, by means of sehedu1es tilled. up in the cities and
towus by the pl'oprietor~ and lessees of buildings, and in the eountry
by tho teaehers of pri1l'íary sol1001s. Tile censns was nominative, and
eomprised the legal population.


In Spaill the goVel'IllIlent lmiel no attention to publie statiRties sinee
the eellSUS of 1798, Ulltil 18,)ü, when a eentral statistical commission
junta, cOllsisting of h1gh functionaries aml other eompetent persons,
W.lS organized nudcr the pl'esideuey of the prime minister, with power
to initiate statistical inquiries. Sirnultaneollsly sub-cornmissions were




16 NINTH CENSUS.
organized in each of the forty-ninc provinces, and in all the districts of
each provine e under the respective presidency of the chief administra-
tive officers. The provincial and district commissions were composed
of great landed proprietors, officers of the administration, and public
instructors. Their secretaries received regular salaries from the state.


With the aid of this net-work of statistical commissions, a general
census was taken in 1857. Being a new undertaking, its results were not
very satisfactory. Another ceIlfms followed in 1860, which furnished
more accurate returni. Since then a general census has been taken
every three years, comprising the following subjects of inquiry: name,
sex, age, birthplace, civil cOlldition, occupation¡ physical disahilities,
degree of edueation, school attendance, habitatlOns, and the aggrega-
tiol1s of'population in cibes, towns, villages, and hamlets. The censuses
are taken towards the close of the year, in the course of one night, by
government oflicials charged with the collection, verification, and con-
solidation of the retums. Their l'eports are revised and eonsolidated by
the district and provincial eommissions. A final reyision is made by
the central commission.


Other statisticalllabors have becn performed under the dircction of
the central COlllllli~ion, -including the statistics of scientific, artistic, and
literary societies, and of places oí' amusement, railroad statistics, and the
census of usefttl domestic animals. The cOlllmercial, industrial, and
other statistics are collected underthe direction of the several ministries.


The oflicia1 statistical publicatiolls comprise thecenslls I'eports alld t,he
results of the special inquiries mentioned. A" Statistical A1lnual" and
a" Statistical Almanac" are also published by the central cOlllInission.
In Cuba seyeral enumerations haye boon made in tho present oentury.


The original constitution of the federation of Switzerland required its
population census to be taken eyery twenty years. Tho constitutioIlS
of the several calltolls, however, required tIte cantonal governments to
prepare periodioal statistical exllibits foI' the legislat,ive authorüies.
These exhibits, which have becn rendcred in some of the cantons foI'
generations, were not remarkable-for either acouracy 01' comprehensive-
ness in former yeal's, but they haye steadily improvetl in (:harader, and
of late years have even attained a high degree of perfection. They trcat
of population, pauperisrn, and financial, judiciary, medical, and ecluca-
tional statistics.


A law enacted by the federal assembly in 1860 prescribed a decennial
census for the whole foderatiou, and institllted a fedpral hureau 01' sta-
tistics, uncler the direction of the Interior Department. Tile labors of
this hureau are annually prescribed by the federal council. In sorne of
t11e cantons separate statistical bureaus are attachcd to the cantonal
governments.


Tho first census lindel' the new law was taken in 1860. The inquiries
included sex, age, civil condition, origin, 'birth-place, domicile, religion,
lallguage, physical disabilities, immigration, the distributioll oí' real pro-
perty, au!! tho numher of families, hahitatiolls aud ot11er lmildings. The
statistical bureau is endeavoring to extelld the range 01' t11e cellsus, but
finds its eff(u'ts sornewhat impetled by the difticulty of dealing with
twenty-fiye cantonal governments.


The cantonal statistics collected by tho local governments are con-
solidated amI published by the central burean. The 1atter is elldeavor-
ing to give a more national character to the statistical sel'vice. Until a
few years ago, the difterellt cantoIls f(¡llowed (liffel'ellt methocls in the
coHection oi' vital and mortnary statistics, but at the instnnce oi' the
bnrean they have now adopted a uniform plan.




NINTH CENSUS. 17


In 18(W tlle central lmreau initiated the censns of liye stock, and later
collected Ycry fnlI iltatisties oí' raíl \VayA, Ra \'ÍngR lJallks; amI fire insnr-
ance cOlllpanies.


Tilo lmlk of tlle olidal statü;tical publicatiolls of Switzerland eonsistR
of tIle cellsns reports. Valuaulc compilatiolls oí' fillalleial, commercial,
and industrial statistics, alHlmollographs ou forest culture, mines, 1IUU-
Hc works, mil\nLy:-; amI tdegraphs, pub1ic health, ('i"il alHt cl'iminaljns-
tice, prisolls, beneyolent institntio11s, tire insul'ance compunies, sayings
uanks, ll111tnal aid societies, wages of ,rorkingmen, and fIle diffel'ent
branehes of public instrnetirlll, ha,n~ also bce11 publishcd by tIte federal
go\'el'.llll1ent, t11e statistieal burean, amI the cantonal anthorities.


J n Be1ginm, ill keeping wiiJh the el1ameter oí' tl1at State as Olw of tIle
most progressiye in Elll'Ope, pnbIie 8tatistics 11<1\-c bcen carefnlly fos-
tered 8\'el' sil1ce the reyolntion which made t118 kingdom an illlIepend-
cnt SOYcl'cigllty. Olle oí' tlw til'st ads of the proYisiollal gOVCl'Umellt in
1831 ,,-as the ercation oi' a spceial statistical 881Tice. In ISH a emltral
COllllllissioll of statistics was establü.,]¡e<l by royal dem'pe, with which }l.
Qnetclct amI otht'l' (listillglliRhefl statistician8 llaye bcen conueeted from
its ol'gnllizatioll. In ISJ::; proYÍlIdal statiRtieal eOlllllliRsiollS were i11sti-
tute(1 throngllont t110 ki ngdolll. In IS;"í(j a law ,yas cnaeted lle,rly reg-
ulatillg tllC mode of taking tJ¡e eellsn:s aud keeping' tlle ei vil registers.
lt lmwided that a general ccnsus sllOuld he taken cycry ten .yP~lI's
thl'ongllOnt tllP killgrlOIll, and tllat tIte popnlation retnrns should form
tlle basis of represputation. The cemms ,ras to be taken in sneh a mau-
ne1' as to give the actual aR well as the legal populatioll. The presel'ibed
inquil'ies illcllHled R dl'WlllleS amI Christian name8, spx, age, by yPÚl' ancl
lllonth, hirth-place, ch-il state, occnpation 01' eonditioll, lwhitnal domi-
eil<~, ami tOWIl amI country pOllulatiOI1. Tltree schednle~, printerl i1l tite
Freneh, Gorman, all(I FImnish l11llguagps, were distributed amI collcded
throughont tIle kiug'(lolll by special CCllRllS agellts. Both t11e distl'ilm-
tiOll U1l<l eollcetioll Wf~re to be llIalle in onc duy. Te 1lI poral'y eellsns bu-
reans were ('i'it1l1..lIisho<1, 0110 fol' eaeh lH'ovinee, '" hieh were to reeeinl the
retlll'llS 01' tlw agt'llts after the) hall 1WP1I revised by tho eommnnal
.inries-bodici'i llppointe(l fol' ('adl eOll1mullity amI eOllsistillg' of off1cialR
amI private citizells. TIte stati.es of sehoolR amI pllblic institutiol1s
were takcn by IllpallS of Rpe(~ial seheclnlcs. The military antllorities
\Yero charge<l with tllü army cenSllS. Tile l'efllSal Lo give infOl'lllatioll to
the cellsmi agellts wa8 lllluishable by 11Iw alH~ iUlprisomnent. The law
of 1836 aIRO eOlltaÍlwll proyisiom; l'egarding tho keepillg' oi' civil régis-
ters, which iusurcd grcat accul'acy in the reeording' of thc movernent of
the poplllation.


Two general eellsuses kln~ ueen talcen undel' tIte law of 1856, one in
that year a~ld anothcr in 18GG. In the !atter, eomprehensin in quiries
into tlle agrieultural, millillg, alJ(I man.nfactul'ing' industries of the killg-
dOIll were matIc. In 18;";8 a special census of deaf mutes and blilld was
taken. The eentral staiistieal eOlllluission rcceh-es the returns of tIle
successive eensuses, yüal'ly ahstracts fmm the eivil I'pgistcrs, and tlle
resnlts of special inquiries, awl prepares tlle wholn for publieation.


The ministries oi' tite interior, of tilla !Ice, of pnblie works, of justice,
and of public illstruetion, institutü periodieal inquiries in tbeir respective
departmellts.


TIle official statistieal literatlll'e of Rdginm is Yery voluminous and
distingnished for its scientific character. lt comprises the censns re-
ports proper, periodieal a.ceo.llntR.o.f the moyement ~f !he population,
and tlle results of all specmImqull'les. Current statIstlcs, eollected in
the intervals between the general eensuses, are published by tho cen·


H. Rep. 3-2




18 NINTH CENSUS.
tral Rtatistical commission, in a series of yolumes, under tite title of
"Bulletin~." Thel'e appears also a sort of statistical almanac.


K o census ,,"m; taken sillce tlle close of the eighteelltIl celltm'y in the
count!'y now fonnillg the kingdom of the Netherlands nntil the close of
the third decade oí' the nineteenth., The goyernment of the killp;dom
fonnded a bureau of stath:;tics in 1R26. UlHler its direetioH the fil'Rt 01'
the deeellnial cemmses, decreed about tIle same time, was taken in 1829.
The lmreau eeased to exist in 1830. Frolll that yeal' up to 1848 the col-
leetion of statisties in tlle king{lom was perfOl'llled lIlaiuly hy tIle RO-
eaUed permanent depntatiolls in the difi'erent provinccs. The seeond
decennial censm; was taken nnder tlw direction oC tIle governors of tIle
provinces. In 1848 the governll1{mt cl'eated two statistieal lHlreaus,
one attached to tIte minist1'Y of the interior, alld the other to the minis·
try oi" finan ce. In 1850 ami 18;n la \VS were ellaeted preReribing the
formatioll of a bureau of' statistics in·eaell pro,-inee, but tite organiz,L-
tion of the prOYillCial hureaus was llOt cOlllpleted llntil1858, since when
they llave heen in successful operation throughont tIte kingdolll. In
185D a central statjsheal cOUlmission was created by the goVel'lllllellt,
which has existed to this dlly. ThongIt lJOluillally subordinated to tIte
minjstl'Y of the interior, it really exercises perfectl;y ilHlepellllellt fune-
tiOllS. It js anthol'ize!l to call UpOll aU tIte ministries, allcl municipal,
amI administrative atHhorities ge,llern 11,'1', fol' statistical illformatioll, and
muy suggest statistieal illquiries to the seYeral departlllents of the gov-
ernment.


In the censns as now coudueted, illquiries are made as to name, Rex,
age, hirth-placc, ci...-il state, professioll, occupatioll 01' cOllllitioll, ]l11,\'sical
disahilities, religioll, lllunberoffami1ies, and ItabitatiouR. The inU1ates oi
hospitals, allllshouses, prisolls, s("Itools, aud public illStitutious genemllr,
are separatel,y ellnmerated, as also tIte arm,v and navy.


As in Illost otlJer continental eonntries, tlle seyeral {lepartlllellts of tIte
goverumellt of tIte ~et}lprlallds regularly carry Oll special statistical in-
quiries witIlin their respeetiYc ofticial sphe1'f's.


The ofticial statiRtical publicatiolls oí' tIte :N"et1wr]amls eompriRe tIte
eenslls reports amI cOlH1ellsatiOlls from them, by tIte central statistical
bureau; aIlllual reports of the 1lI0YCmellt oí' the POpulatiOll, allel t11e sta-
tistics (Jf schools, eltaritable illstitutions, puhlie ]walth, civil alHI eriminal
jnstice, agricnlture, eommel'ce, illdllstry, publio works, alld public
finanees.


In Denmark a central cOlllll1ission of statistics was created in 1833,
ehal'ged with the publication of pnhlie statistics. lt consisted of dis-
tinguished rnemhel's nf tIte different bra11ches of the administration.
The commission publiRhcd, betwpell 18;;8 ancl 184D, a series oi' eighteell
large YOIUlllf'S, containing an the statistical illümllation collected by
administratiYc authOl'ities. In 18W, the eommission was supersetled hy
a central bureau 01' statistics, eOlllpm,ed oí' se ven members, whieh has
been continued up to this time.


A general popnlatioll cellSUS has been taken every five years in Den-
mark, since 1835. The mo,"emtmt oí' the population is ascertained hy
rueans of civil registers. Enumerations of liye stock have been repeat-
edly made. Agricultural, COllllnel'C'ial, financial, real estate, and crim-
inal statistics reeeive regular attentio11 amI pll blicatioll. Special inquiries
have been made regunIing highways, savillgs bal1ks, suicides, allll other
subjects. AH tIle material collectetl is puhlished ullder the general title
of " statistical tables."


In tIle early part of the nineteentll century a good deal of attention
was naid to public statistics in Italy, by tIte :Fl'ench rulers. In the




NINTH CENSUS. 19
kingdolll of Italy, estabIished by Xapoleon, the serYice oi' admillistrative
statistics waH reg111ul'Iy organized anrl yielded SOllle valnable reslllts,
whieh haye beea IH'eserYf>d. After the cntting up oi' the Peninsular,
npon the restoratioll of 181;3, into (li:ifel'ellt sowu'eignties, little was done
in the intel'est of pl1blie statisties i'or a generatioll in auy of the Halian
States. In SanIinia, Killg Clmrles Albert, at the beginlling' of 11is reign,
institllted a commission oí' statisties, "hich vnlS followed by the orgalli-
zation of thirty-sfwen suh-eollunissions, eorresponding to the politieal
dhisions of the kingdolll. Tltese bodies were ehal'ged with the collec-
tion of puhlie statistics, ineludillg the ceustu; oi' the populatioll. The
results oi' theil' lahors ",ere pnblished in extenso in four large volumes,
nnder the hile of " Statistical Tntelligenep," alld in periodieal eondellsa-
tions of tIle contents of these, un del' t11e names of "Gelleral Calendar,"
and "Statistieal AnIlual." In Tnseany, tlle goyernment ereated a statis-
tieal bureau in 1848, ehal'gerl "ith tlle collpdion, elassifieation and pub-
licatioIl oí' doeuments relatiye to commerce amI industr,r. Up to that
time ¡mblic statisties liad been cllltiyated in the Granel Duchy only, by
a11 assoeiatioll of tIte sanmts, indcppndcnt oí' tIte gOYel'llllHmt. In 1849,
a statistical seetioll was organü;ecl in the minhltry of finance allcl charged
with inquiries as to ]1o]1ulation, topograpIty, indllstry, amI publie aelmin-
istl'atioll. Additional meaEinres, ealcnlated to makc the serv-iees of pub-
lic statistics more effieiput, ",ere taken by tIte goYernmeut. No regular
censns appears to lutye becn taken ; lmt tIte lml'eau oí' statisticEi published
HlIllllally statistical exhibitEi, derÍ\~ed froltl t11e civil registers and other
sonrcps oí' tIte popnlati<Hl, elat'iEiified by eomumncs and families, anel
according to social eowIítion, amI religioll. Tlle publieations oí' the
b1ll'enn abo illeludecl tlle rNllllts 01' inquiries iuto the physieal, industrial,
alld eormnercial reSOl1l'ces oi' tIte t'(mlttl'~' and otIler minor subjeetEi. In
tIte kiugdom of tIte T\\"o Sieilies, tIte Pontifical States, amI Parma, a
statit'itieal ;;el'viee mm alt'io organizml after 1S48. In tile last Ilallled States
its functiolls "ere Yery limite(l. In tite kingdolll oí' tlle Two Sieilies a
statistÍ<:al (~OIt1lllil-;sioll wal-; ol'ganized undel' tile millistry of the interior,
witlt the snb-eoltllni;;sio!li-; in tite Hcn>I'lIIlH'o\'inces anddistricts. Tlll'ough
t11etie organs statisties were eolleeied l'elative to t11e popllhtion, public
illHtl'lletion, pnblie ehal'it,Y, criminal justiee~ penitentiary establis11ments,
agricnltul'e, imlustry am1 eomllwrce. Hut the rhtta t11m; ohtained wel'e
intellded merely for goyermncnt purposes, amI fewoí' them rcceived
pnhlieiiy.


TIte modern kiqgdom of Italy was 110 8001ler eonstitnteu, in COIlSC-
quence of tIte eyeuts oi' 18':;1l and 1860, than tlle government of Victor
Emanuel eEita blishetl a sel'yiee oí pnhlie stlü,isties, after tIte best modern
models, whieh 80011 attailled considerable efficiency. A bnrean of 8ta-
tistics was ereated, of \yhiel! Dr. P. }Jaestri, a well-kllown Eitatistieian,
became tIle ehief. TIte lmrean was g'iyell ample powers,_ amI displayed
at once great aeti\'ity. Gnder its c1irectioll the first general cellSUS of
tIte kingdom, whieh was to fOl'm tIte lmsis oí' l'epl'eSelltation in the
llational parliament, too k placE' OH DeeembeT 31, 1Hm, by yirtue of a
law preseribing deeellllÍal g-elleral enumerations. The eensus was taken
by municipal ancl administrative offi("ers in one (Iay, by mealls oí' pl'e-
yionsly distribnted Eiehednles, calliug for information under the follow-
ing heilds: actual populatioIl hy age, sex, eiyil sta te, and domestic rela-
tiOllS, families, habitatiolls, and placps oí' nutiYity, religion, language,
pIl,rsical and mental inf]rlllitieEi, oeeupation, emigratioll and immigra-
tiOlI; aggregations of population hy eOIIlIllunes; ag-gregations oi' habi-
tatiolls. The eensns returns obtained under tlle general dil'ection of
the burean of statistics, through tIle agencies of prefects, sub-prefects,




20 ~INTH CENSL'"S.
mayors aud otIler officials, "ere reyisCfI by local comll1i~;;iollS appoilltl'd
thl'oughont tlw killgtlOlll, ,nHl eom;olü1atell 111 el'H~n:-; lmn'HIlS tt'lllporn-
rily establisherl in eycry province, amI Iwel''y sub-diyisioll oí' ('a di
IH'Oyi!wfl. 'file CPIlRllS l'Cl'Ol't aR pllbli"ltPll eOll1IH'i"PR t]¡l'(~n lal'g'p YOImlH''',
A scparate recon1 of tIte 1I1oyelllent of tlte poplllatioll \ya:-; cOlllpiled fl'olll
the cenRllS data.


Sitwe 1861 tlH~ ltalian hUl'l'lIn of RtatiRti('s 11m; lll'os('cntetl special ill-
qniries relatiye to Jnntnal aid :-;oeictieR, ~ayingR banks, pnhlie chal'itieo-;,
intluRtrial corporatiollíl, elementlll'Y, higlter and tt-e1l1lienl instl'uction,
lihl'al'ie:-;, aJl(1 gelleral amI Illllllicipal ('lpdinllR. rflte l'p¡mlt¡.; ot' all the;;p
im-estigations, some of whieh w"ere \-el''y eIaborate, are 1l0W in pl'illt.
OtllPr statistical publieatioIls, bl'ougltt ont lllldl'r tlH' anílpieeR oC tllP
ro~-al goyernment, dUl'illg' the ]¡tílt 11i11e yearR, i11tlnlle a (lietio11ary uf all
the eOllllllunes of the king'dolll; t11e :-;tatisties oí' i:liJk ilJ(lnstr,r, lIayig'a-
tioTl, illternal mal exterllaI (~Ollllllel'(~p, ilJ(lnR!l''y in g'p11pl'al, silk illdllst 1',)",
agricultnre, Tmlways, lJORral scrdec, telegra]lhs, gellNal antlcOlllltlUllal
fint1nCeíl, ]luhIie healLh, amI otlH'r }lllH~ef; 01' lI'íltiollnl li!'t'.


In France SOllle im]Jorbmt ehallgl's were ma(k in the NelTiee (Ji' pnblic
statiRtics befol'c tlle downfall oi" tlle nrst repnblie. A la \1' rc([nil'illg the
prcfpdR of (lppm'tlllPuts to preparc frOlll tbc (:h-il registprs cxad auuual
ahstraets of tho lllllllber of 1l1111'l'iages, hil'ths :tJI(1 (lt,llth:-;, wellt into fOl'I'('
at the close of thc centnr,\". TItis law has obtainctl np to tllo ])l'('Rcnt
time. I11 ]801 tllp 1egislatiyü jlO\\('l' !lecrepll tltat llatiollal cellsmw~,
whicll lllltil tIlcn ha<1 heell ta];:.'ll allllllalIy, íll101l1d take place onlyen'l''y
fin'\ years. '1'hp next ('('n SUR aftel' that year \YaR COllselluently taken in
180G. No otIler ,,-no-; malle lllldpr tIte fil'st. XHpoI(,Ol1Ü~ l'{>gilllP. Thp lIpxt
general emuneration took place o1l1~' ,;ix years aftel' tho filia] rcstoratioll
of the RourbollS. SiJl(~e tllllt. yeal' quilHlll!~llllial (~ellílll"es have heen tllP
rnle. In tIle census oí" 182G, howen:r, HO adllall'numel'atioll \Vas lIlalle;
1mt the popnlatioll was ('OJtlputpü by aÜIlillg to t!J(' lllllnlH'r aseertailled
for 1821, the cxeCRR oí' hirths OH'r lleatllR i11 tIa' fiyt' illtel'YellÍllg ,H"aI':-;.
In 183G the eowms \Yas talwn b~-llleallíl or iJl(liYi(lnal :-;e]wlll1leíl, i11 wllÍeh
tlle age oi' each lJ(,l'¡,;oll was fol' tIle nl'st tillle ealled fin>, l~]l to tbat
time OJlIy tiJe ll'gal pOPlllatioll had UPPll ase(,l'laÍlH'.l, hnt in 1841 the
actual popnlatioll heeame the bao-;is of the ('/'1IS11S. Snhseqlwlltly a
syRtem oí' ellUlllPl'ation \Yas adopted \yhose olded it j" to flll'lli"h lIH'allS
for deducing' tIte legal frolll tIte ,)(~tllal populatioll, huí; which ha8 1I0t
worked to the satisJ'action of tlle leadin~' Frl'neh stati:-;tieians. Unller
it t11e llopnlatioll is eOllsi<lerpr! aR conílisting oi' two dasses: a floating,
cOlllprisillg the military, the illlWltl':-; oí' ]l1lhlie an<l pl'iyato edlH~atiollal
eRtabIishments, aud oi' penal amI ebarita blo illStitutiollR, the mem bel's
of religious on1e1'';, llolitieal I\xilefl. awl a fp\y otll(~r enteg'ol'ies; alld a
resideIit, eomprising 1>ot11 regular aml Íl'allílit'l1t sqjOH!'llel'íl 1I0t illduded
in the rtoating. In pmctiee it has been fOlllld <1iffieult to appI,v tIJis diR-
tillction. Tho "tloati11g" pOPlllation i" ellllllH~l'ated OH a ilxed day by
the aut110rities exerei:-;illg a direet e/mtl'ol OH'l' it; tIJe "l'esi<lellt" h,Y
municipal oflieel':-;, \yitIlill a llrPRcl'ibell11erio(l eOyerillg somc weekR. The
emplo'yment of municipal offieel's aR enumera t 01'8 is (,ollsic1Ned cleÍl'i-
mental to tlle aeellracy 01' the CeJlsns, o\Ying to the IeY,Ying of eedaia
general taxc,; 011 tIw 1>asi:-; oí' llOplllation, ,,-llÍeh fOl'ms a coustallt tempta-
tiOll to loeal offieials to make ineorred l't'Ílll'IlS. The wlmt of a speeial
consns law-tht' takillg oí' t11e general ce1l811S i8 proyided foI' by decrcps
of executiye powcr-illtiietillg' 11l'O}lPl' llPllaltieN fin' intelltümal iwwcma-
cieR, i8 also considered as telldillg to (Il'trad t'I'OIl1 the eorreet11ess a]](l
compleümess of the retums. Tite traditiollal time for takillg the ceuslls~
the months oi' }\Iay aud J11l1e, i:-; likewise eOllsidered ullfa HJrable. The




N1NTH CENSUS. 21


Celll'lllS is lwrsounl amI llon1ÍllaLive. 'l'ltf\ data l'e~plÍred, which are ob-
tained b,r c1il'ect applieatioll of the ecmms takcn, eomprise surnames
alld Chritltüm 11:mWtl, se x, age, eiyil stnte, birthplaee, oef~npatioll, 1'eli-
gion, dcgree of iustrnetion, and inTIl'lflitit's of eyt'l'y description. At
times ütltpl' sulJjüds (jf illl)uir,r, snüh as the proportion of tbe rural to
tIte tOWII pOlmlation, loeal diRea;;eR, the lltlUllwr of lHlUsehol(18, inhab-
itcdallllllllinhabitnd llOllse,~, lmil<Jing's in eourl'le of cOllstrnctioll, and
live ilt.oek, lmve heen eOlllleeted with the eellSllS.


Htati8tics relatillg to pO}Julation arf' derin'(1 in Fl'anec ti'om otIler differ-
ellt "'omoes. AHlOUg' tltese are the eiyil registers, whieh'are kept wiLh the
greaÍt\st a('(\1lraey, amI fnnüsll aU paltienlars of lürtlu" lllalTiages, alld
dt'atlls. The yearl,r reeruitltLent also affm'(ls a periotlieal Ruppl,r of val-
nable physieal auíllllentall'itatit-;tic". Siue!' 184:3 the number and llature
of C:LSt'1'i of mental abcrratioll is made the suhjed of an allllnal illqniry.
S]lccial ellumeratiolls 0[' tite iUlllatt's of pablie eharitable institntions
amI penal (~~tahlislJltlellts are a1,,0 mado once a ,year. Charitable ai"SO-
eiatiolls of e\Tl'y deseriptioll, lift' alllmity imml'anne eompanies, saying's
b:lll ks, amI pnblic pawn-houses, m'l' ealled 011 yearly for statistical de-
taiI.~ of tlH'ir opel'ationR. Tlle judicial HlliltOl'ities are rü(pül'e¡] to fllmish
crimina] statisties year]y.


rJ'J¡e general sel'\~i(~e o'f pn hIle statisties is diyided Hlllong seyeral tle-
partlllPlIts of the go,-erJllIH~!lt. The JlliIli~try of tllC interior has cllaI'g'e
oí' tite )lopulation cPlIsns aJl(l the ciyil registers. A statistieal bureau is
attaehed to tIte lllillistry of fillallee, ",hose fuudiollS :11'<', howcy('l', COll-
filled to fOl'C'ign eOllllllerce. Sillee 183J a general stati"tieal burean has
l)pon ¡JI cxistellee. It i" suhonlillatet1 to tlle ministry of eommeree, alHl
elJarged \\'i111 the eolieetioll alld llresenatioll of all ofheial stati"t.ieal pub-
licatiorlS at home allll abroad. lt l¡a,~ llO })O'.\-er to illitiate statistieal
ill([niries. Tlw Í1ltitiatiye in sneh belongs, aeeordillg to theil' lla.tnrq, to
tht' "e'-('1';[l lllinil'ltries.


IlllS;¡:2 stati:,;til'al cOlJlIuis"iom; \yen' erented [01' caeh cantoll in eaeh <le-
partlllent. Tlle lll(']ll heril of these cOlllllJisRiollS are ]ltnninated hy tIle pre-
Ü'c:ts. The eOllllllis:,:iollS tlH~lllspln'l'i are lli,-icll:d into snlJ-eollllllissiollS fol'
('aeh eOllllnmlP il1 tlw emltoll, chal'ged with t11e 1l1'OSPclltioH of periodieal
iWluirieR l,pariug npo]] agl"ieultl1l'e and iudiltlt¡'y, by means of sehedules
flll'llislIC<1 by the g'oYerIlitwut. The retnrllS oí' the sub-eollllllis~iollS are
~'ml\jL'eted to l'evisio!l, tlrst hy t11(' cantonal COllllUissiollS, amI afterwanl
by the sllh-pl'eft'ets all<1 ]lrefeets, beüln~ t}¡Py are tranSlllitted to tlle ceu-
tral anthorities.


Partly throllgh t'.l(; agelle~- of the cantonal eOllllllis~ion, and partIy
throllgh tilo separa te aetion oí' tIle sen'ral millistries, thorough statistieal
iuycstigatiolls, in ad(litioll to tllO"e eOllneeted with the popnlation cen-
suseil, aro lllade at regular alld irregular illten~al:s, relative to industry
in gelleral, alt<1l~liltillg amI llletallnrgie illdnstry in spe(~ial; operatiyes'
and meehanies' wages, agl'ienltllre, disasj-,pl's affeding agricultural inter-
ests, land and water eOllllllUllieatiolls, foreign alld c10mestie eommeree,
alld general, üepartmolltal, a na munieipal finanees.


The records of tIlc plltire statistü'al sPITiee are regnlarly published.
Tlle eatalogl1e of tlle puhli('atiolls i~Slle(1 np to this time has already at-
tailletl such proportiolls tltat it would lpacl too far to ellumerate thern.


As stated in tlw preeedina: chaptcI', een:sn8-taking was illaugurated
in Gl'eat Britain by tlte pastmge, OH necember 31, IS00, oi' tbc aet of
l'mJiumcllt ordailling H gpueral enumeratiolt of thc population oi' Eng-
l:llld, 1Vales, and Scotland in the spring of the following year, and
en~r,r ten years thereafter. AecoI'dingly 1.11e til'st ccnsns was taken on
the 10th oí' JUareh in England and 1VaIes. FoI' Scotland, a later day




22 NINTH CENSUS.
"as assigned, owing to the inclernency oí the season. This first cellSUS
ineluded the sex, but uoí the age, oí' aH tho subjeets; the numher of
farnilies, and a clai'ii'iification of the popl1lation acconling to occupatioll,
in three diyii'iions: 1st. Peri'ions chietly employed in agricultlll'e. 2d.
Persons chietly ernplo,yed in tl'ade antlmHllllfaetures; 01' handieraft. :>d.
ÁH otIler persons not coniprised in thei'ie two classes. In tIto two sub-
seqlwnt enurnerations, in 1811 and 1821, the same plan was foIlowed, ex-
cept that the oceupatioIls of the hoads of families ollly ,,-ere elltered. In
that oí 1821, a quinquenllial and decellllial classification of ages was
also adopted. In 11:)3G, a uniíol'lll systorn oí registratioH of bil't]¡s, mar-
riages, and deaths wai'i established by act of Parliament for Ellglalld
aneI vYales, under the snpel'yision oí the registol' gOlloral's offiee. U ndor
the act, the territory to which it applietl waR diyifIetl iuío oyer two
thousalld registration districts. The same act provided tIlat tIlo subse-
quent ellumerations in Englalld amI '\ValoR should ho takoll b,y the local
registrars, unelor the di1'ection of tIle registrar general. 1'110 el'eation
of a regular statistical service greatly facilitatcd the ccnsus of 1841 in
Englalld alld '"Vales. In Scotlallll the less efti<~ü~llt lllpth()(l oí' t~Ulplo.r­
ing the pal'is1l sehoolmastcn; as local eCllsors continnell.


In Irelalld the first attempt at a gClleral eensus was made in 1811,
with very unsatiRfhetol'y n~slllts. lt was repeated in 1821, but pl'oduced
nothipg lmt a mere enumeration of donbtful aecllracy. The llext eOllsus,
taken in 1831, was subjected to a corroction in 1831. In 1841, oOllstalm-
lary force was emplo'yed aR CCIlSllS takcrs ~\YitIt bettel' rCi'iulls. ÁH at-
tempt was made, in cOllnection witIt tIle censns of tIte ,Y0ar last lHuned,
to obtain statistics of the rural ecollollly of t11e lrü,h killgdolll, ,vItieh
proved very snccei'isful.


Great efforts were made to render the sixth eemms of Englalld, '\Vales,
and Scotland, in 18tH, superior in l'e¡-;nlts to tlte pl'ceedillg enumera-
tions. The speciallaw enactetl for tho pUl'[lose })l'ovided that the cellsns
sIlould be taken on olle alld the same da\-the 31st of lUarcIt-in tIte
thI'ee parts of tIte killgdolll nmnetl. Fol' t'ímt pll1'pOSO :30,ül0 competent
enumerators were appointed, ,,-ith tbo anthority of the registrar gelleral,
by tbe 2,190 district registrars thell in fUlwtioll in l~llglalld amI ,"Yales.
Only as nmeh territoI'.)' was assigned to each ell1llllel'ator i11 t11e regis-
tration districts as conlel be cOllveniently callvassed by one persono
There being no unifoI'lII system of l'eg-iRtratioll Ül 8cotlaIHl, 1:he 32
sheriffs of that kingdom ,,'ere authorized to appoint 1,010 tompol'ary
registrars-gellerally paroehial schoolmaRters-and 8,1:>0 enu:merators.
257 enumerators wero appointed hy tlle goYermnellt for the smaller
islands. Some days before tIte cellSUS day, the enumerators lleliyered
to every occupicr of 11 honse 01' tonomeut a" hOlu-;ellOlder'" schedule,"
contailling illqniries as to t1le llaIUe, relatioll to lll'all oi' fmnily, comli-
tion, sex, age, occllpation, and birthplace of eyel'y pel'soll in Gl'eat
Britain, and also as to t110 llumber oí' hliud, deaf, and tlumb. For tIte
use oí tIte lower classes of ,Yales, schedulei'i woro prillted in '\Velsh.
The schedule was to be filled up in tIw llight of March 30-31. No
one present on that lligltt was to llfl omitted exeept workillg llHm, amI
others períorming night labor away from their habitations. Travellers
were enumerat.ed at the hotelR amI housefl al which they arrivell 011 the
following rnorning. Sirnultaneonsly with tlw llOuseholll scltellnles, tIte
enumerators distributecl in tIlo proper quartcrfl forms for collecting in-
formationrespecting places oí' \Yorship, scholastic; eRtabIisluneuts anll
rniscellaneo\U! institutions.


TIllO schedttles were takell np hy the ennmerators at Hn early 1\0111' 011
thc 31i'it oí M~lt. The coHectors filled up those parís which pe1'so11s




NINTII CENSeS. 23
hall eitlwr ncglected 01' were ullable to filI. They were also required to
note all tIle uuoccnpit,¡l honses amI building's in course of construction.
Tho floatillg population-that is, such peisons who spent the llight
!lamed in barges 01' llOutfi, on eanals 01' SltlaU streams, in barns, sheds,
tents, amI tlle like-the enmnerato1's were 1'equirecl to estimate accord-
ing to t1le best inforlllation they could obtaill. Specialllotico was to be
taken of all extraonlillaI''y assemblages of people an;ywhe1'e at tbe
time of t1lc census.


TlIe onumerators were allowed ono week for tIle trauficription of their
scIte(lnles amI t1le completion oi' summa1'ies amI estilllates called i'or in
their Yory i'nll illstrnetions. The reyision of the returns by the distl'ict
registrarfi, in ,,-llieh tlw latter ",ere to pay particular att(~lItioll to ]lino
Hl'eeial1y <lt'finel1 points, had to be eomplcte<l in a fortllight. The revised
retul'llS \Yere subjeeted to Hllother royision uy the "snperilltendent
1'f'gi8trar8" bef()l'(~ tlH'y \Yere nnally trallslllitted to tlw censns oftico.


1'lIe cllstom-hollse ofticcrs took tlle cellsns oi' sea-goillg vesseIs in port.
PersOIls belongillg to t11e lJa,YY amI cOllllllereial marine were aIRo sepa-
ratPly Plllllll(~ratel1 by tIte ]lroper anihorities. The govürnmcnt f'urnished
tIte statisties ofthe al'lil~", half-pay offiet~rs, amI pcnsioners; t118 eh-il Rer-
Yi<~e; tlw ci\'ilialls alld Enl'opemls in tIte East !Julia Company Heryice,
amI of a 11 111'itis11 HLüljeets li dng in i'oreign parts, as far as theyeonId
be aseertailled tItrough consular alld diplomatic organR.


Tlw Britis11 eemms 01' ]¡;¡n \Yas tIJe; 1II0st sncccssfnl statisticaI opera-
tiOll, both as reganIs (luickness amI accuracy of executiol1, per[ormed
11P to tltat time in auy COllllÜY w llere public I'ltatil'lties were cultivatcd.
Tll(~ plan oí' the CellSl1S of IS(il tlid 110t Yary in UlI,Y esselltial respocts
íi'01ll tItat oí' the precedillg one. lb; executioll was equally rapid alld
fl'l1iHnl oí' Ratil'lfador,Y results, in Rpite of the greatcl'(lifficlllty oi' tIte task
frolll thc growth of populatioll, &c.


In IrolaJul tilo eemmseR 01' 1851 amI IS6l \Yere aguin taken by the
cOlista lHllal'y tOl'ee. Tite lll()(le of cnlllneration was essentially the sallle
as in Ellglaml, cxcept tlmt t11e schedules repreR!'nted a widel' neltl of
ÜHluil'y. Tite allditiollal illtcl'l'ogatol'ies relatL'tl to illsall1ty, üIioey, de-
gl'ec of edncatioll, atteJl(lance at sehool, buildings other t11an habita-
tions, amllanguage. Sinee 180± a gelH'l'al regisíration of births alld
deat1ts ill In'lamI i8 matle by eiYil offieers; np to tbat time registers were
kept 0111,'1 for the protesbmt population.


\Vhile botlt in lrPlalHl all<l ill S(;otlalld an agTicuItural Cf\1l8HS, whieh
serYE>S to detormine the area cleyoted 1,0 tito cultlll'e of difl'erent pro-
duets of t,]¡e soil, alld t]¡p lllllllllPl' of ¡iye stock, has obtailled for many
years, a nrst cattlo cewms ",as t¡tkcn in Bllglalld amI \Vales only in
~Iay, 18G6; it was followml S0011 after uy a comprehellsiye agrieultural
cellSLl8.


The digestion of the Ellg'lish alld lri8h census reports by the central
statistieal antllOrities is eOlHlnetell in a t11oroughly scielltitic maUller.
The general report8 and the speeial c0ll111ilatiolls therefhml OH a ytuiety
of subjects are UllSUl'pa8Secl U,Y t11e correspomling reconls of any other
country. Tlleir ver.\' gnmt valne 1,0 statisLü:ütns amI ecollomists is uni-
versally acknowledged.


The mOyeUlfmt oi' tllO popuhttion of tho United Kingdolll is aunually
determilletl uy t11e registrar general ofliee t11rough tlle ageney of the
distl'iet registrarR.


Be8ides the registrar general office, the1'e exists in almost eve1'y de-
par1,ment oí' t11e British goyerr.ment a special statistieal sérvice. Ofthe
difl'en'llt departments the board of trade furuishes more cOlltributions
to pulJlic statistics than any other. As mentioned in the precedillg




24 NINTH CENSUS •


. c1<1pte1', its statü,ticallabors date ce.l1tnries back. A speCÍal statisti('~tl
bureau is attached to it, íl'om \V hieh mnanatesammally very comprehell-
sh-e allcl acturate repo1'ts lIpOll the export aud impol't trade, not olll~' 01'
Gl'eat Rl'itaill and her eolonies, but of all foreign eOI1l111ercial conntrics.
Cnrrent lIlonthly 1'epo1'ts UpOIl tlw salIle snbject are issued by t11e salIle
bUl'eau. lt also publishes t11e " Statistical Abstrad oftllC Cnite(l Killg-
cIom/'whieh appears anoualIy an<.l cOlltaills the prinf'ipal statistical data
nf tIte precediog fifteell yearR, showillg the actual comlitioll alld com·
lmrative progresR of the conntry. Allother pnhlieation of tIlO same
anthol'ity is the" 1\fiscellaueolls St:atisties of t]¡e Unite<1 Kingdolll," whic11
also appears aunually, aml cOll1priscs a statistical abf\traet for tlle pre-
ceding t1ll'ee years. 'l'he board of trade llaR eOlldnded aH i ll!Jnil'y rü-
gardiog the wages and salarieR 01' gon'l'11111ent employéR amI lllPchan-
ies, ami operativps gellerally, and tIle eost oi' tbe prime IlPcesimries of
Jife, the intcrüsting resnlts oí' whieh haye heell givon to tlle publico


TheBritish Foreign Oftie.e re.gnlarl~-reqnires (letailo<l Kt:ltifiti(~al roporís
npon the eornmerce amI industries 01' fOl'cigll eOllllh'i('s fl'OlIl~ its Rll ]¡onli-
nates, wllich are printed in 1.11e Parlia.müntary blne-books. An i<lea oft1w
range of 13ritish pu1)lie sfatistics may be formerl [roltl t11e following list
of of!icütl publications otber than tllOse alrf'fuly naJllod :


Anonal re})o1'ts of t11e regü,trar general oí' t11e births, deaths, and
marriagef\ in l~llg1aJl(1 and vVales.


Trimestrial tables of birthR, deathR allcl nmrl'iages; weekly reports of
the births amI deathR in LOIICIoll, allc1 fourteell ot11er largo eities. (Simi-
lar reports are printed for IreJrmd amI ScotlaJl(l.)
. Anuual reports of tl1e ]walth oftieer of the privy coullcilor.


Aunuall'eport of thü modifieatiolls of cnstom dutips in foreign eOUIl-
tries.


AllnUall'eportR 011 raihmy statistics, inclnding tableR of 1'eceiptR amI
expenditures of all railways, nnmbel' of :wei<lentó', &ü.


Statistics 01' mineR of mÍlH'l'al pl'cHlndi01IR amI metallnrgic ill<lnstry.
Ueports oí' the gOYÜrlllllent inspeetol's of texilü imIm;tr,r.
Annual reports of tlle eh-il sen-ice COllllllisS10llS npoll the pnhlic ex-


amÍlmtioIlR oí' eandi<lafe¡;.
Yearly statistieal exllibits of tIle sauitar,) eOlJ(liLion of the arlll'y amI


nay,.
l/inaneial statisties, comprising the mml1al exhibits of üvery brandl of


thc public exehequer.
Ballking' statisties.
Statistics of' S:1VingR hanks amI mutnal aid Rocieües.
Anllual l'eports oí' the ]loor-la\\' hoarcl, inc1nding llIonthly statisties of


t11e pauper populatioll.
Statii:itiCR oí' aS,ylums fol' the insane.
Annual reports OH the }ll'imary schooJs of the United King<lom by tIle


conllcil on eclneation for England, 'Vales, amI Scotlalld, alld by tIte na-
tiOlllLl board of edncation fol' Ire1and.


Anuualreporü; of the departmellt of seience amI arto
Statist.ies of ci,il and criminal jnstiee, oí' prisoll administration, re-


formatory schoolR, alHImlllli(~ip:1l poliee.
A vast amollnt of statistiealmatcrial is etnbodied in the Parliament-


ary BIne Books, which alreadyfoI'm a n~Rpeetable library in themselves.
The resuIts of the üIYestigatiolls of the frequent parliamontary eommis-
sioos are eOlltaillP¡l in these and l)ossess partieular valne. Although ad-
ministrative amI popnlatioll statistÍ<~s 11acl heea IIlOl'P or leRs RyRtematie-
alIy for lllany years in POl'tng-al, that kingdom had no regular statisHeal
sel'vice uotillSt)U, when a special bureau was ereated charged with col-




NINTII CE:KSUS. 25
Jecting statistienl (lo(~nnJ('llt" rolatillg to thü eonnÍl'y, aml to devise a
metho([ for regnlar statiNtical illY€stigatio11s l1lHle1' t11e direction of the
gOYe1'lllllent. 1'lte bnreall, in UlHO, jlublished a "Heport llpon the Gen-
eral Statisties of POl'tnglll," COl1taillÍllg all t'xü,ting (lata relativo to the
tpl'l'itol''y, Ilopnlatioll, indui:ltry, and public admillistration of the king-
dOIll. In 1804 a gPllPral eOlllleil oí' i"ltati"ties ,,':Ii:l el'pated, with power
to din'('t, tIw labors oí' the statistical bnrean. On Jannary 1,1804, the
iirst (lil'oet aml sinmltalleous PllUllwratioll of the people throughout the
kingdolll was malle in aeeonlallce ,,'ith the htw oí' tIlO UOl'tps, passetl in
the preeedillg 1Il0nth of .l\Iay, whieh established a decennial census
syskm
'1'110 ·ecnsll¡'; operation was cOlllmenced and e0l111l1ctcd 011 the day


IUUlIP(l. '1'1Iü actllal populatioll Irm; its basis. Household sclleunles 'were
employed, wit1l iuquil'ips as to sex, agt', eiyil sta te, eOlHlitioll, oeeupation,
naticnality, hahitual 01' aeeidelltal sojonruen;, a]](l the prt'sellt and ab-
sent. Speeial ('ollllllissiom; ±(n' t he slH:eet-',sive l'p\'isioll of the census
returns, "']¡ieh WPl't' eolleeted by ellHmcratOl'S specially allpointt'd, were
creatcu f()l' (,:le1l pHl'ish, eaeh cOlllllllllle, aud ('iWlt dellartment and dis-
triet. Tile tinal reyisi¿)]1 was made hy tlle statistieal bUl'ean amI gen-
eral eouucil. '1'he latter antltority, whielt is composed of repl'esentatives
01' !he p1'i])(:ipa1 departlllPllts oí' tIte gOYt'I'1l1ltellt, amI of eminent scien-
ti:-:ts, has doue Ilmeh sillee 18GJ to\Yards tlle organization of au efficient
statistieal sel'Ylcc.


1'lw birth 01' llllblic statisties in Greeee dates from her last stTuggle
fol' i1Hlependelt('(;. J>l'esideltt Capo d'Istria early illstitnted illqnirics
r('ganlillg thc Hellenio populatioll. In 18;;4, within ayear afte1' t11e
establishment oi' a lIlowm:hy, a "Hurean of ['nb1ie Economy" was c1'e-
ated u1ll1er the ministr~· of the interior, alld elmrge<l ,,'ith the supervision
oí' Pllhlie statisties, 'l'he iil'i:lt gelleral t'nllllwratioll of' the pC'ople of the
killgdolll \Vas m:Hle in 18:W. Tite o]leratioll wm; l'epeated allnnally until
181;3, sillce wlwll eCIli'lIlS('S llave hepll takpll at Íl'l't:'gula1' iutervals, viz:
in ]8+8,1.';;,;;, lS;íO, 1.'Hl1,aml 18Gi"i. Up to 18G1 the censns I't'mained a
mere eOllutillg of tlle llUlllher ofinhabitautR ill eH(~h cOlIlllllllle, lmt in the
yeal' last IIHlIled a 1Il01'P i'iC:iC'lltifle eharaefer was g-ivcn to tIte ellUlIIera-
tiol1. Ceni'lllil (:OI11lIlissioIlS, eOllsisting oí' Jllllllidpal aud poliee offieers,
amI tlw IO!':II clel'gy, 'n'ro ol'gallizf'(] in cadl COlllllllllle, nlld Rpeeial enu-
lllPl'arors a]l]loillteü for spal'sely inlwbited <1istriets. '1'he eOlUmissiollS
im<l eWlInel'a.t ors m're fUl'l1islwll witlt schedulC's whieh they were required
to fill up ill the eourse of a ílxeLl day, by lllean¡.; of <lireet applieatbn to
all )'t'sidents oí' iheil' reslledin~ di¡.;triets. Every actual resi<lent was
inseril)(~(l with ¡.;urn<llllC awl ehriRtiallllalllp, sex, ago, civil state, p1'ofes·
SiOll, I¡\ligion, ana natiolla1ity. The l1nl1lber of familles was speciallyen.
terecl. 'l'llP retlll'lls were subjeeted to snccessive 1'eyision by thrce difl'er-
ent authOl'itips hef'ore they l'eaehe<l t1le bn1'eall oí' statisties in eonsoli-
dated formo Tite cellsus oí' 11)(;8 was takell upon the same plan.


The early m'llsns reports werp not priuted. It. ,vas only in 1840 that
a tabular statement 01' the populatioll hy eonununes, provinces, aud d€-
partments waR pub1it-;lwd for tite iirst time in the press organ of the gov-
el'llment. Similar exhibits \Yere publislle<l as late as 1860. Sillce then
more comprehensive omeia1 puhIieations have appeared.


The lllovement of' tlw popnlation is <leterlllined frolll ciyil registers,
kept until18.')0 by tIte elel'g'y, amI siune then by the mnuieipal authori-
ti('s. 1'ables of bil'ths, dcatlts, HmlmHrriages are pllblished at irregular
interva18. In 1860 an inquiry iuto t11e rural eeouomy 01' the kingdom
was had, the rpsults oi' w1lieh were published in 1804.


11l tIte several üepartlllellts of the goVel'lllllent the statistics of agri-




26 NINTH CENSUS.
culture, indnstry, eOllllllerce, and navig'atioll are collected with more or
less snccess.


Tite Ülct tilat even in snch eonntries as Roumania amI Servia, which are
usnaHy looked npon as tbe " real' guanl of civiJiz~ttioll" in Christian En-
rope, public statistics are cnltiyated, may be takcll as striking evidence
of t11e progress of statistical seienee in t11e Old \\'01'](1.


In Honmallia, a statistical seryice was organizcd about 18GO by the
establishment of a centrál direction of statistics with hureauH in every
district of tile united principalitieR. In 18G6 t11e central dil'ectioll ,,-as
made a regular section of the lllillistI';\- of t11e intcrior amI the district
bureaus diseontillued. T11at part.of their fnllctiollS rrlatillg to agricul-
tural statisties has since lwen exercised by the so-caBed agricultural
commissions and snh-comnlÍssiollS. A eelltral eonllnisRion of statisties,
consistillg of ])ublic functionaries and otlwr perROllR, waR cl'cate<l in t11e
same year anel charged with thc gellcral dircction of public statistics ...
Sinee 1860, more 01' less snccessful attemptR llaye been malle to colleet
the statisties of tel'l'itory, populatioll, pnblic illst1'nctioll, COllllllC1'Ce amI
industry~ agriculture, distribution of real property, pnbIic .instice ana
finances, ])1'isons, babitations, and 1iye stock. 'l.'he results obtailleü lULye
been printed uIHIel' the title uf "Statistica1 amI Economic Annals."


Though administratiye and population statistics haye been collected
by the government of Servia in a more or lcf.ls perfeet form for perhaps
a gelleration, a regular se1'vice uf pnhlic statistics in that country \Vas
not known until18G2, when a bnreau of statistics was mude u section
of the ministry of finance. A census, prolmbly t1lc til'st, ~\Yas takell in
184G, amI allother in 1866, the results of t11e lutter being far superior to
those oí the former.


At the instance of thc statistica1 lmrcall, t1le statistics of agricultnre,
live stock, wages, interna1 alld external cOlllmcrcc, pnbIic fillallces, pub-
lic illstructioll, civil amI criminal jnstice, amI of t1te post offiee, luwe
been eollected since 1862, as far as pnwticahle.


Strange as it may sound to most ears, eYCll Turkcy possesses a sort
of statistical seryice. It is oi' allcicnt origin, hut owes it8 l'l'e"tmt fOI'm
to the SultaIl, )'Iahllloud JI. vVhat Illay be tÜI'IllCtl a stati"tical lm1'eau
exists sine e his reign, nnder t11e ministr.y of finance. This organislll
consists of two sectionR: Olle chargecl with llurely cadastral fllllctions,
the other with statistics llroper. ~ The laíter is ullllc1' the direction of a
chief, entitled coutroller of f.ltatistics. He has Ullller him six chiefs of
bureau and t11irty clel'ks. Thel'e is a fUlIctional'y cntitled controller of
the censns in each of fifty-one prOyillCeS, who is subject to tIle order of
the chief cOlltroller of statisties. The provincial eontrolle1's of tlw ceu-
sus canvass their provinces continually, mal prepare at tite eud of ca eh
year an exhibit of the-1st, births; ~d, deaths; 3d, number of absentees
and travelers; 4th, public Ilealth; 5th, lllovelllellt of reall'l'opel't.y; Gth,
taxable values; 7th, losses from tire, diseasc, &c.


Tbe head of each yillage prepares anlluallya statcment of the age,
occupation, religion, lllilitary sen-iee, liabilíty tu taxatioll, &c., &c., of
every inhabitant under his jurisdictioll. This statement is transJl1itted
to the controller of tIle census of the prOyillCe, alld by 11im forwarded,
aiter proper vel'ification, to the ehief cOllÍl'oller of statistics in COllstall-
tinople. The latter communicates with t11e oth('1' departments of the
goyernment through the millister of finalice. He p1'ovitles the basis
for taxation aud military couscriptioll.




NINTH CENSUS. 27
nm'l'OIUCAL VIEW OF TIlE A~IERICAN CENSUS.


The American census originated in the colonial period of American
history. As is weIl kUO\nl to aU who have stndicd the historv of that
period, tIle Hritish board of trade then played a leading part ü~ colonial
aftairs; nt timos it was a]most tho ~mprCJlle dircctillg power. Undér the
directioll 01' tItis board seycral emullerations of tIte population of the
colonics wcro lllad~; lmt, for rt'at'iOllS that will he Rtated hen~after, they
were littIe more than approximations to tlw truth. lUr. Bancroft, in
attemptillg to determine tile poplllation at dimorcllt CPOChR, is impclled
to say, "t11e positivo data in 1,hoso days me half the tillle notoriously
falsc." Probabl,)' no part of tlle historic matcrials relatillg' to tho pedod
i~ less yalnnble. Alld .ret "notOl'iollsl-y false" as the tables prepared
uIltler t110 directioll of tlw hoard of tradc arte, they are llevcrtheless the
principal data fol' dctcrmining t11c ]lopnlation of thc colonies at tbe
periO!IR fOl' wllidl tlley were giwn. The colonial censuses were taken
undel' tIlO illllllodiatc dircetion of tho colonial govcrnors, throllgh tIte
agency of the sheriíT's aIld t h('ir d('puties. Some of the resnlts it i8
tIlOnght ]ll'opel' to illcorporate illtO t]¡i~ report.


In 1(;81:\, the period 01' tItc great Englis11 l'eyolutioll, t11e popnlation of
t11e Dritish eolollií's in Ameriea \Yas abont 200,000. Aceordillg to .:\'Ir.
B:wcroft, it was tlms distl'ibllted:
::\IassaclmsettR, (illeludillg Plylllouth aml Maine) ............ .
New HalllpshinL ........... _. _ ........................... .
Rhodc Islaml, (ille1uüing Proyidcnce l)lalltatiolls) ........... .
Conneeticut f¡'OIll 17,000 to ... _ . _ ............ o ............. .
Npw york ......... __ .............................. _ ..... .
:Ncw ,Tersey ..... _ .. _ .................................... _.
I>mlllsyh-allia, (illCludillg Delaware) ....... _ .... _. _ ......... _
~!;~"~~;!~~~~~1: ~ ~ .... ~ ~ : ~ __ .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. ~ .... _. ~ __ : __ : ..................... : : : : : : : : : : : :
Tito t\\'o Carolinas. _ ... _ ............. o ..................... .


44,000
6,000
6,000


20,000
20,000
10,000
12,000
25,000
50,000
8,000


On thc aeeessioll oí' Gporge I, ill 1714-, the following table was como
piletl by tIte uoanl of traün:


Oll t11e aeecssion of Gcorge Il, in 1727, tlw uoard cansed
table to be pl'epal'cd, t1le totals of w]¡ich are herewith giVCll:
\Yllite ................ o ........ o ..... _ ..... o o ........•
Black .. _ ............ o ........................... o. o .. .


Aggregate ........•.......•... " u ••••••• o ......... .


another


502,000
78,000


580,00




28 NINTH CENSUS.
Thc results of one other of the many llopu1ation tahh\s lll'pparcd fol'


tlle board of hadc will be giYCll. This table, "folln<1etl in pmt 011 mus-
ter-rolls amll'etnl'lls oí' taxables," incllldecl N ovu_ Scotia also:
\Vhite _________ " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1, 1H2, 8UG
lHack _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :.lH2, 7;{8


Aggregate _________________________ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1, 483, 631


At this time, it may be worth remarkillg, tIle Fl'ench colonics that
made up ,vhat \Vas then called New FrallCf>, had a popnlation of sca1'ce
one hllndl'cl1 thousand inhabitants, and tht'se \\,prc scattered throngh
tlte immense l'egion extendi11g [ron1 the mouth of tIle 8t. Lawrelwe to
the lIlouth oi' the J\Iissit;sippi, thongh the gl'eaiel' part ,ras massed in
tIlo yaneV of t1lc formel' riyel'.
~Il'. B::i'ueI'Oft. haR probably stn(liptl tItis dppartment of Amel'iean his-


tory more thoronghJy than any othe1' writcl'. Hp llaR eOllstl'lleted the
tollowing table, Rhmring the populatioll of the colonies at six diffcl't'nt
periodR:


Years.


1750. __________________________________ . _________________ _
173-1_ _ _ _ ___ .____ _ _ ___ _ ____ _ ______________________________ _
17f;O _______ • ________________________________________ _
1770_ _ _____ • __________________________ . _ .. __ . _. _ ....... .
17~O ... _____ . _______________ _
17UJ _______ . __________________ . ____________________________ .. __ .'


,\'hitc.


1, O.¡O, 0011 I
J, Hi:í,O()[)
J ~ :li-'.), (jO:)
J, b.")U. OOil I
:2, :I~:t (100
3. 177, ~~J7 '


272\ 000
:JfiO.!JOO
:llO,OOO
4ti:2, coa
:íli;2, (00
'j'j:2,OOU ,


1. 2(;0, oeo
1: 4-2;:), roo
1, íifl;i, COO
2, :H-2, ueo
2.015,0(;0
3, fl'24, 3::,!(j


This table bears upon its face evülence that, ",ith t11e exepptioll of
the last item, it is llOt based 011 earefnl enl1l11erations. Ml'. Balleroft
pl'etc1Hls to giyc nothing more than estimatet'l, lmt HayH thpy "rest Oll
the considoratioll of mally details ami opiniolls of that (lay: private
journals and lettol's, l'Pportt'l to tlw board oi' tnlfle, amI oftieinl papers of
tlte provincial gOYei°nmellts. Nearl~' a11," he ('(llltilllWS, "are im pel'fl,et;"
accordingly he says he has" dednced" his tah1e "as SOlllC appl'oxi Illa-
tiOll to exaduPsR." :J1r. Ballcrof't fnl'tll(~l' Í1uplins tlmi (aules 1J]Ol'e vaIna-
b1c than tl10se of the Board of Trade can 1w ('Ollstrndcd l'etro8ppeti \'(~ly
from the rule of inerease in tlw pOlllllaLioll siuce 17!)O.


Tho foregoing tahles of populatioll 11'I,ve l/PPll giH;Il, part.ly beeause
they haye a considerable valne themselye¡;;, Rincn no better ones can 110\V
be eOllstl'neted, lmt ehiefly beeanse they RllOW eOllclnsively tlmt in the
colonial period the American cellsns \Vas in a VC!',\' rndilllental'y forlll.


That no l'elialüe ellUlIlel'atious of popnlntion were malle dnrillg' the
pel'iod of Bng1ish snpremaey in mu' eoullÍl'y Rhould exeite no surpl'ise.
The so-called enumerations ",ere made by the (lireetion of tlte Hl'itish
Board of 1.'rade, three thouRand milcs distaIlt, IV hen scal'ce au Ellgli sI l\Jl an
",eIl informed coneel'ning American affairs (~Oltld he fOllnd. H is true,
they were made undel' tIle immecliate direetion of tIte royal goYcmOl't'l;
but the sparsenesR of the popnlatioll, R(~atte1'ed oye1' imlllem;e areaR, takell
in conl1cction with the free alld indepclHlent mOlles of lite prevailiug in
many localities preclndetl thol'onglmess and accurac,V. "For tllC south-
eJ'1l p1'oyinees," says :;VII'. Haneroft, "whp1'e thp lIlild elimates illYited cmi-
grants to the in1and glades-whel'e tbe Crown l<111(ls were oftell occllpied
on warrants of surveys without patentl'l, 01' eyen without wari'ants-
\Vhere the peop1c were never assemh1pd lmt at lllustm', thpre \Va::; room
fol' glaring mistakes in the enumerations." Besidos, supcrstition p1ayed




NINTII CENS-GS. 29
a part in sC'YC'ral of thC'Re 0010llial returns, as appears frolll t11e letters of
go,·ernors to the ltOJlIC gm·el'lllllcnt. -


In li12, Con'l'llol' Hnlltel' unllel'took to make all elllllllcration of t11e
inhahitants oí' Xc,,, Y Ol'k, tlmH1glt the age11l'y of justicefl oi" the peace
in tite HP\'pral cOllllties. The retllrns 11'81'8 illllH~rl(,et, "the }l('ople being
deterre(l by a simple Rupnstition amI ohseryation tlwt fhc 8ic7l1leS8 fol·
101CC(ZUPOIl lhc lll8i nwnuerin[J of thc )JcoJile."*


(ion'l'IlOl' Bnl'llet, of Npw ,J(,I't-iey, ill a COlIlIl1111lieatioll to the lords of
tradl', nlHler date of Jnne 2,17213, says, in allnding to a. I'8tnrn 01' popu-
lation lltade f1'Olll }\le", York tltl'ee yearR hefort':


I wonl<lll:lv(\ th"ll ()1"[('1'",[ th .. lile" ar~llnnts to he tak"ll in K,',," Je]'.';e~·; 1mt I,,-as
a,hised titar it Illig-Itt. Illake the peo)'l,' Ull('as~', they h,'iug- g-(,llerall~· of:1 1\('w Englrmd
e:\Jl'adioll, :llltl th<'l'"hy (,lltlm,iasts; ,md that th,,\ \\,(lllltl takc it 1'01' a n'l,etitioll ofth"
H:llllC "in that lhvitl ('~)Jnmitte,[ illlllllllhel'illg th;, 11001']1', :lll<l might \)I'iilg on the like
jUllgtlll:lltS. This BotioH ¡mt 111(\ oü' ÜOlll it at tlLUt time; hut sinee ~'our IOl'dships
refluir" it, I will giy('_ ti", ol',lel" to the shel'ill's, tha' it lllay be (lolle as SOOIl as 11m)' lw,t


To these special reasolls allother alHl general OlW may he Huded:
These ('olollial elllllllerlltioll:,J ,H~l'e all maue lwforc tbe modern cem;ns lJad
asslllllcd scientitie fOl'ln and dl'filliteness. Eu1'opean 11istor,y reeor(h; a
fe\\' scattcl'ing' (~PIlSIlt-ieS in tlie sixteellth, st'velltl'l'llth, alllIl'ighteellth cen-
tm-ie¡.;; hnt they wu'e, in tIte \'ery lUlhuc of tlw ease, yer,\' impel'fedly
takell, heing, in fact, ael'on1ing- to ou!' standanb (ji' cOlllplett'lless, little
more thall rough gm'ssPs. "Elllllneration is a slo\\' and la borious pro-
e('¡';i5," SH~-S Sir Georg'e COrIw\\'all Le\y¡',,; "amI until eXl'erieneehas
tallght us its lll'('üssity wlHm~ COI'1'et'tlleSi5 ii5 l'L'(jnircü, tllPre it-i a dis]losi-
tiOll, pal'ti(,ularly alllOllg nlleulti\'atl'(l peop1e, to rcly npoll eompntation."
"']'0 (,OlUlt," says Dr. J 01111S011, "is a llloderll praetieo; the alleicnt
Illethotl was to g'HPSS; alld ,ylwl'C 111llllheri5 are gm'sse(1 tlH'y are al\Yays
lllag'llitied." Tl'ierl by tltis principie, 110 CC1l6US takell l)l'cyious to the
cl080 oí' the colonial pel'jo¡l 01' AUlPl'ieall hi:,;tOl'Y COHlü han\ liad all~·
grpat R(~ü~lltiti(~ "alne. 1'he epm:ui5, as \Ve kilO\\" it, ,,-as a later develop-
mento Bllgland took her nri5t censaR in 1801, and ('ven tl1e11 it was 150
iIUIWl'fpetly takell tlwt it, \Ym: of little yalne. A thorongll eensus of the
Ellg1isll l)('o]\le \Vas Bot takell until t\Yenty ;years latero ",y ere thel'e 110
:,;pedal reasons fin' readlillg' tlH~ SHtlW (~olldusiolls, it \\'ould hp ahsunl to
Rllppose the colonial g'on~],llOri5, lllHkr t1w dil'eetion of the Board oí' Trade,
ma(le aeeuratc (,lll1111l'l'ntiOlts o[ t11e British eolOllists in America a half
centul'y 01' a centtu'y hefore ElJglaIHl hatl Plllltlleratp(1 her mY1I popnla·
HOll.


TIte reyolntionary strugg-le had 1Iot far progreRsed lJefOl'B it hecame
e"ident tlwt it wonM assnIlW tlll' fOl'lll of a 'YaJ' fol' imIependellce; at
quite as early a dar it l)üeame apparellt tbat all the resourees nf t11e
States wOllld of ltP(:eRsity be laül ulHIpl' (~(mtrihnti()ll. 111 the eontinen·
tal COllgress tIte question 800n a1'ose, How s]¡all the lm1'dells oí' wal' be
distributedJ Durillg the wllOle eOUl'Re of tlH~ \\"<U' tlw Congress found
no more perplexillg- qnestioll. It was first g-rappled with in Ii75. In
the journal, lIndel' (late oí' Tnesday, Decelllber :!(i, of that J'ear, we find
t11e followillg eutry:


The Cong;l'~sR took i!lto eOllsÍtlerntioll Lhe l"('port of the COIllIllittco on tilo State of tlle
Treasury, amI tlwrellpon canw to ti", following resolntions:


Several of whieh here follow:
'Yhereas un estimate hath latl'!y hecn fOI'metl of the pnhlic CXp(mR8 already arisen,


and whie!t may accrne, in tite defensos of America Lo t.ho tellth ,lay of .June llext, in
lmrRlla nce w hereof this Congl'l'ss, on t he 29th of N oye!1I ber, resolyed thut a further snlll
01' 1ItH'O milliolls of tlollars he remittetl in lJills of cre<lit-


l!c8oltNl, Thut the thirtecn Unitetl Colonies he plt,t1gc(l for the retleIllI,tion of the
hills of ere ,lit so <lirected to he emitte<l;


* Now York C(!lonial History, V. 339. t Ibid., 7i7.




30 NINTH CENSUS.
That each colon;) pro,icle "ll"a;)s anc1111cans to sinle its proportion of said bills, in snch


manner ns may he most eifectnal anc1 best ac1aptec1 to the conc1ition, circnmstallces, anc1
equullllode of lev~'ing taxes in euch colony ;


'l'hnt the proportioll or quotn of each respective colon y be cletermined accordillg to
the nnmhel' of inhahitallts of a11 nges, inclnding negroes and mnlattoes in each eolony;


That it he recolllmelldecl to the several assemhlies, eonventions, 01' councils, or com-
mittees of safet;) of the respective colonies, to ascert¡tin, hy the most impartial and
effe<;Íllal llleans in theil' powflr, the llllllllH'l' of inhabitants in each respectivn colony,
taleing care that the lists be ant:henLicttied by the oltths of the 80\-eral ]wrsons who
Rha11 hA iIlÍ>rnst(i(1 with this sen-ice; amI tha,t the sairl assemhlies, conv('ntions, eoun-
cils,ol' eonlluittees of safety, do reHpeetively by heforA thi" CongreHH a return of the
nllmher of inhabitants of their respective colonios, a~ 800n as the sume ~hall be pro-
cured.


TIle last resolution was responded to in sorne of the Sta tes; in how
many 1 haye beell unable to determine. .Kew Hampshire had already
antieipated tIle resolntion. The details of tIlese cemmses are rnostly
lost, but enough remaill to show that there was no unifol'mity of pl'o-
cedure. In tho cases where respollses were obtaillcd tIte illlmediate
o~jeet had in view rnay have been aceomplisIted; but fol' the pnrposes
of statistical science the enumeration could llot, haY(~ 1W811 of great
value. TIte attempts eertaillly demollstrated that llO eensnscs, complete
amI llniform, eonld be taken withont a central directing authorit,r. This
wallt the articles of confederatio11 sought to supply.


011 the 11th .Tune, 1776, tIte dayafter tIle eommittee to prepare a
Deelamtion of Independellce was appointed, tIle Congress passed tIlis
l'esolution:


Re807ud, That a cOl11mittee he appoilltcc1 to prcpare and c1igest the fOIlll of a eonfecl-
eratinll to be entered into by these eolonies.


Ánd on tIte next day tIle followillg:
Re8o/¡,erl, That the eommittee to prepare mul digest Uw form of confeflcration to be


entererl into hetwAfln t]¡ese eolonies) consist of a member frOlll eaclt eolony .
• Tnst olle montb la ter the committee proYic1ec1 for by the foregoing


l'esolntions, through .Tolm Diekinsoll, sllbmitted its reporto The .Journal
undel' that date COlltaills this entry:


()r(/ereil, Th¡¡,t eighty eopies, allrl no more. of thc eonfcrlc.mtion, as bronght in hy the
committee,l)e illlme<1iatelr printerl :mrl dcposited with tho secretary, who shall deliver
one copy to eaeh membcr;


That t~le prillter he ullc1el'oath to deli\"(:r aU the copies \\"hich he shaU print, toget,her
with tIlO copy sheet, to the secretn,ry, all(lllot to disc]ose, either dimetl~- 01' inrlircctly,
the contellts of the said confcdcmtion;


That no memher fnrnish any person \\"ith Iris copy, 01' take any StCp8 hy ,dlÍeh the
saitl eonferlemtion may be reprinted, amI that the secretary be umler the like illjnnc-
tion.


The eleyellth al'ticle of tIlis draught, so enrefully guarded, was in these
words:


AU ch¡¡,rg;es of war ana a11 oth'lr cxpellRes that slla11 he incnrred for the comlllon !le-
fense 01' gt'lleml ,velfare, and a11nwcd hy the Unitcd SCatcs in Congrcss asscmblcd, sl1Ull
be defmyerl ont of a commoll treasury, which sha11 he supplieü by the se\'eml colollies
in proportion to the munber of inhahitants, nf ever~- age, sex, arul qnality, except
Indialls Ilnt paying taxes, in each eolollY, a trne aCcollnt of which, di~tilll\-uishing the
wh~te inhahitunts, sluI11 he trieunially taken aad trallsmittcd to tlle assmnbly of the
U 111 tee! States.


This article "as a frnitful souree of discussion. The slase interest
obj8cted to the ellurneration of tIle neg-roes. MI'. Chase moved that the
quotas should be apportioned accordillg to tIle llumber of "white in-
habitallts." 1\1:1'. HarrisOlI proposed as a compromise that two slayes
ShOllld be counted as one freeman. The articles as flllally agreed to by
Congl'ess, ancl ratified by tIle States, eontainecl two proyisiolls bearing
UpOll the subject. The eighth article was in these wods:


A11 charges of war ane! all other expenses that shall be incuneü fol' the COItllllOn dc-
fense 01' general welfare, and a110weü by the l:"nitecl States in Congress assernhled, shaU




NIN'l'JI CEKSUS. 31
11(\ defrn;>ed out of a common tr¡;asnry, which Rha11 bo snppliell by the seyera! States
in propol'tion to tlw valne of a11lall<l within each State, gmllted tü 01' snrveyed fol' any
porson, as snch lau,l amI the lmi1<1ings ami improvements the1'eon sha 11 be estimated,
ncconling to 8n('h 1ll01[0 as the enit"a SÜ1Íes in Congl'ess assemuleü 8haU from time to
tÍllle dil'ect l!llIl appoint.


'l'he taxes rOl' lm.\'inl-( thnt pfoportion shall he bid lLnd levied by the anthority and
tlirectioll of tho l('giRJatnres nf tlw R,w('ral States, within the time agreed npnn by the
l:nited Statt's in COllgress ltssellluled.


The nillth artiele contaille<l oul,}' a single clam;e relating to the cen-
sus:


T1H\ Ullited StatcR in Congress assmllhled HItall ha ye nuthorit,), * * * to agree
llpon tite llllllLUel' of lalHl fOl'ees, allll to make ref[nisitiollS Ü'om e¡Lch State for its quota,
in proportioll to the nnmhel' of "wlJite inhahitants in sllell State.


1Vhen these two proyif;ions are compared with the eleyeuth article
01' J Ollll Dickiuson's dl'aught, it will he seen that, for census pllrposes,
the Congress hall takell a step lmckw:lrds. The former ])l'oyided in ex-
press tenns for a t1'ü'llllial ellumcratioll of the whole. }lopnlatülIl, exclud-
ing lIHlimHl lJot taxe<l. The latter cOlltemplated nothing more than an
enumeration of the white inhahitants, togetltel' witlt a ,'aluatioll of lamI,
,,'ith the iltlprOn~lllents thereOll. The formerreqnired a trienníal enumera-
tiOll; tlle latter left the whole mattel' to Rubseqnellt legislatioll. Con-
sic1el'Íug the wealmess of the confederacy, it is qncHtiolUlble whether
eyen Diekim;oll's artide would haye giyell us a llational enumeration;
cel'tain it is that tlw al'ticleH thelllseln's tlül HOt. Hut it iR idle to (~Olll­
pare the relatiye merits 01' tIte two documeuts. The oue noyer became
la \r; tlw otItel' lleY('l' pl'()(lnc('(l, eithel' a yaluation of lalld, 01' such par-
tial elllllneration of thc po¡mlation aH it couü'lllplatetl.


l. Vahtation of land.-The articles of confoderation did not become
binding until l\Ta.l'ch 1, 1781, at whieh time ::\larylalld, the ]ast of the
Statcs to giye in its adhesioll to the llew fOl'lll of goyornment, ratified
them. AlltieipMillg an earlier ratific:1tioll, COllgress took tIte following
actioll OH the lHth of Odobel', 1778:


\Ylu'r!'aH, u~' tlle eig"ltth artielo of the articlcs of confetlel'ation fllld pel'petlull union,
agret'll Ul'0ll fol' tlle Cnite,l ~tate~ of 1\ol'th Allwrica, it is proYidl'l1 that a11 expense
í()l' tilo COI1l11l0l1 ,1..t'''1l81' 01' gl'lIeral w .. lfan·, mlll a]]o" .. <1 hy tilo Cllite<1 StatpH in Con-
gress a,~,,,"hle<1. sllall he <ld'l'n)T<l ont of n COllllllon treasnry to 1Jl' snppliec1 by tlle
seYl'ral Statl's, in ]ll'flpol'tion to the yalne nf all lalHlo within eaeh State gr:l1lted to or
snrveyed fol' :my 1' .. r80n, :I~ sneh lall<l, a11l1 tIlO hnil<1illgs aul! illlpl'ovements thereon,
sha11 he "stimate,l, aceonling to Hue1l lllOde as tIte Cuite,l Sta tes in Congl'css asscmulcd
sllall, 1'rolll tim .. to time, <1il'('ct an<1 al'Point; an<l ,,11<.'1'ea8 tlw yalne at()1'esaid mnst,
from tlle lIatnre of things, frl'rlnently chauge, ltllll fre!juent valuations thel'euy ueeome
necessary: 'l'hel'efol'e,


Re8oll'ul, Th:tt it be l'ecollllllell!lcll to tilo seycral Sta tes to ins~rnct their delegates to
fix tlw perio<l of 811C1l yalnatioll.


Reso//'ul, Tltnt, in the opiuioll of CongTes~, ihe ycars IYiU be a propcl' tcrm fol' that
pnl'po~",


lt does 1l0t appear that this aetion produccd an." reRults.
By the time l)pac(~ WUR eoncludcd with Great Britain, tIte finallces of


the eOlltederaey had fallen iitto inextricable confllsion. Dellutlld far
exceeded supply, obligations already incurred were to be met, interest
already aecrue(l was to be prO\'idf'ü f()f; the arm;v was to be paiel; and
the treasllry was ballkl'upt. COllgre8s yain ly sOllght to bl'ing order out
of chaos; yainl,\' tried to mect its obligatiolls. The en tire inefficiency
of the confederatioll, that "fil'ltl le ague of frielldship," as it styled itself,
\Vas enm more apparellt thall it hall becn during' thc progress of the
war. The seyerest stmin callle upon the ,yeakest part of the league.
The pl'cssnre (jf war beillg removed, the States had little inclination, or
""1>01'0 nnable, as the case may be, to respond to tho necessitics of the
Ilation. COllg'ress malle a he1'oic attelllpt to prmide for the interest on
the puhlic debt. lt cletermined that at least $2,500,000 would be needed




32 NINTH CENSUS.
allIlllally for tIlat purpose. It reeomllWIHled to tllC Ren\I'aI Statcs, "a~
illdispellsably neccssal'y to the publie credit, aud to tIte punct \lal aH!!
honol'llhle diseharg-e of the public debt, tn in \"(~st tlH~ L nite!! Stakti in
Congress asselllbled ,,'iIIt a l'o\yer to leY,\', for t11e utie of the United
States, dutiPR UpOll certain ldnds of goods impol'ted iuto the said Statf's,"
from auy foreign port, isIand, or plalltatiOJI. It \Yas ]¡oped that this
recoll1melldatioll, ii' coltlplieÜ witlt, ,yollld yicId an allllllUl rl'YellUe 01'
$1,000,000. To proyidc for the l.emaillderoftheneeessarYRlllII.it \Yas
resolY<.'d, "That it be fnrther reCOllllJlCIHled tu t1le ¡.;eycral Sta tes to
establish for ft ter m lilllitell to t\Yellty-fiYe ycars, and to appropriate to
tIte tlischarge of tIlO illterest alld principal of the d(~hts l:olltr:letecl (j',1
the fiüth of the Unite<l SÜÜPR, fOl' snpPol'ting tIte \Yar, snbstalltial amI
em~etuall'e\'8LmeR of snch llatllre as they l1lay .iudgt> 1Il0Rt con nllliellt,
fo1' snpplying tlleir respective pl'oportiol1R oi' $l,i)()O,OOO allllnally, f'xclu-
si,e ot' t110 alore-lllcntioll('<l (Inties, which prollortioll shaU be tixed alHl
equaJiz('rl, frolll time to time, acconlillg to tIte l'nl(~ w]¡ieh is, OJ' lIlay be,
prescribed by tho artieles oi' eOllft'tlemtioll: * * * * 1'J'(JI'irlct7,
tbat uutil the rnJe of confederatioll ean be earried i!lto praetic(\ tlw pro,
portions oí' tlle said 81,'-¡OO,OOO il[¡all be as i'ollows, viz:" '


The figures ]¡erc iHsm'[eü in tIw resolntiOll are olllitted, as they do not
heal' iUlJllelliatel.'y' 011 tJI() llistol'ilml deyejo)Juteut oí' tlle stlbject in hand.
Suffice it to say, tIte proportiolls of tIJe Stlltes ,,'ere gToUlHle(l 011 the
muuber of illbahitallt~ ill eaeh Sta te; the COllllllitt('e who reporte(] thC'lll
obsoryillg that Ne\, Hampshire, IÜJOde lslantl, COlltH~di(~nt, atlll1\lal'y-
lanc! harl producp¡l anthl'lltie doenmcnts of their llumllers; amI that,
1!l fixing the num bers oí' ot11er States, tltp~' hall lWPll gOYPI'lled by sudl
illformation as tlwy eonld obtaill. The follo\\'illg' is tlw tablü:
New Hampshirü _____ - - ______ . ______ -, ________ -. - - _. - __ _
l\lassaclmsetts ______________ . ____ - .. ______ , _ _ _ . ___ , ____ _
Hhodc ls1a11(1- _______ . , ________________ , - ____________ . _ .
Connecticut ________ . _______ , , ____ , ___________ ' ________ _
~ew Yorlc _________ - - - _________ - - - _. ___ , _______ . _____ _
New .Tersey ___ .. ____ . - - - - - __ . __ . ___ . ________ . ___ . ______ _
PennsylVftllia _____ , _______ . __________________ . ________ ..
Delawarp. ______ . _ . _ . ____ . _______ - .. - - _____ , ___ . _______ _
l\'lal'ylaud ________ . ____ - _. _ .. _" . _ . ____________________ .
Virginia _____ .. ______ - - - _____ . __ - _ - - - . _______ , __ .. __ , , _
NOl'th Carolina_. __________ . ___________________________ _
Sonth Carolina_ - - - __ . - - - - , _______ - - - - - - - . - ___ - _ - - _ - - __ _
Georgia _____ . _______________ . _____ . _____ . ___ . __ . ______ _


82,200
3im, (¡OO
50~400


:Wü; 000
:WO,OO()
1:;0, 000
:J:20, 000


;>i'¡, 000
:2:20,700
400,000
170,000
150,Ü()O


:2:1, 000
Total _______ , _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2, ;{;)!), :;00


The yagueness and unrf'liahility oi' the information aeeessihk to Con-
gl'ess, is S!Jo\Yll by 1\11'. ]\fatlison's snnuuar.y of tlle debate on tbe COlll-
mittee's l'ellort :


'fhe senHC of Congress hayillg becn t.aken on tIte trnth of the nnmhers nT,ortell by
t.he gruntL COllllllittÚ', lile lltlmbel' aUott.,,[ to ~otlth Caruli,m ''''lB l'c<lnce,[ to olle lmn-
dred and fifty thons:tnrl, OH tIte representation of the r1l'legates o[ that Statn, 'rhe
delega.tes oí' New J"l'~''Y also "oatender! í'or [1 rc.!netion, lmt wem 1II1S11Ccessi'nl. Those
oi' Virginia, also, ou tIte principIe tlmt COllgl't'ss onght uo! to Ilepart fl'OlIl tite rdatin,
Ilnlllbers giyen iu 1775, ,yitllOnt heing l'e'lllÍre,! l>y actnal retnms, whiell ]ulIlnot l,,'cn
obtained, eitlwr ft'Om that Stat" ()l' othel'~ wh",;e I'(']ations ,,',mltl he nu'Íell. '1'0 tbis
reasolling was opposetl thc verbal alH! erp,lible. inliJl'lllatioll receiy!O!I frOIll .Iiftercllt
persolls, and partieuh1rly 1II1', l\Iercul', which madI' tlle lllllUhel' of inltahitants in Vir-
ginia, after dedllcting two-fifths oftll,,, shryes, excecll tlte llllllllwr a.]]ottt'd to tJ1l' ~tatc,
Congresa were almost lluHuimolls agaillst tite r,,!Inctioll. A lllotion was lB",]" hy ~lr.
GClTais, seconrle([ hy }Il'. }IadisOll, to retlnce tllc llUluher of Ucol'gia 10 tif'tt'Cll tllOusand,




NINTH CENSUS. 33
011 the prolmhility tlmt their real IIUlulJcr did not e"cee,' it, aml thc cruelty of over-
Ioading a State w hich lwL1 he<'1I RO mlleh torn 'Hul exhau~tetl lJy the war. 'l'he lllotion
met with little support, antl waH almoHL uuanimously llegatived_


Uomparillg the total populatioll oí" the cOllgressional table of 1783
with 1\1r. Bancroft's total for the ;rear 1780, it wouhl at first appear
eltber that the popnlatioll had decreased, 01' that one 01' the other oí" the
two eRtimates must be errOlleOllS. Neither of t11ese conelusiollS, llOW-
ever, follows. For the fil'st time in the histOl'y of the United States we
meet, in 1783, ",-¡th a rule nf apportiollment that afterwards played a
conspienous part in the legislatioll and polities of the nation. In deter-
minillg tbe quotas of t11e Reyeral Sta tes, only three-fiftlls of the slaves
were eounted.


Convineed that some more efficient financial scheme was esselltial 1,0
the life of the confederation, UOllgl'eSS sought to procure an amendment
to the articles. IIence it sent to the States, with an urgellt request
that it might he ratified, the following :


So mlleh ofthc Ilth ofthe articles of confedflration ana llflrpetnal UUiOll uet\Ycell the
thirteell StMe.' nf Allwriea as is cOlltained in the wOfll~ followillg', to wit :


11 All eharg~s of war antl al! otlter eXl'l'ns" that sltall ue ineurred fo,. t.he common de-
fenc" 01' general wdfarl', ami 'allowed hy the Uniteü States in COllgresH asselllhleLl,
Rllall he ,kfrayc,l out oí" a. eOllllllOll treasllry, which shall he sllpplietl uy thc several
States, in propol'tion to the y:tIne of al!la!]([ wlt.hill each State, granted to 01' slll'veyed
for any per,;on, as sueh laJl(1 a]](1 tlw. bllil(lillgS a.ne! imprnYl'llle!lts thflreon ¡;!ml! he
estimated, aeeonlinl-( to wcl! modes as tlt<; LTnite,1 States in Congrl'ss assl'lllhled sha11,
frolll tillle to time, t1irect. a!}(] apl'oiut," i~ hereby revoked and made void; anü in placfl
thereof, it iR ,lc,-.]aretl antl eonc]¡H]pL!, that the same haYing hefln agree,] to in a Con-
gf('Sfi of tlw Ulliteü Statps, that al! f'i!:lrges of war autl all other eX¡Wllses that lune
lJl'eu 01' shal! lw inf"lll-r,'(] f(Ji' tlw ~()1ll1l101l dd-eIle.e 01" gf'neral wPlt;\l'P, an(t n 1I0w('(] by
t-he UnÍt.e,1 Statcs ill COllp;resR a~i;ellll'¡etl, "xenp!' RO far as "hall he otlterwisc l'royidc(l
for, shall uo (lefraye<1 out of:l common tre:umry, \yhich sha11 ue snPl?lie(l by the several
States, in prnport.ion to the wholo lI111nllüi' 01" ",hit" am] other free eiti7,PllS flll,l inImh-
itants, of tiy"ry ap;e, scx alHl conditioll, inclnding those bonntl to sprvitnde f'or a term of
years, alHl tln"'C'-Jifths oí' an othel" perRonH not ~olllprehClJ(lcd in the foregoing descrip-
ÜO/l, except lnditllls, !lot l':lyillg (axes, in cach State; whieh numher shall he t.rÍfm-
nially tak"n aB,1 translllit.(e,! to the United State.s in Cougress asselllbled, ill HllCh lllode
as t.hey "hall dircct a!ul aPl'oint.


It ís uot the pul'pose of thís papel' tu deal wiLIl the fitllLncial history
of the government, except in so far as it has a bearil1g OH the historieal
Ileyelopment of the cenSlls. Hell(;(~, no general illquir.y into the results
of the furegoing legi8lation is instituted. Snftice it to say, the proposi-
tion to abrogate tlw eighfh a1'tide alld to substituto anot11er in its
place did llOt prevail. 'rile <trtides of confederatioll remained un-
amended, until they were swept away by the COlH-ltitution of 1787. It
is proper to observe, 11 m\'e \'1'1', tbat the recollUlClldation of 1783 fur-
nishotl the framers 01' tlle COllstitlltioll ,,-ith the rule for apportiouillg
representatiyes anll díreet taxe,,; ttmong t11e seyeral States of the Uníon.


II. Ennmeration ol white inlur1litants.-This topie can be dismissed
in few words. On the ~lst of November, 1781, a motion was ma<le hy
1\:1r. Randolph, seconded by 1\11'. Uarroll-


That it he recommentletl to the legislatnrcs of the severa] Sta tes to canse to he ta.ken
and transmitted to Congress, as 8001\ as pORsihle, the IllUnUel' of the white illhuuitants
thereof, pursuaut to the ninth article of thc confederation_


This motion receivell the votes of hut six: States, anc1 was conse-
quently lost. It does not appear froUl tlw journal that the subject ,ras
agaill brought to tILe attentioll 01' tlle Congress.


Surveying the wholo fiel<1 .,of history to tlle elose of tbe continental
period, we see that so far from a censns having been achieved, there
had llOt even been a thorough euumeratiou of the popula.tion taken.
It was left to the Oonstitution to giye us first an eumueratiou, anc1
afterwards a census.


H.Rep.3-3




34 NINTH CENSUS.


The framers of the OOllstitution hall few, if any, more difficult ques-
tions to deal with thall the deterlllining of a rule for the apportionment
of representatives alld of direct taxes. The al'ticles of the confedera-
tiOll had proposed to distribllte the quotas of the land forces among the
States, aecording to the nnmber of white inhabitallts. Hence the ques-
tion arose in the Oonstitution, why uot appOl'tioll l'cpresentation and
taxation according to populatioll '1 'rhc eadier session of the convell-
tiou revealed wide dift'm'ellees of opinion; but ultilllutely the majorit,y
settled down in the cOIlvietioIl that tbe principIe proposed in 1788 was
the best practical solution of the diffienlty. But other tronblesollle
questiolls arose. vVhat shall be tlle ratio of representation? And shall
it be fixed for an till1e to come, 01' shall it he left to Uongress to adjnst
it to the growtll of population ~ In determilling the basis of represen-
tatioll, shall the whole populatioll be cOLlllted ~ Row shall the llumber
of inhabitants be determilled, aud at wlmt periods ~ 'rIle answers to
tItese questions were almm;t as Illlmerous as tlle re¡,;poIHlents. The first
was a prolific sonrce nf debate, but it is dismissed as llot germane to
the pl'esent inqui1'Y. In answer to tlle sceond, some proposed that the
whole llumber of the inhabitants of every descl'iption should be couuted;
others, that Indians llOt taxed sltould he excluded; others still to suu-
tmet the class last named, together with two-fiftIts of the slaves. In
allswer to the third, it was agTeed on aU hands that a carefnl enumera-
tiOll wOllld be necessal'y. Row SOOIl shrtll t.Ite first oue he taken '? Two
years, tbl'ee yeal's, and six j'em'¡.;, from t11e first meeting of UOllg1'ess was
suggested. Row oftell sIlall the eUllmeratioll be repeated"? Here,
again, tIle1'c was contrariety of opinion. Eve1'Y ten yeal's, cvery fifteen
years, every twel1ty .yeal's, was insisted ou by th1'cc different classes,
respectively. 'rIlese perplexil1g questioTls conld be settle(l only by a
compromise of views. The matured deIiberatiolls of the majority took
this well-known f01'II1:


H"'presentatives anfl direct taxes slutll 11e apportiolicd among the several States
w licl lilay be inclUllerl within this UlIioll, according to their respective Hum hers,
which shall he l1etermined by aelding to tlle whole llUlllber of 1ree persons, includillg
thos" bOllnd to sen.-ice 1'01' a terlll 01' years, nnd excllUlilll!,' IndianA llOt taxcfl, thrcc-
fiftls of aH other persons. '['he actual clllllllcration shall be maele withiu three years
after the íirst meeting of the Congres,s of the 1!nitetl Btntf's, amI within every subse-
qllcnt term of t.en yeara, in such !llanner as they shall by law direct.


This COllstit.utionaI proyisioIl lws gin~n us at eadl decennial period,
conuIIencing with 1790, an enumera tio!l oí' populatioJl, amI in two iIl-
stauces (18'-)0 and 18(0) a Ilatioual censns. Morean (le .rOIlIleS, a dis-
tingllisbed Freneh writer 011 stat.istics, prOllounees this eulogiurn on tIlO
American founders :


The United Statcs presents in its hi,tory a phenomcua which has llO paraHel. It iB
that of a peop1e who institutcd tILe stat,i,ticR of their couu!ry 011 the very (lay when
they foumled t.heir gOYf'rnn1E'nt, m1(1 who regulat,e(1 in the Rame iustrument thc cen8US
of the citizCllS, their eh'il and politicnl rights alld tlw destinies of the country,


,¡. *' ... *' ~ * *' ':4 *'
H appears that. statistiflS was seriously IllLfIel'taken seventy years ago, by a people


who, though vcry jcalollH of tllPir liberties, dicInot hesit,ate to pnllish as a criminal
ojfellce what woultl other\\'ise be rf'garcted as au Ilnimportallt aet, 'ro ohtain the sta-
tisticH of poplllatioll is, in the Unitcd Rt.ates, a ('ivil dnty that appcared su importallt
to the assembly over which \Vashingtoll flI'csitIecl, amI of which 1Iadiaon, Livingston,
and Franklin were llleIllher~, that it pronounced }Jeualties against the inhabit.ant or
the magistrate who lle~lectcd it,


De JOllne.s's enlogiullL is Iwrbaps oYer-warlll. TIte American censns
is a growtli; the OOllstitutioll eOlltains simply tIte germ. There is no
evillence to sbow that the Ameriean fonnders, 01' any OIlC of tltem, COIl-
sidered the cOllstitutional proyisioll eited aboye in its scientific aspect.s ;
they had no thonght of c1'eating a censns, tIle results of which should




NINTH CENSUS. 35
answer the tllOllSal1d questiol1s of social and polítical sciel1ce; they con-
templated a simple enumeration of population, as furnishing a basis for
apportioning l'epresentatives aud direct taxes. Rnt if thc founders did
not look to the ends of seienee, tIte Y pl'ovided au instrument with which
the ends of science can be attained.


The iirst Congl'ess, at its second session, passed a law to carry the
constitutional provision into cffect. It was a:pproved March 1, 1790.
As tbis luw is t,he model after which subsequel1t laws are fashioned,
some of its leading provisions are here stated. It was made the dutl
of the marshals of the several distriets of thc United States to take
tIte enumeration, they ltaving power to appoint as mal1y assistants
within their respective districts as to tltem should appear necessarYi
the enumcration was to commence on the iirst l\Ionday in August, 1790,
and to close within nine calendar months thereafter i the marshaIs were
required to file the returns with the dcrks of their respective district
courts for careful prcservation, and to forward the aggregate alllount of
eacIt detlCription of persolls withill their respective districts to the Presi-
dent of the U llited States; each assistant marshal was required, pre-
vious to making his returll to t11e marsItal, to cause a corrcct copy of
tIte schedule, signed by himself, to be set up at two of the most public
places within his divisioll, there to remaill for public inspcction.


l'revious to tIte euactment of thc cellsus Iaw of 1800, some public-
spirited citizens, engaged in seientific and philosophical pursuits,
sought to prevail on COllgrcss to make the cemms of that yeal' something
more thall a hare ellumeratioll of population. Two learncd societies me-
morializcd Congress OI! tite sui!ject. Copies of their memorials are ¡neor-
pOl'ated into this paper, as heing importallt cOlltl'ibutions to the history
of t11e American census :


ME:'lOnIAL.


[Communicated to !be Sena!e Januu.ry 10, 1800.]


To the honorable the Scnale and nOU8f of Repl'csentath'es of tlte lJnited States :
Tlle memorial of the American 1:'hiloRopllical Society respectfuIly showeth: That


this soeidy, institute¡l for t,he promotioll of USCflll kllowlcuge, undel'standillg that the
legislatuI''' nf the LlIion have umler their cOllRideration a hill for taking a llew census
of the inlmbit:mts oí' the United Sta tes, cOllshlcrs it as o/fering an oCCUSiOll of great
Ytllue, alld lIut otherwisc to be ohtaillcd, uf asecrtaillillg sumIry faets highly important
to societ.r. Ull(lcr this illlprcssioll, they lwg l",ave resp('ctfll11y to snbmit to the wisuom
of the legisbtnre th¡; expedícncy of re¡lllÍring from their Offi¡;erR, in addition to the
tuble in tlle fonlle!' ud f()r the Rame pUl"pUSC, othcrs prescntilJg u more detuiled view of
the ínhahit:mts of the United States, nnder several diifcl'ent aspects_


They ~()1lsider it as important to determínB the efl:'¡;ct of the soil amI climute of the
United State;; on the inh~hit;]lltR thercof; and fuI' this pnrpose, divilling Jife into cer-
tain epochs, to ascertaín thc existing numbers withill each epoch, frum \\'hcllce muy be
calculated the ordinury durution of life in these Stutes, the chances of life for every
cpoch thereof, and the ratio of the increaRe of their populat,ion; firmly heJieving that
the result wil! be sensibly llifferent from whut is prcsentcd by the tables uf other
{'ountries, hy which we are, from llecessity, in the 1mbit of estimuting the probabilitics
of life here. Anrl they hnmhly 8nggest" aR proper for tlwse pUrpOSf'R, the intervals be-
tween the following epuchs, to \Vit: Births; two, fivc, tcn, sixteell, twenty-one, and
twenty-five years oí' age, and every tenn of five ;rears from thellce to one llUlIdrcd.


For the pnrpose, aIRO, of more exactly distingnishing the illcrease of popnlation by
hirth and emigratioll, thcy IJwpose that another table shall prcsent, in separate col-
nmns, the respective numbers of native citizens, citizens of foreign birth, and of
aliens.


In ordel' to ascertain more complctcly thc causes which iníluence life amI health, anll
to fnrnish a curious and nseful docnment of the distributioll uf society in thcse Rtates,
and of the conditiollS amI voeations of our fellow-eitizens, they propose that still
another table ¡¡hall be formed specifying, in different columns, the number of free male
inhabitullts, of a11 ages, engagcd in lmsilless, nlldcr the following 01' 8lleh other descrip-
tions as the gl'eatel' wisdom of the legislature ¡¡hall approve, to wit: 1st, men of the




36 NINTH CENSUS.
l"nnH'd profcssionR, includil1g clergymel1, lawyers, physicians, those employed in thf:
filll' al'ts, tcacher~, a11fl scribes in ge11ernl; 2<1, lllerchallt.s, amI tnules, illclluling ballk-
ers, insnrers, brokers, a11l1 dealers oi' ever.l killfl; 3d, marines; 4th, hantlicnlftsmen;
5th, lahorcrs in agricnlture; 6th, labol'f',l's of other tlescriptions; 7th, üOlllestic 8e1'-
vants; 8th, paupers; 9th, persons of no IHtl'tienlal' eallillg, living 011 thcir incomc; care
heing ta ken that ever.) persou 1.e 1l0lOd hut once in tho ta hle, and that ulHler the de-
sel'iptioll tu which he principall~' holongs.


Thc.l tlaHer themselyes that, from their dat¡t, trnth will result vcry satisfactorily to
Ollr citizens; that, nnder tlw joint iuHuenee of soíl, clirnate, amI oeeupatioll, the ,lnra-
t,ion of hnlllan life iu this portian of the ea.rth will be fonwl a.t lea"t cqnal to what it
is in any other; antlthat its popnlation illerea~e~ with a rupidit.l nncqualctl in aH
ot1H1rs. .


\Vlmt other views muy he aclvalltageonsl.' tak"n tltey 8nhmit, with tllOSC ahove sug-
gestecl, to the superior wisdom oi' Congre~H, in whose tlceision they will aC(llüesee with
llnqnalified respecto


By onlcr of the society :


XElIIORLlL.


THm,fAS JEFFERSUN,
[>,·e"ident.


[Commnnkateil to thH Sm"üe ,Tannary ]0, ]800,]


'1"0 the 7/Onorable ¡he Sonata and HOI/Be of RepI"P,eJltativcs of the lJniteü Sta/cs iJl Congl'css
aB8cmblcd:


Thc memorial oi' the UOllnecticut Aca<lemy oi' Arta aud Scienccs respectfnIly show-
eth: That this academy, beiug illstitutetl for the pnrpose of promotil1g the varions
branches of usefllllwowlec1ge, deem it [In obje¡:t very intlerestillg to a j"oung alltl flonr-
ishillg republie to hecome acqnainted with ita UWll natural hiator.)', and especially with
whatever regnrrls the origin amI l'ro~perit~' 01" its population. AnlPriea. elljoying a
seqnflsterecl sitnatiou ou thc glohe, Rt'elllS to he peculiarI.l tittt1,1, by Iwl' kisure amI
llleallH, tu cultivate the arts of peaee withont intelTul'tioll. TIte euitc,l St<tt,e~, COlll-
prcItclHling a, great variety of c1imate,;, have t]w power by legislative lllf'aSnres to
collect and combine 1!1Hler Olle vicw lllauy illlpOl'tant fads relatlve to thc eJI"ects uf
dimatc, molles oi" living, fa('e of the C011l1tl'y, a11(l occllpations Ul'0ll tIte .. lutl'acter oi'
diseases anel the c!ul'ation of hnman life. Aml your llIclllorialists caUl10t lJ1lt helieyo
tbat tite Icg"islatllre 01' Hüs extensive couuky ,~'iH consifler these ohjccts very inter-
esting in a seient,ific vicw, alld weH calcnlaterl t,(, ¡mswer v;¡lna1.Jle lHU'poscs in civil
econollly. Yonr memorialists conclOivc that to prescut ¡wd futnre gelwrations it ,,,ill
he highl.l gratifyiug tu ohs()rYc the progreSA of population in this conntry, alHI to he
a ble to trace the prupo1'tion of itd in crease frnm native Alllc1'icaus and frolll foreigners
emigrating at Sl1ecpssive perio!lsj to ObReryO tlw l'rog-ress 01' deelillf1 of vario118 oce,upn-
tiOlIS; tlw eft'eeís of 1'01'uIations, 111x11ry, meehanic arts, the cllltivation of laJl(lH, amI
tlw clminillg oi' marshes on the health amI 101lgevity of the eitizens 01' the Ullitell
States.


For tIte Recollll'lishment 01' these a.nd other scientiJic ohjects, to whieh OH this cx-
tensiye seale no individual intlustry ia competellt" your ULl'lllOrialists heg leave to
reqnest yonr honor8 to direc,t hy law that tlw llext c<,nsus of the inhabitants of the
United Rtates ma.' eOlllJlrehend the following particulars, namelj":


The Illl111ber oi' chíldren nnder the age oí" two ye¡trs, and oetween the ages of two
and Jive; tIJe 1111mher of pe1'80n8 betweeu the agcs of sixteen amI thirt~·, thirty ancl
tift.), fifty a11(1 seYl'llty, seycnt:v amI eighty, ninety and one hlln<1re<1, ¡HuI ahoye OllC
hnlldred, disting;uishing in eaeh clasa the mnles fmm tlw fenHllos; the n1lmher of per-
s..,s not born in thtl Uniteü Atates; tlw 111lll1bcr of persons in ench of thfl h:nHliernJt
occnpatious; tlIe l!1llllber oí" lllerchallts, enltivator8 of lnn<1, an,l profes,;iollal !llen,
!listingllishillg the professions; the 11lllllhér of Iwtl'rieü persons, 01' umnarried versons
aboye thirty year8 of age, oi' widows, a1l(1 widowers.


AmI .lour mcmorialists reqnest that the retllrns frorn the sevcral cities, tOWllS,
connties, or other distriets may he kept <1iRtinet.


As yonr mernorÜtlists haye in eoutemplation solel.) to eolled the materia.ls for a com-
plete view oi' the natural history of man amI soeioty in the eonutry, they have full
confillellce that y0111' honora will cheerfll11y 1cml the aiel 01' lcgislative 1'1'Oyisiolls in
snoh manner amI tu sneh !'xtent as shall be dl'lllanded effectnallv to attain so dcsi'rahlf'
=~~ .


By order of the acadelllj":
TIMOTHY DWWHT,


I'n8idenl.


The Senate referred these memorials to a committce a]rpad.r charged
with the duty of preparing a census law. It does not appcar from the




NIKTH CE~SUS. 37
journalof the Senate tItat this cOlllmittee, although instructed to do so,
ever made a reporto ~o mention is made of the memorials in the re-
corded debateR. These two faets show how little the legislature of 1800
were interested in the Reientifie bearings of a nutional census. 'fhe 1aw
finally elIaeted, approvetl February 28, 1800, was modeled after that of
1790, but eontained sorne new features of minor importanee. Tlle gen-
eral direction of the census was placed in the hallds oí the Seeretary of
Sta te, whcl'e it remailled ulltil tIte passage of the law of May 23, 18.')0,
when the Censns Office was made a part of the llewly-erected Depart-
Illent oi' t1w Interior. The schedule ,vas cOllsiderahly extended.


In uno the popu1ation schedule of 1800 was used withollt modifica-
tiOll. But now, for the first time, tlie scope of the eellSUS was elllarged.


An aet approved ),Iay 1,1810, amcndatOl'y of the aet oi' .!\farch 1, 1810,
required the several marshals, seeretaries, and theil' assistants, "at the
time for taking the censns 01' enmneration aforesaid, to take, under the
dircction of the Secretary of the Treasury, amI accordiug to snch in-
structiOllS as ho should give, an accoullt of the several manufacturing
establislutlents and manufactorics within their several distriets, ter-
ritorios, and divisions."


Still 'no schedule was incorporatell inlo the 1aw-it was 1eft to the
discretion of the Secretary to constructo The results obtained iu allswel'
to such inquiries as We1'8 made were of no great value; still the exper-
iment was l'epeated ten ycars latero


Tho law of MaTch 14, 1820, made it the duty of the " severalmarshals
and their assistants, at the time for taking the said census, to take,
Hnder the c1irection of the Sccretary of StMe, and according to such in-
structions as he shall gin, and such forms as he shall preseribe, an
accoullt of the several inalluf~tctnI'Íllg establishments amI their manu-
faetures, within their seyeral clistricts, territories, alld divisions."


These two attempts to gather statistics of manufactures were so Httle
successful, that in taldng the censns of 1880 the attempt was wholly
abanuonod. In 1840 a munufacturers' schedule was used; but it was
not unti1 the passage of the law of 1850 that results of Rubstantial
yalne were Hrrived ato Even that was so imperfcet in operation, that
in framing a lIew law no part of it needs to be more closely studied than
the industrial schedule. lt has been stated aboye that the census of the
United States is a growth, only the germ of which is found in the federal
Constitution. The fact is susceptible of more striking illustratioll. To
eomprehend the vigor and the extent of this growth, the schedule of in-
quiries used in the seyeral censases should be studied in their chrono-
logicalorder. To facilitate such study, they are here presented as thus
arranged. The study will show six sehedules, with more than one hun-
dred inquiries, in 1850 a11(11860, in place of the one schedule with six
inquiries in 1790.


[1790. ]
Schedule of the whole nmnbm' of pel'80n8 u:ithin the division al/otted to A. B.


N ames of beads of
families,


FTeC,Whitemalesl . 1 :Free wbite
All othcr free


persons.
of slxteen years Free w bIt e I females, in-
and npwa.l'd, 111- UlUle:'! under 1 d' 1 'd cl~dillg. heads I sixteen ycarS'j' ~flfa~¡hc~. s
of famihes. 1 1-1--


SJa"es,




I Name of th~ cOllnty, pnrish, township, town 01' city,
whel'e the í'amily resides.


~
00


----1 Name uf IWl1,Ioffamily. -~~ ------------ ~
;:<


'" I Free whito males nmIel' 10 years uf age.
I Free white males of 10 and nnder 16.


"" ~
.s,
~


'"


I Freo white mules of 16 amI under 26, including heads
of familios.


I ]'1'00 white males of 26 and nnder 45, including heuds
of families.


I Free white males of 45 ana upward, inelnding ho",18 of
f'aulÍliel:i.


I Free whlto femalos nudor 10 year. of age,


I Free white femalea of 10 yeara añd undcr 16.


'" ". e


'"' '" ::
'" "'" Z " ..,


..... ~ Z
>-:l


""
,...., p:¡ ~ ...... 00


O
e O


'"
o


t:j '" W N Z '" <fJ ~ C1 ~ S.
'"


---1 Free white female" of 16 and umIer 26, including
heads of familie8.


I Free white females oí' 26 amI ullI1er 45, including heads
of familics.


B;
'" ~:
~
~


-_____ ~I __ ~ _______


I Free white remalcs of 45 and ul'wanl, including heads
of familics.


1-
I All ~ther free persons, excopt Indians, not taxed.


I I Sla""s.


R'
.,..


S'
4..
~




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I C o t t . o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g € ' s t a b l i s h m e n t s .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - ' I - : C ' = ' o = t t o n d u e k : : : c . - - - ; ; - - - o - - - c c - _ : - : - : : - c , - _ , - - - _


1 1 I c m p c n m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t • .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 B l e n d e < 1 a n < 1 u n n a m e u c l o t _ h _ " _ R _ n d _ s t _ u _ f l s _ .


! T o w e 1 o t b .


! W o D I e n rnanufacturin~ e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I C o t t o n a m I w " o ! s p u n ~n m i l l s . _ _ _ _ _


I W e b l a c e a l l d f r i n g c .


1 S t o c k i n ¡ ( 8 ,


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 =Lc::O_Olll~_~~~}O_tl!H o f c o t t O I l


j


w o o l , & c .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 C u n U n g m a c h i l l e A .


1 F u l l i n g m i l l s ' - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ - - - - - - - -


I S e w i n g R i l k a m I r a w ¡ . ¡ i l k .


1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ l . T e I l u i e " ' s ' - . _ _ _ _


1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - ' I . . : . K p i l l d I P " .


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I Spinnill~ whpt:l~. _ _


1 H a t t e r i c s .


1 F n r n a c e s .


- - - - - 1 B a r i r o n . & c .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I~l!lp h a m m e r s .


_ _ ~ _ _ I Rolling_~lld s 1 i t t i n g l u i l l s .


1 N a i l e r i e s . - - : - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,


I I , V i r e dl'~~wilig_.


I


I G U I H u n i t h s .


1 B l a e k a l l l i l h s - c , - - W - O - - c ; l - k - - . - - - - - - - - - I


- - - - - - - - - c - I ~Steel fllrllact'~.


I H y d r a n H e eIl~Í1le Illakt~r8.


- - - - - - - - I - T R C k s . - - - - - - - -


1 C l o c k s a m I w ! l t d " , • .


1 G o l d " n d s i ! v e r w O I ' k .


- - - - - - - - - I T i n p l a t o wo><r~kco. _ _ ~-


- - - - - - - - - I - . M a n u f a c t " u r e s o f l l l i x e d m e t ' - : a ' ! s - . - - - - -


_ _ _ _ _ _ 1 C o p p e r a n < 1 b r a s s m a n u f a c t u r e s .


1 B o ) ] • .


- - - - - - - - - 1 Buffo~---


1 L~a<1.


- 1 T a l l o ' , , - · - c c - c a c - n ' d " - l o c c s - . - - - - - - - - - - -


I - S o a p .


1 ~permaceti c a n d I ¡ ; S : - - - - - - - - - -


- ---I-Spel'm~roil:


- - - - - - - - - 1 > v i I " ) e o i ! ,


--r~pt~rmam . . , t i H l l t i w h a l e - ü H .


- - - - - - - - - - - - ¡ I T a n n e r í e s . - - - - - - - - 1


- 1 B o o ! s , s b o e s , a n , C ' ¡ l i p p c r s , ¡


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; 1 ~,,<ltlleI'y. _ _ _ _ 1


1 M o r o e e o s k i n s . '


1 L e a t b o r g l o v e s . I


I C a t g u t . i


1 F l ú · s e e d o i l :


- - , - S I ü r i t s ,li~a1e<l f r O l l l g r a i n .


- - - - - - - - - I - S p i r l t s - ' 1 i s l i l l e d f r o m r u o l a : : ' : s s - e - , s - . - - - - -


1 A ) ] k i l l l l s " f " p i r i t a d i o t i l f e r l .


I - B e e r . - - = - - - ' - - " - - - - -


¡ - S h i p p i n g . - ¡


- - - - - - - - - I - C a b i I f f i t w o r l L '


1 C h a i r s .


I C i - u ' I ' i a g - e m a k e l " s .


I \ V a g o l l s .


----~----I-"Tüo"dc::e-=n-cw=ar=-c::-' = u : : n : : n - = a = m c c e " ' , d .


1 R a k e s .


1 E s s e n e e o f " p r u c e ,


I O H o r eSSell(~H 0 1 ' t u r p e n t = i n = e . ' - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ¡IHugarrefined_~. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : 1 P a p e r : - - - - -


I l ' l a y i n g c a r d 8 .


----------+I-:¡~Ci{?arM¡; s a w · m i l l s . - - - - - - - - - -


· S l l S N . : 3 : D H . L N . I N .


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M e n .


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r QII~lltity , u f r n a - I .~.


¡ cln~lery I I I o p e - ] : 1


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I 0 1 ' e H y . " , h ( ' r e t h e f a m i l y r e s i d e s .


~fl~~lies.


- - - - -


\ F r e e w h i t e m a l e s n n d e r 1 0 y e a r A .


- - - - - - -


I F r e ( . , whih~ m a l e s o f 1 0 a n d U l l ( l ! - - , T ' 1 6 .


_ _ _ ! ~'~~~~~ male8--b~tween ~~1~-8·.--- _ _


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1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~g ~~_l1_s_o_f _ f a m i l i _ e _ s _ . _ _ _ _ _


F r e e w h i L e m a l e s o f } ; ! ü a m I u l l r h - \ l ' 4 : > , i n c l u d -


i n g h c a d s u f f~lmilics.


- - - - ' - - - - - - -


1


F r e e w h i t e m a l e s ~i4!;--;;;;(1 u p w a r u , i l l C l u u -


i n g } l í ' a d s o í f a m i l i e H .


- - - -


- - - - r ' ( ) r e i g n e r s n o t l l a L u r a l i z e t ! .


l\l~lles u n d c r 1 4 .


I ) l a l e s o í 1 1 a n t l u n t l e r 2 6 .


~ ! ~r a l e s o f 2 6 a n , l n m I e r 4 5 .


§ - I


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: : \ T n l t ' s u f 4 5 a n d u p w a r d .


~~_L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


! F c - m a l e s o f 1 4 .


1


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F c m a l e s o f 2 6 f l l u l u n t I e r 4 . ' ) .


I ] " ' I I J a I " s o f 4 5 a m I u p w a n l .


- - - - - -


- - - - - \ - Y a I C S ~~14 y e n r H .


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- - - - : - - - - - - 1 " "


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----l~ales 0 1 ' ' 1 5 a n d u p w a r u . : - - - - 1 ;


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¡---------------¡I-~,. a n l e o í ' c o u n t y , t'ity~ w a n L t , O W I l . t o w n s h i p , p a r i s b ,


l ' I ' e c i n c t , h n n d r f ' d , 0 1 ' d i s t r i c t . : . - . , - - _ - , - _ _


_ _ I S n d e r 5 ~~'S o í ' a g p . - - 1


I O . f 5 a l l d l l l l l l O I . ' 1 0 . . \


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~1-0f 1 5 a m I l l u c h ' ! ' 2 0 .


I O f 2 0 a u d " n ( l " i · 3 0 ' - . - - - - - - - - -


I O f - 3 0 a m l u " , l e r 4 0 . \ t : : :


I O f · 1 0 " , u d u n u e r 5 0 , ~


I O f 5 0 " , m I u n < l e r 6 0 , ' ! '


L Q f 6 0 a m l u u d e r 7 0 . - - - - - - . 1


I O í ' ; 0 a n d u m l e r S O .


I O f ~o " u d u n d e r ~o.


I O f ~O a m l u l H l e r l O O ,


- - - - - - - - - - - - 1 O f l O O m l l 1 n 1 ' w a r c l .


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SCHEDn,E 6.-Social Statistic8 of 1850 and 1860.


~ AXNUAL 'fAXES. COLT.EGES, ACADRUIEt:i, AXl> ::;ClIOOLS.
"¡;'


;a
'c:


!
Valuation of estate, real amI


I·ersonal. K,m", OI' ki["lll A mOllTlt I Ro '1
of cacho of cach'l w pau .


Ch t I ~ 1\.mol:'t allllU- --- -- -- I ---- -----
aT~(, cr, I XO.of :\o.o[ al1y I'I';db:PII l~ai~ll by Itrce1yctl from I "Hce<'ive<l fl'om ~';::d: 01' t"",,1I .. I'". pupils. :~~:~.("mlow. taxati011. lmulí" í"uIlIIH. otILe,. HonTee •• ::-;-0.


2 ~ 5 6 10 11 12 13


TIpal pstate ........... $
ppl'sonal est.ate _. ____ .


Total. ............ .
Howvalnctl ? ... ___ .. .


Trlle Yalllation. _ .. __ . _


8EASO~¡; ANlJ CHOI'S, I
\Vh~~:~1~-;'l-I'~~tT TI~~-~~;-
al'l~?"rt· eX~::lt~111 [¡¡.(e1:~oP. I
-·---I~· .. --


------


" :§ I..l1~HAHIES. XLWtiPAl'EIL8 -,,\~D }'EUlOllICAT.S. nF.LHao~.
-~


"" .... ~ 11'\0. ¡¡
'" Z


Charaet,l'r. How unen puu- CirrnlatiOll. ! ~-o. of I .. ¡ Xo. Plldl wi11 I Valneofchurch lislleu. chnl'cheH. DE'llOImnaholl.; acconnuodate. })l'operty .
-_.---


x o. of Yolllml'~. ¡
I


__________ 1


.xame. Rind.


17 18 19 20 21 22 Zl 24 25 26 ~7 28


IJ;>
O":


2:
H


2:
>-3


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a


t::1
2:


('f)
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rn




NINTH CENSUS. 47
The growth oí the American censm; cannot be illnstrated in a more


Rtriking manner than by making :tn ex]übit of the varions census pnb-
Iicatioris, ana of the cORt of taldng thc sm-erul censuses ana publishing
the resultR. Such an exhibit is here appended:


1790.-" Retnr'll of the whole nnrnber of persoIls within the several
districts of the United States, &c." This first census publientioIl was
an octavo pamphlet of fifty-two pages, publishecl in 1792. Thc entire
eost of this census was $44.377 18-


1800.-" Heturn oi' the ,,:hole nurnber of persons within the several
districts of tite Ullited States, &c." This was a folio oí' seventr-eight
pages, l'ublished in 1801. 1'he cost of this census was $66,609 04.


1810.-The report of this census was in two folio volumes: 1. "Aggre-
gate amount of each description of persoTts within the Ullited States,
&e." This was an oblong folio of llillety pages; hnt it .Ioes uot sllow
the date oí" publieation. Ir." A series 01' Tables of the severaI branches
of American :Manufactllres, exhibitillg them in eyery County oí' the
Union, so far as they are retlll'lH:,d in the Reports of the lVIarshals and of
the Secretl1l'ies of the Territories, aUlI of their respective assistallts, in


. the autnmn of the yeal' 1810: togetlter with rctnrns of cedain doubtful
goods, prodlletiollS of the soil amI agricultural stock, so far as they
haye been receivt>tl." 170 pp., 4to. Edited by Tcneh Coxe, amI pub-
Iished May 30, 1813. The cost of the censns of 1810, S1178,444 67.


1820.-1. ,. Oemms for 1820, &c./' a folio oí' one hUlldred alld sixty-tour
pages; pnblished in 1821. II." Digest of ACCOlllltS of .:\lallufaetnr-
ing ESbLblishments, &c.," a folio oí' Olle hundred pages, prillteel in 1823.
Cost of tIte ('PUStlS, $20S,52;3 UU.


1830.-" Fifth Ol'!lsm; or Ennmeration of tIle 1nhabitants oí' t11e Ullitecl
States." This voIume was a large folio of 163 pagos, printed in 1832.
This report was so wretchedly printed, that Congl'ess required by law
a republicatioll, whieh was made tIte same yeal' uneler the immediate
direetioll oí' the Secretary of' Statc. The erroneous and correeted edi-
tions are bonnd togethel'. This republicatioll enhanced the eost of this
censns to $:378,543 13.


1840.-1. "Colllpelldium of the EllUlneratiOll of the 1lIhahitallts and
Statisti<~s of the United Statei-l," a folio of 37U pages, prillted in 1841.
IT. "Sixth Cellsus 01' Enmllcration oí' tlw Inhabitants 01' tite Ullited
States," folio of 470 pagefi, 1841. IlI." Statistics of the United States,
&e.," a large, oblong folio of 410 pages, 1841. IV." Cellsus of Pension-
ers for Re\-olntiollary nnd .i\Iilitnry ~el'Yiee, with their llames, ages, ancl
places 01' residellec, &e/' 4to, UHi pages.


The total eost 01' thefie ccnsnses ",as $833,370 95. .
1850.-I. "The Sewllth Cellsus of the Unitcd States," qnarto oí' 1,02~


pp., 185:3. lI." Statistieal View 01' tIle United States," oetayo of 400
pp.,1854. ITI. "Mortality Statisties ofthe SeYellth Censns, &c.," octavo,
pp. 304,1835. IV. "Digest oftlle Statistics of l\Iallufaetnres," octavo, pp.
143, publislted in 185U as Senate Bx. Doc. No. ;)9, seeond session thirty-
fifth Congress. Cost np to September 30, 1853, $1,318,0:37 53. Thcre
were three 01' fonr subseqnent apprOIJriations for this cellsus, amounting
to aoout $11,000.


1860.-I. "Preliminary l~eport of the Eighth Cellsns, 1860," octavo,
~94 pages, 1862. II. "Final Heport," in four q narto yolumes, as 1'ollows :


Volnmc I. "PopnIatioll," pp. 6U4. Pnblished in 1864.
Volume II. "Agrienltllre," pp. 29;¿. Published in 1864.
Volume IIL "Manufactures," pp. 746. Pnblished in 1865.
Volumc IV. "l\fol'Íalit,r alld .:vliseeIlalleous Statistics," pp .. 584. Pub·


lished in 1866.




48 Nr~TH CENSUS.


Tho appropriatiolls fol' this ernsus havr amoullted to $1,7SG,3,'"íO 73,
and over S~OO,OOO remain nnpaid, chiefiy the final payments to assist-
ant mars]¡als in the southern States, for which no appropl'iatioIls have
been maue.


Thc fOI'cgoing historieal view of the rise and progressof the American
CCllSUS SllOWS that its dr,'rloplllPut has bren, ilt tlle main, uniform auu
constant. Still t\Vo dates may be fixed upon that are justly elltitled to
be called eras: 1787, t11r era of tlle Constitntion, when tbe national gov-
erIllllPut made itself respollsible for taking a decCllllial cnurueratioIl of
the pcopIe; lS;')(), WhCIl the law nnder w11ieh the last two censuses \Vere
takcn, was passed-a law that gave us in 1860 the most eomplete eensus
thut any natioI! has ever hado vVith thc lapse of the last twenty years
statistical science, and the ceusas espeeially, 01' au illstrumellt of t11e
oellsus, has llUHIp rapid progress. Paralld witlt tito growth ofstatistimtl
scioneo thero h.HS becn an astollishing development of the po \Ver of tl1e
Ámeriean people alld the resourees of our eountry. Tite time has come
WhCIl, in t'raming a Hew law, a1l0t11er stop in the advaneo shonl<1 be
taken-a step so important that 1870, like 1850 um11787, muy hereafter
be poillted to as an epodl in the growth of the national eemmi-!.


\Vhile reeognizing the grcat relative lUcrits of the last eensns, it is
also evident that the importallt ath~anees made in sodal science, and tbe
gl'eat eIlallg(~S that lmn~ oconrrc(1 in Olll' eOlllltI''y cInring the last deeade,
require a 1'cvision of tIle la\\'.


'1'0 thi8 end tlle eOllllllittee ha\~e rxalllined the principal defeds in
tlle metllods amI inqniries of tlle cxisting law, amI will point ont tlle
remedies proposed in the pending bill.


I.-DEFECTS IN TIIE PRESEN'l' :\IE'l'HOD UF 'l'AICING TIIE CENSUS.


1. Tlle work of taking the census shonlu no longer he eonllnitted to tllfl
cha1'ge of the Unit(,d States mari-!lmls. TIlCse offie~'rs helong to the
judicial (1epartment of tlw g'!H'el'Ilment; are llOt e1lOsen with a view to
their fitness for census-taking, 01' any statistieal inquiry; and whether
so qualilied 01' nol, tlle greatly illcreased duties devolY(~d UpOIl tllPIIl by
the revcnlle l:l'vs, lmnkrnpt laws, am1 otller legislation, sincc tIJe Jast
eellSUS \Vas taken, make it more difficult now th:m c,'er before for them
to do this WOl'k alld do it \\'e11; amI in t he popular mind they are so
associated with arrcsts and seizures that tlteir eensus yisits will ereate
uneasiness and snspioio1l8.


The uncqnal siw of territor,Y cmuraeed in thoi1' several districts lcads
to an unequal and nnwise distribution of the duties oi' superdsion,
amI this injnl'ionsly affeets the llniformity, prolllptne~s, and effieielley of
tbe work. One is oharged wit11 tho snpcl'vision of all tho censns work
in Massachnsetts, with its mil1ioll ane1 a quarter of inhabitants, while
another ¡mpel'intClHls a distriet clllbl'acillg hut olle-half of Florida, anü a
population of SCYCllty thonsand, and allothcr has but one-third of Ala-
bama and a popnlation of three hundred and twellty thommnd.


There are sixty-two jnc1ieial di~tl'iet~ alld as many ma.r~hals. Thirty-
t11ree af the States and Territories compase eaeh a singe district. Ten
States eontaill two distl'iets eaeh, alld thl'ee are di Yided iuto t11ree distriets
eaeh.


This is not only an nnequal distl'ibntion of dnty, but the growth of the
oountry has made mau'y of tIle c1i~triets too large for auy olle lflHll to per-
form thorollghly amI expcditiously the \York of 8npervision.


2. Too mneh time is aIlowed in taking the eensus and publishing its
l'esnlts.




NINTH CENSUS. 49


The law of ~Iny 23,18,)0, nndor whieh the soventh and eighth censuses
were taken, allmvs five mOllths in which to make tIle enumeration anu
make tIle retul'llS to \Yasltillgton, anu autIlorizes tIle Seeretary of tho
Interior to extellu the time in certa:in cases. It contains no provision
cOIlcerlling the time of publication. As a consequenee, the main roport
for 1850 was not printed till18:>:1, amI tIle volume l'elating to manufac-
tures was not printed till185D. The prelimillary report of 1860 was not
printed till1863; tIle fuU reports on population allu agriculture were
delayed till 1864, and those OH ll1anufactnres and IllOrtality till thc onu
of 1861:t


H has been strollgly Ul'ged tIlat the enUlueration should be made in a
single day, and the example of England is cited to sIlow that it is practi-
cable. The inquiries made in the British censns are veryfewin number,
and almost exclusively confilled to fads of population. General statistics
are not proyided for in their census.


Again, the small extent oí" territory to he traversed anu the densit.y of
tho poplllatioTl IlIake it possible to cal'l'y ont a plan there which woulu
prove a disasÜ'ous failure here, with our vast areas anu sparse popula-
tion.


TIle census is our only illstrument of general statistics, and must be
more elabora te than that of coulltries Ilayillg' permanent statistical
bllreaus; amI as onr ellumeration is 1l0t of tIte actual 1mt the legal popu-
lation, a longer time, say oue monLh, can safely he allowed.


3. Another importallt matter (whieh affectR, aIso, the questioIl of tiJUe)
is tIle })l'esent ol\ieetionable method of obtaining the population statistics.
The cellsus-taker caUs on a fiUllily and spreads before them his arra.r of
blanks, which they tlien see for the fil'st time. SllspiciollS ofIlis inquisito-
rial charncter must be aUayed; fears that it is an assessment for purposes
of taxation must be quieted; the suhject mURt be explained, the memo-
ries of the fiunily stimulated, aud the data they fnrnish criticisod and
recorded.


A vf'ry capable gentleman, who was an assistant marshal in 1860, has
ostimated the average time requil'ecl for each family, exclusive of travel,
at thirty minuteRo 'fhus an 1I0nest day's work would accomplish the
enumeration of not more than twenty familios. Far more important
than the waste of time is tilo inaccuracv which must result frolll this
method. lt is nnt l'eaRonahle to suppos~ that a family can in lIalf an
hour rnake anything li1\:e a complete aud accurate statement of a great
number of details to which they haye llOt previously given any speeial
attention.


4. The operatiolls of the Censns Office nnder the }Jresent law are llot
suffieiently confid(~ntiaJ. The eitizen is 1\ot adequately proteeted fl'Olll the
danger, or mthcr tbe apprehension, that his private afl'airs, the secrets
ofhis family and his husinesR, will be diseloRecl to his neighbors.


The facts g'iven by the memhel's of 011e family will be seen by aU those
whose reeord succeeds them on the same blank; aucl the undigested
returns at the central offiee are llOt pl'opel'ly guarded against being made
the qllarry of hookmakers ancl pamphletoers.


5. The rule of compensation is arbitrary, complicateu, anu of uouhtflll
wisclom.


Olle rule is followeu in pa;ying the officers anu emploJés at the eentral
officc, another for the marshals, and still another for the assistant mar-
shals. One principIe of compensation is adopted for ennmcrating the
inhabitants; another for taking tIle statistics of industry; another for
mileage; ami still another for copying returns.


lt has been cbarged, on what appear to be reasonable gronnus, that
H.Rep.3-4




50 NINTH CENSUS.
these rules offer temptations to exaggerate some parts of the returm:
and to make constructive charges whieh swell tbe expenses to an unrea-
sonable degree.


lt should be added that the great change which has occurrep in priees
and wagcs sincc the passag'e of the law makes the rule inapplicable to
the present cOlldition of affairs.


To remedy these defects tbis bill provides that the enumeratioll sha11
be made by persons chosen for theiI' special fitIless foI' such work, alld
in no way eonnected with the llatiollaI eonstabuIary 01' with the assess-
ment 01' collection of taxes.


The districts should'be Inl1eh srnaller than they now are-so small that
.0nemaIl maj' intelligentIy arrange the work, designate census-takers of
whose qualiticatiolls amI titness he may easily have fu11 knowledge, and
personally supervise anel unify a11 tIle work within his jurisdiction.


The congressional district seems to be the most convenient and appro-
priate unit of classificatioll 1'01' the States; and each 'l'el'rüory ma~y
properIy, as under the present law, constitute a district.


Separate schedules, at least foI' the housebold, tIle farm, and for man-
ufacturing and commercial and othcr industrial esta blishmellts, are to
be distributed before the day to which the enumeration relates, so that
the pcople may he filllliliarized with the inquiries made, and that, as far
as possible, without the aid of the census-taker, the blanks may be
filled up.


This will insure greater corI'ectness and will greatly reduce the time
requirecl for the enumeration. By the use of these schedules and the
organization provided in tbe hill it is belüwed that tIle enumeration ma,r
actually be completed in one month from the first oi' JUlIe.


The committee proposeto put into tbe law and into fhe official oath
of a11 officers amI employés of the llUl'eau a pl'ovisioll that the retuI'Ils
of the census shall be confidential; that the business of no eitizen shall
be made puhlie, alld that the returns 01' llloney vallles sha11 uot in allj'
way be made the basis of taxatioll HOI' be used as eYidmICe in tile
conrts.


These proyisiOllS of tbe law sbould be printed on tIle schedules, and
the President sbould issue his proclamation callillg upon al] the people
to aid in making the returns as full and accurate as possible.


A liberal compellsatioll in the simple form of s:llaI''y 01' per diem, witb
no mileage or cOllstructiye eharges, is pl'ovided, ane! the tirue during
which persons may l'eceive compensatioll iH caI'eflllly restricted.


A sufficient clerical force is provided in the Census Office at \Yashing-
ton to tabulate, condense, ancl al'range the whole for publication within
two and a half vears atter the retnrlls are in.


The reslllts o~lght to be published in a form considerably more COll-
den sed than in the !ast reporto


II,-DEFECTS IN 'J.'HE INQUIRIES PHESCRIllED IN TlIE SClIEDULES OF
TlIE PRESENT LAW.


1. Stati.~tieR o/ Population an(llJIortaZity.-As nUlllbered in thc eellSU¡;;
of 1860, the first three schedule s relate to statistics of population and
mortality; tIle second had exclusive reference to 151 aves. ""Ve are now
bappily one people, aIHlneed hut one sehedule 01' population.


AH the inquiries retainecl frolll the three lllLYC heen entcred outhe falllily
schedule, and by dropping the nine inquiI'ies of the slave schedule, otber
important ones haye been added without greatlJ' illcreasingthe aggregate
lllunber. N one of the inquiries oi' the first amI thinl schedules have been




NI~TH CEKSUS. 51
wholly omitted, but "enrallmve lJeell modified. That relating to color
has been made to illcllHle dillstillcíively the Chillese, so as to throw some
lig-ht OH the gnlve questiolls whieh the :ll'l'ival of the Celestials among us
has raised.


Tlle committee belitwe that the yalue of the inquiry in 1'eganl to chil-
dren attending sehool will be gl'eatly cnhaneed h.y requiring the enu-
merator to enter uncler that head the grade of "ehool-w hether a eommOll
Rehool, academy, eollege, 01' pl'OfeRSional Rchool. This has been done on
the schedule relating to educational institlltiollS. The registration of
those wbo cannot read amI wl'ite iR required in the old law only of per-
sons twenty years of age and upwan1. This elass has been extended
to persOIlS fifteen years old. It is more important to lmow how many
il1iterate pel'sons there are betwecll the ages of fifteen amI twenty than
at any later pel'iod, for betwecn ten aIld twenty it is usuall.y determined
whether an c(lneation is gainecl 01' lost.


The last column of thc first sehedule has been so amended as to ex-
hibit more fulIy the physicalfol'ce of thc eountry. The war hasleft us so
many mntilatcd mea that a reeord shonld lJe made of tbo:,;e who have
lost a limb 01' haye been otherwise disahled; aud tIle committee have
added an inqnil'Y to sIlow the state of publie health alld the prevale11ee
of some of the principal (liseas(~s. Dr. J arvis, of .M:assachusetts, oue of
the highest living authorities 011 vital statisties, in a masterly papel' pre-
sented to the eOllllllittee, ul'ged the impol'tanee of measuring as aeeu-
rate1y as possible the cffeetin; physieal st1'ength of the people.


It is uot generally knowll hJW large a proportiOll of eaeh llation iR
wholly (JI' partially un1itted by physical disibility fo1' selfsupport. The
stati:,;tics of Franee show that in 1851, in a population of less than
thil'ty-six millions, the deaf, dumb, blind, dcfonued, idiotic, aud those
otIle1'wise mutilatcd 01' disahled, amounted to almost two millions. \Ve
thuR see that in a eountry of the highest eivilization the effective
strcngth oí' its populatioll is l'eüueed one-eighteenth lJy physical defects.
,Yhat general would yenture to eondnet a ealllpaign without aseertain-
illg the physical qualities of his soldius as well as the IlUlllhel' on his
ro11s·~ In this great ilHlnstrial hattle whieh this nation is now fighting
we ought to take eyery ayailalJle means to aseeríain the efteet·ive
strength oí' the eOllntry. Beside the illquiries in thesc sehedules that
have been amemled, a fcw new ones have beell added ..


Sillee the present censns law \Vas passetl an intel'llational stati8tieal
socict:y has beeu organized, and the prof4:lundest scholars of Europe and
Ameriea have united to give it autltOl'üy and effieiency in the treatlllent
oi' social questions. At several of its sessions the sulüect of national
censuses Itas heen vel'y ahly autl elaborately discussed, and recollllllenda
tiOllS have beell made looking to greater effieieney and uniformity hoth
in methods and iUfJuiries. A collation and eOlllparison of the personal
statistics of twelltvsevell Illodel'u States and nations show that in an
these States theré have been thil'ty-thl'ee difI'cl'ont iJl(lniries made in
l'egard to popnlatioll. From these the intel'llatiol1al COl1gress seleeted
eight, which tltey reeommemled to all nations as indispensable f'or pur-
poses of general statistieal seienee, ancl seyen others whieh the:y urged
the use of whenever it was praeticalJle. Two of the in quiries urged by
the eongress as indispensalJle are 1I0t in the old schedule of population,
but are here added. Oue is the relation of caeh pel'son to the hcad oí'
the family, whethel' wife, son, daugbter, boal'der, selTant, &c.; and the
other is the eivil 01' conjugal cOlldition of caeh perSOll, whether single,
marl'ied, 01' widowerl. These elemellts are the ]eadÍl~g factors which




52 NINTH CENSUS.
determine the power and yalne of the family as a social and prodncing
force, and in them are intolded the destiny of the nation.


Two othe!' inquiries not in onr schedules were snggested as aclvisable,
namely, the language spoken and the religion })rofessed by each per-
son. But in a nation whoRe speeeh is so nearly one, the first is hardly
lleeded in addition to the light that will be thrown upoÍl thiR question
by the record of nationality, and tIle second might be dccmed an un-
called-f()I' impcrtiuence, amI the committee thereíore omitted them.


lt has been strongly urged, alld with good 1'eason, that to the inquiry
of the birth-place there shouId be added the birth-places of the filther
amI mother of each persono ThiR would enable us 1,0 aseertain the
relatiye fCCIlTH]ity of our American and foreign-llOrn populations. It
has lately been asserted that the old ratio of illcrease alllong onr native
populatioll is rapidly diminishing. If this be trne tIle vitalIy important
fact should be asccrtaincd and its fnll extellt alld sigllificanee detor-
mined.


The inqniry cOllccrnillg parclltage was insertcd in the schednle by the
COlllmittee. An illqniry was also added in regard to dwellillg-llOuses, so
as to exhibit the Reyeral priueipal materials of eonstI'llctioll, as wcíod,
brick, stonc, &e., alld tIlo prc8ent valno of each. Few thiugs indicate
more fnlIy the conclition of a people thall the houReR they oecupy. The
average home is IlOt an impel'fed pietm'e of the wealth, eomfort, refine-
ment, and cidlization of the ayerage citizen. Tbe census ought to
show us how comtin'Íable a place iR tIte aYPl'age -'··..J1Hl1'i<~llIl llOme, alld
how grcat a physieal ancl social force is the aycrage American citizen.


The cOlluuiUeo conduele tho discussion of personal Rtatistics \yith one
fnrther statement.


Tbe thirteellth and fonrteentIl alllendlllents of the 11ational Oonstitu-
tion haye radioalIy ehanged the basis of representatioIl autl ]ll'Ovided
for a redistl'ibntion of political power. By the former, two-fifths of
thoRe w 110 \Yere lately Rla \-eR are added to the rOpl'eRelltati ve poplllatioll;
by the lattel', the basis for each Atate i8 to he detel'luined hy finding
the \Vll010 number of male eitizens twellt.r-olle ,'ft>am of age,yhose right
to vote is denied 01' abridged for any othe1' re aso n thml lllU'ticip:ttioll in
the rebeUion or othel' orinie, ancl reducing tho whole populatioll in tho
proportion whioh the number tlms eXdllde(l heal's to the wholo number
of aduH male citizens.


The censns is OH1" only cOllstitntiollal means of deLermilling the politi-
calor representatiye populatiOllo. TIle fourteenth ítll1endmeut, has made
that work a difficnlt one. At the time of its adoption it was gellera11y
umlerstood that the exclusion applicd only to colorel1 people who shonld
be denied the ballot by the laws of their State. Bnt the lal1gnago of
the al'tiele exclucles a11 \VIlo are c1cnic(l the ballot on ally and alI grounds
other than the two speeified. This has mude it nocessar'y to aseertain
what are in fact the gronnds of slleh exdusion, aml tho Oensus Oom-
mittec haye compiled a record froll1 the constitlltionR anel laws of the
seyeral StateH froll1 whieh exelusion from the priyilege of Yoting (ot11er-
wiHe 1,han on accoullt of rebellion 01' othel' CI'ime) may be stated in ninc
general e1asses as folIowR:


1. On ltCCollnt of rae e 01' color ___________________________________________ 16 States.
2. On accouut of rcsidence on lal1lIs nf Unitf'<1 State8 ____________________ 2 "


On account of residence less thnn l'eClllil'ctl time in Lllitcd States ______ 2 "
On accOllllt.of resi(hmce in :'ltate le~s than re'll1ire(l time, (six diffm'cllt


specificatiolls) ____________ , ____________ . ____________________ , ______ 36
On account of residcnce in COllllty, dty, tOWll, clistriet., &c., (eighteen


diíl'erent speeificatinns) ____________________________________________ 37
:3. vVanting pl'UpCl'ty qualificatious 01' nou-paylllellt of taxes, (eight sl'cci-fications) __ .................. _ . _________________________ .. ___ . ______ 8


"


"


"




NINTH CENSUS. 53
4. "\Vanting litcrary (lUulificatiolls, (two spccification~) ____ ...... 2 States.
5. On arcOllllt of clutracter 01' h¡;havior, (two specifications) . ___ ...... _ ... 2 "
6. On aCe0l111t of Hel'YleeH in HI'llly 01' n:lvy ______________________________ 2 "
7. On account ofpanpcri~m, idioc~', mal insanity, (scvcn spccificationR) ___ 24 "
8. Reqnirillg certain oaths as preliminary to yoting, (two specifications) . 5 "
9. Other causeR of exchudoll, (t1n) Rpeeificatiolls) ________________ o. ____ o. 2 "
After much rcflcction the committee could deYise no better wlly tban


to add to the family schedule a column for reeording t110se who are
,oters, and anot1lel' with this heading, copied substllntially from the
amendment: "Citizens of the United States, being twent,y-one yellrs of
age, whose right tn vote ü; denie(l or abridged 011 ot11er grounds than
rebellion 01' crime." It may be objected that this will alIow the citizen
to be a jndge of the law as weH as the fad, and that it will be difficuIt
to get trne and aeeurate answers. I can only say this is the best method
that has been ~mggested.


Dr. ,Tarvis presenterl to the c0Il1111ittee all able argument in fayor of
taking tlw actual as weH as t1le leglll population of tbe conntry. 'Vhile
the committee aekllO\rledgp tlle scielltific \'allle of su eh an ennmeration,
yet it is e"ident that to take it \vith sllfficient aeenraey tIte ennmeration
lllUSt be malle in so sh01"t á time llS to endallger the fllllness and aceuracy
of answers in the othe1' selledules, and t11e two results thus obtained
would greatly eomplicllte and increase the difficulty of determining the
representa ti ni pO}Jlllation.


Tite eOllllllittce gave to tIle schedule of agriculture a Yery carefnl and
protracted consideration. Tlte sdledule, as snggested by t11e Cornrnis-
sione1' of Agricultnre, eontained t,vo 1InlH1rcd amI forty-six colurnns oí"
in quiries. After reileated revisions and consÍllerations of the material
presented, the comrnittmi Rettlpd npOll the sehedule reported in this bill,
whiell eontains scventy-three columns, to ,vhich'a few otl18rs llave be en
added by the House, and is, the eOllllllittee venture to elairn, a, great
impro\'ement. 011 tht' Rehedule oi" the old law, ,vhieh cOlltailled fort.y-eight
inquiries. Tbe ad<litions rnade in tIle cOlTeRpondillg schedule in this
hill rnay he elassifie(1 as f()llows:


1. All inquiry to sIlow b:r what tellnre tIle occupier holds his farm,
whethe1' as ownc1' 01' tennut.


2. AII extensioll of the prcsent classineation of lands as "improved
01' unimp1'O\-ed," so as to exhibit sepllrntely t11e aereR culti\'ated amI Jlot
cultivatecl, all(] the am·es of wo()(lland arHl of nncnltivated pastnre.


3. Au inquiry iuto the value oi' farm l,mildillgs otIler than dwelling.
houses.


4. An inqniry into the total vallle oi' all labor expended on the farm
duriug the :real'.


5. An inqniry iuto the average T1nmber oi" cows milked duriug the
year.


6. A separate exhihit oi' tIle eheese made 011 the farm aud that made
at factories.


7. Iustead of tlw pl'esent exhihit of tlle nggregate value of all
slaughtered nnimals, a separate statement of tho valne of slughtererl
cattle, hogs, and sheep.


8. A statement of t11e valne oi' all the poultry 011 tllO farm aud the
value of its products <lnring tIte year.


9. In addition to tIte statisticf\ of ,rine prollllced, a, statement of the
value of gra.pes sold which wore not lII~\(le ¡lito wine.


10. An omission from tIle seherlnle of "water-rotted hemp." It is uot
thus treated in this eouutry, as in 1St)!) was supposod it would be.


11. An ornission also oí' tIle Rilk culture, which has not fulfilled the
p1'omise of tbe days of morU8 ?nulticaul'i8.




54 N INTB CENSUS.
12. ~~ statement as regards all tbe principal crops, of the acreage as


well as tlle amonnt of producto The irnportance of this last element
cannot be over estimated. vVithont it we callnot learn the "ield of tbe
slweral products in di1'ferent localities, and the increasc 01'< dec1'ease of
tbat yicld at diffc1'cnt periods. It is \Vell known, 1'01' example, that the
eenter of tbe wheat prodnct has been rapidly llIoving' \Vest, but its track
antl rapidity of movement canllot be traced without knowing both the
acres sowll.and the bushels pl'oduced.


It is believed that the schedule thus amcnded will enable us to ascer-
tailL the elements of those wOllderful forces which have made our coun-
try the granary of the civilized worhl; will exhibit also the defects in
our agricultural methods, and stinmlate our farrne1's to adopt those
mean s whieh have donbled the agricultural products of Ellgland since
the cla.ys of the Stuarts, and have more than doubled the comfo1'ts of
he1' people. The extent 01' that great progress can be seen in such facts
as these: that "in the reign 01' Hel1l'y VIl fresh meat \Vas never eaten
even hy the gentlernen attelldant 011 a great ead except cluring the
short interval between midsnnnnel' and lYliclwelmas," because no ade-
quate meallS were known 01' fattening cattle in the winter, 01' even of
pl'evellting the death of one-fifth of their whole nllmber each yeal'; that
Catharine, queen of Charles II, sellt to Flallders for her salad, which
the wretched garclening of England did llOt suftieiently provide.


Russia alone of Europeall States malees ally considerable surplus con-
tribution to the food oi' the ,",orh1. The United States must continue
to be the maill someo 01' supply. The fact stated by MI'. S. TI. Ruggles,
delegate of the 'Gnited States to tIle luternational Statistical COllgress,
which met at the llague, in September last, is 01' startling importan ce :
that in 1868 the whole of Europe, with a populatioll 01' :J96,123,293
souls, produced cereals to the amount of 4,íS4,51ü,ü04 imperial bnshels,
01' sixteen bnshels to ea eh person; while tbe Ullited States, during the
Same year, with a popnlation of 39,000,000, producecl 1 ,40i",449,OOO bnsh-
els, 01' thirty-six bushels to each perSOll.


IlI. Sl'Al'ISTICS OF INDUSTRY.


Tlús schedule, the fifth of the series ill tbe old la,"" has performed
exceetlin/.!,'ly valuable ser',ice to the country antl to statistical seience.
It is said to be the first of its kintl ever successfully usecl in any
llational censlls; but it can be improved in several particulars.


1. There are two scrions defects in the heading 01' the til'st columll,
which reads as follows: "~amc of cOl'poration, eompally, 01' individual
producing articles to the allllual yalue of $.300."


The first defect is in the wonl "al'ticles," which has been cOllstrued
1,0 meall llIerehantable artieles, 01' snch produds of manufacture as can
be done np in packages and sold oyer the couuter as nwrchandise. A
large proportion oí' all the producís of indllstry cannot thus be halldled.
The eal'penter, mason, plasterer, pllllllber, pailltel', builder of ships, mus,
bridges, &c., ull pcrform most valuable labor, amI thcir products are
homes, buildings, and structUl'es of all killlls, a most importallt pa1't of
t.he fixecl capital of the natioll; bllt these cannot be called "articles" in
the restrieted sense in which tho w01'd is employed in tho schedule. A
plumbel' in 'Vashillgt.Oll has lately fillished a single job amountillg to
$20,000, but he has produced no" artiele" whieh would ue ellterecl in
tlle schedule. .A job of general repairs, howevcr extensive, ,,-ouM uot
be entel'ed. This clcfect has heen remedied by reqnirillg, in adclition to
the valne of articles proclueed, an exhibit of the value of jobbillg and
repairing clone within the year.




NINTH CENSUS. 55
The second defect in this hcading is the limitation of $500. He must


be a \rery slllal! mannfactnrer "hose alluual product, illeluding materi-
als, is lIot more thall $300. A shoemukel' ~wlLü should make but two
pairs of boots per "cok would sho" a prodnct of more tban tbat alllount.
And .ret it is munifeRt from the l'etul'lls tbemselY8R that the products of
the groat majority of artisans were not cnumerated in 1860. For exam-
pIe, the eighth ceHSUS sllOwed that tbere were in the United States
144,4;;::1 llIannfactnring establislnuents, bnt the pl'oduct of the industry
of on Iy 7,115 \Yas reported.


'fIle population sehedllIe exhibited in its inquiries coneerning occu-
}lation tIte llnmbcr of pen:;om; belollging to each trade, "hile but a sman
per rento of the prodnct of their indnstry "as reported in tbe industrial
schedule. The followillg table exlübits the great deficierwy in this
respect:


N[r~IBEI{ IU:I';)!tTED 1" TI u: I'OPlfLo'TIO" RCIIEDI;¡,g AS BELOXGING 1'0 'rHE FOLLOWING
TlL~DES.


COOpel'H __________ 0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4:3, 624
13Iaeksmit"~ ______________________________________________________________ 112,357
Cn1'Ilf'llters ________________________________________________________________ 242,958
P'lÍllterH ________________________________________________________________ O" 51,695


XUlllER OF TIIE IH~IE TIUDI':'; THI·; PH()DCCT OI-' "-IIOSE IXDl:STUY \VAS HEPORTED IN
TIIE INDr~THUL ~C:II¡';j)L:LI-~.


Coopers _____ . ______ . _____ . _______ . ______ . _________________ . ____ .. ________ _
HIae lunni thH _________ . _ _ _ _______ • ___ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ . ___ . ______ . ____ . __ _
Carpüll ters _ . ___ . _________________________________________________________ _
Painters ________ 0 ___________ • ____ • ______ .. _______________________________ _


l'ER CENT. HEPOHTED.


13,750
15,720
~), 006


D13


Coopcrs _______________ . __________ . ____________________ . _______________ . _ . _ :~2
B1acksmiths ___ . ___ . 0 ____ • __________________________________________ • ___ 0_ 14
Cal'pentt'l'H____________ ______ __________________ ______ _____________________ ~~.7
Paitltel'S ___ o __ • _____________________________ • ____ ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1. 8


'Ve propose to l'emedy this (lefioet by mn king estahlü;hments the nnit
of clllllllcration. \Yhereyer there is a mannfactory 01' shop in opera-
tiOIl its occupants are required to gi,-e the fads ealled for in t11e seIted-
nIp. This will illellHle the pl'odnd ot' allmannfacturers and artisnm; ex-
cept tItose nt \York as journeymell, amI in almoRt eyery instance the lat-
ter amI their \York wiU be ineluded lindel' the iuqllil'y eoneel'ning labor-
ers elllployed in tho establishment. It is believed that tIloso changes
will gl'eatly increasc the compIctelless amI vaIne of the rcsults obtailled.


In I10tieing the defeds ot' this he~\(lillg 1 mIl stl'ongly l'cminded of tho
statement oí" Morean de J OUlles that two monos;yllables in the instrnc-
tions, added by a Sllhordinate in tite statiRtieal bureau, destroyed the
whoIe valuo of thc Prench censns of 1836.


2. The illquiry in referCllCC to motiYe-power has been so modified as
to give the specific kimls: as steam, water, 01' horse, and the total
power reckoned in hOl'se-power. lt is a matter of grmving importance
to know how the labor of soeiety is being distributed; to ascel'tain
wbat pal't is pcrformed by the mnsele of man, amI what by the use of
ml1chinery. '


3. To Recure t11is more fnUy, a statement of the kind a1HIllUrnher of
machines, snch as looms, spinning-jellnies, &c., has also 1Ieen added.


4. In referellce to labor and \Yages the committee thought it would be
usefnl to state scparatcly the llumbcr of pOl'sons laboring in an indus-
trial cstn blishment \Vho are owners 01' partllers, and the nurnber of those
who work for \Vagos.




56 NINTII CENSUS.
5. An importailt cluss of produets, belonging to what the Italian gov'


ernment has apprúpriately ealled "extractive illdustry," has hitherto
been wholly neglected in the census. I refer tú the products oi' our
mines and tisheries and to petroleum. N o further proof of the propriety
of this addition is nccdcd than t11e fact that last yeal' our cúal mines
must have ~'ielded thirty millioll tons, our iron mines four million tons,
and from our oil·wells \Yere exported o,-er one hundred million gallons
of petl'oleum, in addition to vast, eOIlsumption at home. Tbe schedule
of industrial statistics, with the amendments proposcd, can he m;ed for
petrolcum amI the produets oi' mines, amI a special schedule has beell
added tOI' fisheries.


IV.-S1'ATISTICS OF INTERNAL CmnmRCE.


In the prelimillal'y law 01" .:\:Iarch 3, 18JÜ, tite census board were di·
rected to prepare a schedule of trade amI eOllllueree, but no suc1l
schedule appeared in t11e law oí' 18fíO. It has been the 1mbit to trpat
the exchangers of wealth-thc midcUe-lllf'1l "ho trallsport amI buy and
sell-as belonging to the ullproductive elass. Bnt an enlightened po-
litical eeollorny willreeoguize all as prodncers of wealth wllo gi,-e valne
to commodities by bringing them within easy reaeh of the consumer and
aid in fhcilitating exehanges. Accorclillg to the cellsns of 1860, there
were in thc Ullited States 18,84,0,000 mell amI women aboye llincteen
years of age; alld the1'e were 227,177 persOlls sd, down in the list oí'
ocenpatiolls as perSOIIS engaged in trade, 01' one in fifty-eight of tIle
adult pOIHllation oí' the country. There can he uo adequate defense fol'
omitting this large aud intelligent class of the eommullity from tile
records of national ilHIustrv.


1. A simple amI eomprehensiye seltednle for alJ persolls cngaged in
trude was laid before the üellslls Committee bv General Franeis A.
Walker, of tIle Treasury Departmcnt, aml llaR bee~n made a part of this
bill. lt follo\Ys the general plan of the industrial schednle in regard to
labor amI wages, amI requires iJl additioll a statement of the amount of
capital invested in trade and tile gross anuual amount of purehases anc1
sales.


2. \Vithout adc1ing to the dnties of tIte ellulIterators, the bill requires
the superintenc1eut at \Vashington to proenrf' fu11 statisties of railroad,
lake, river, and canal transportation, exhibitillg, alllong othe1' facts, the
number of ·persons employed, t11e amoullt of freight, amI cost of trans-
portation. Such inquiries are now made in 011io in regard to railroads
by autbority of the legislature, and tbe resnlts are exceedillgly valuable.
The bill also requires full statistics of express alld telegraph eompallies,
alld of life and fire and marine illsnranee eOlllpallies.


Now that the great question of human slayery is removed fro111 the
arena of American politics, the cOl1llllittee are persuaded that tIte next
great question to be confronted will be that of corporations alld their
relaiion to the interests oí' !'he people and to tIte national life. The fear
is now entertained bv lllanv of onr best nH\ll that the llational a11(1 State
legislatures 01' the Union; in creatillg these vast corporations, have
evoked a spirit which lllayescape ana def,v their control, alHl whieh lllay
wield a power g-reater than that of leg-islatl1l'es themselves. TIte rapidity
with which raill'oad cOl'poratioIls h:1,\'e been consoliclated and placed
within the grasp of a few men during tllc past year is not tite least
alarming manifestation oi' this power. ·Withont Itere diR(~nssillg the
right of Congress to legislate Ol! all the lllutters snggested in this direc-
tion, tlle committee haye proyided in this biU for arrning the üensus


\




NINTH CENSUS. 57
Oflice with the power to demand from these corporations a statement of
the elements ot' tlteir power amI au exltibit of tlteir transactions. The
bill also provides for full statistics in regard to the business of :tire and
marine illsurance. It is reported in the colunlllS of a journal published
by the insnrallce institntions of this cOllntry tltat there is at the present
moment $3,O!J2,000,000 of insmance against :tire and marine losses.


Sillce tlle census of 1860 was taken, the life insnrance business of the
countl'y has grown up from almost nothing to enol'mous pl'oportions.
For instan ce, thel'e were, in 1860, hut seyenteen life insul'ance companies
in the United Statcs, and :tifty-six thollsuml and sorne udd policies in
force. In 1868, tho statistics oí' that yeal' heing the latest the c01l1mittee
.baye, there were 537,5!J4 policips in í(}l'ce; oyer half a rnillion of the
population of the Uniteel States were insnrell in the fifty-fin'. lite in-
surance compallies of this country; alld the total amount illsured reached
the enol'mous SUlll of $1,,')28,000,000.


Now, whethcr these companies aro sonnd 01' not, "hether the people
may rely npon the safo inwstmcllt of tho llloney ,,-hich they lwve put
iuto thri)' 11all(ls, will altogether depend upou tIlO way iJl which tllP.y are
eondlletillg' tlleil' bnsineí:is; alld ,ye proposo by this bill to bring out the
facts so that tite countl'y may see what are tbe operations of these great
corporations.


V.-SOCIAL STATIS'l'ICS.


Uueler this heal1 there were forty-eight in quiries in the old law, seY-
eral oí' whieh in practice proved almost ,,~orthless. Those eoncerning
taxatioll aud the aggregate valne of real anc1 of pel'sonal estate, t11e
character oi' the seasons and the crops, and the rate of wages for the
diffenmt kinds of labor, failed to prot1üce resnlts which were eonsidered
worthy oí' publieatioll in the :tinal rellort. In the pending bill sollie of
these illquiries are omitted aHogethel', amI the othel's are placed in othe1'
schednles where they are more likely to be allswered. Besides these
moelillcations several additions lw.,-e teen lluHle to this braneh 01' the
census. A more extended schedule for edueatiollal institutions has been
p1'oyided, wltieh will reqnire uot ouly the IllllulJer oí' teachers aul! pupils
in our eOlllll10n sellOols mHl other institntions of learning, bnt also the
total alllOtlllt of money which tlle natioll has perm:,tneutly illvested in
educatioIl, together \Vith the ímunal am0l11lt paid fol' its support.


The illquiries eoneel'lling chnrehes amI religions worship haye also
been somewhat extended, an\! pl'oyision has been made for obtaillillg a
report of tite amount of mOlley peTmallently aud annually invested in
religiuus enterprise, a1l(1 also tIle Illllnlwr of c11ildren in Sunday schoo1s
nnder tho suppI'Yisioll of chnrches. Iu the illquiries concerning lihral'ies
a column has 11een added whieh will exhilJit tIte anllual cost of main-
tenance and iucrease oí' those iustitutiol1s, amI anothel' shuwillg the
date of theil' establishment, from ,,-hich Illay be learned the increase of
the aggregate number.


In the statisties uf llewspapers alld other periodicals the cornrnittee
propose au irnpodant lllodifieation, which requires the superintendcnt of
the. census to obtain a a eop,V of each newspaper and periudical in the
Umted States, together ,,-ith a statement of tite eil'culation of cach.
Fro_m tl)(' papel' itflelf can he gathered all tlle important facts which it is
desl~abJe to know conecrning that e1ass of imlustry, aúd the copies thus
olJtmlled are to be elassitied and bOUlld np for preservation in the ar-
chin's of the governrnellt. 1Vhat would \Ve BOt give fol' a similar co11ec-
tion fol' each decade sine e the foundation of tlJe go\'ernmont ~ What




58 :NINTH CENSUS.
more striking exhibit could be malle of the eouutry's progre ss in this
respeet '1


lt must be borne in mind thatif OUT national statistics arc to be takcu
,,-ith com pletelleRs ,,-e mnst 1ay more stress on the ceIlSUS than do the
States of Europe. They have bureaus of statisties pennanelltly estab-
lishetl and uuder the direction of experiencctl statisticians ; with lIS such
a bureau is still a desidcratum. The great advantages atteudiug sueh
an establiRhment are thus forcib1y stated by Dr. E. 1\1. Snow, the emi-
nent statistidan of Rhode lslantl, in a 1etter addressed to the Oensus
Committee:


" 1 sinccl'ely hope that in the statute organiziug tIte censns of lRiO provisioll will he
mude for the cst.ahlíslnnent of a pprmanent (,cnsns bUl'cau, or, hettel' sti11, not"Yith-
stalHling oue f,ülure, ,t permanent statistical burean. The mnSOllS fol' this are pertectly
cOllelusive to all who are aC(lUaillft\(l ,,,HIt the coUectioll amI compilatioll of statistics.
The greatest defeets in aU our ccususcs Itave been owiug to tIte want of kllo,Yle<1ge amI
oí' experiellce in tilos e ernployed upon them. "'Ve are almost tlf'stitute of men in this
couutry, ~xcept in three or four States, -who are ülmiliar \Yit.h tIte prnctical (ll1ties re-
'luirecl in tnking a cenSURo Thc wItole eOllntry nee(ls ellllcatillg (1). this sullject. A
pCl'manent bnreau witll an effieient head ,,"ouItl 80011 organi7.(\ a COl'pS oí' lIlen ill e¡tch
State -who would be familiar.with the iní'ormation to be obtailletl aml witll tlle best
methods of obtaiIlÍng it.


"On the score of ceonomy, also, a permanpnt bUl'm,u ,,"oul<1 be the chenpest. IVit,h
a corps of clerks edncatcd in the hl"st lllethotls of doing their dllties, ¡tml witll trainetl
mon to olJtaiu tlle infol'ma.tion, amI lJ;l making 118(\ of lo('.al officers ami otlle1' somees of
information in differellt States, 1 am pcrfectly conJhlellt tllllt ¡t permalllmt cenRllS hurean
could obtain all the informatioll 1I0W obtaincd by a deceunial censua, except that re-
lating to popnlation, ancl coulü oblaill it eyery yf\ar ,yith no grcater expense tban is
1l0W required to oblaill it Ollef\ in ten :rea1's. Tll() eftieiülley aIul (;conomy, in statistical
lllattel'S, of 111en familiar witIt their tluties are g-1'eate1' beyond cOllll'al'ison thall of mell
who are ignorant of these dutics.


" A permanellt llational burean oí' statistics is abo ver-y lllUeh n{'<l<1e(l to syst¡;matize
the whole subject, to gi ve infonnation to aU portiolls of thc COllntry, aud to take tlle
lea(] in the org~ni7.ation of similar bllreltUS in tlle several States. ",Vhen sllch bnrealls
hec0l11e general iu a11 the States the national ¡.(()H~rlllllellt wi11 he abli\, ",ith tlwir
assistance, to obtain a11 the Htatistic8 llO,," obtainec1 l,y thc natiollal censlls, an<1 mur,h
more, fltr more freqneutly, far more correctly, alHI with llIuch less expense."


,y e llaye alrea(ly a commissioner of llliuillg statisties, somo provisions
in tIto Tl'easury Departmellt fOT" financial statistics, a, department whose
chief function is to eolleet edneational statistif~R, aud sorne attentiou is
giyen to statistics in the Departmellt of Agriellltnrl'. It is greatl;y to
be regrl'tted that. thf'Re stati;.:tical forces have BOt been eonsolidated, the
seope oí' t11ei1' work en1arged, and the wllOle thoronghly ol'ganized; aU
of ,,-11ic11 eould be done at HU expense not greatly in crea sed. But at
this late (lay it iR lWl1lifestly impossible to organize amI equip a perIlla-
llent sfa,tistieal hureau in time to take tite next eensus, and hence, regret
it as we may, we must again depcnd whollr Oll the OensnR OiTIee.


The eOlIunittee desire to aeknowledgf\ tIteir ohligations to H. Villard,
esq., of Boston, Seerotary 01' the Amcl'ieau Social Seienee Assoeiation,
to Dr. F. TI. Hough, of New York, and to ProfesRor B. A. Hinsdale, of
Ohio, for yalna b1e aiel in tIte preparat.ion ot' this report,.


In conclusion, the eOlllIllittee respectfnlly reeommend tho passage of
the foIlowing' bill :
A BILL to pl'Ovi<lc; for taking the ninth censtLs of tIte Unitcü States, alltl to fix tlw


nUlllbeT 01' tlw IllemheTs ()f the Honse oí' Representatives, anc1 to l'roviüe fol' tlleir
fllt.u1'e apportiomnent among the severa,l 8tatos.
Be it el/acterl by fhe Senafe anü JIOll8C al Rl1m;scntatilJcs (ir tilA [Jllit('(l State8 (jf Anlf:l'ica


Ü! COn[/I';;8.~ ri88emblerl, That there shall be establislled in the De[>ltt'tmcllt oí' tlle
Interior an offiee to l,e tlf\llOminated the Censlls Oftice; the chief ofticer oí' whieh 8ha11
be ca11eel tho 8upe1'illtellllent, of tlw Cellsus, wItose <luty it shall be, nn<l"r tlw (lirection
of the hea<l of the department, to superintoud antl dil'eet the takillg of tbe ninth
ccnsus of tIte Ullite<1 Stati's, in accol'llance ,dth the la ws relating thel'cto; amI to
perfol'lll such other c1uties as llilLy be requiretl by law.




NINTIl CENSUS. 59
SEc.2. AlIlI be it .farthcr CJlucli'ü, That the Snperintcndent of tl1(' Cellsus shall be


appointed by the President, by aud with the aflviee and COllsellt of the Senate, within
ten days a/'ter the passage of this aot, alltl his tOl'lli of servicc shall continuo for thc
terrn of thrcc years and no louger, mH1 hc sha11 reeeive au anunal salary of ¡ive thon-
sand doJlarso Before enterillg upon tite duties of his office, he shall, in atldition t.o the
oath now n'f[nired hy the COIlstitntion, tako alld subscribe the folluwillg oath or
affirlllatiou bcforc ally j\lflgc of thc circuit 01' district court of thc United States, to
,vit: "1, -----, SnperintPlldent of the Censlls, do solmllllly s\vear (01' affirrn) tbat
1 will, to tbo l,est of llly nhility, e111SC to be enullleraterl al! the iullllbitants of the
Lnitcd States, am1 \Vill cause lo be col!eeLed all the statistical information ref[nired by
the law l'l'OYi<lillp; fi)!' taking tlle nillth census, an<1 that I will t,tithfnlly execute, 01'
cause to be oxecnt,c<l, nll tlw provisions of Inw relating tltcroto;" a cop.y of which said
oatll, lluly antlteutieatod, shall Ilo filotl \\'ith thc Secretary of the Int<'1'ioro A~ 800n as
praMicable after tlle passage of this ad, the Snppl'inten([ellt of tho Ceusns, untler the
direction of tlte Seeretary of the 1uterior, sltall pl'oyide b1anks am1 distrilmte the
same alllong the district sUl'eriuteudents, to be hereinafter provided for, amI sltall pre-
pare an¡[ <listribnte printell instrnctiolls, defining a11l1 explaiuillg the duties of said
distriet superintelll]ents am1 of tlIe cIIIlUlcrators hereinafter provided for, and the
limits by which sllch dnties are circulllscribecl, in a clear amI intelligibIe manner, aIHl
shnll see also tha.t all ¡]no 11iligellce is employcll by tlle <listrict sUl'erintcmIcllts anc!
ennmoraturs to make tlle rotul'Us of tlwir rcspccti ve doings complete at the time here-
inafter l'rcseribed; antl Hhall, as the retllrns are so llla.de, cnuse the same to ¡>tí elasRified,
cOIlIlenst'<l, "!lI1 arrangert in the best :11)(1 most eOllvenieÍlt mauncr fol' cxlübit,illg the
rcsults oi' tllc censuso


SECo 30 Al/el be it .flll'lhcl' ClIlICI¡-¡I, That tlw Sccrctary of the Interior shall appoint for
the Census OffirA 011/\ chi('f rlcl'k, to he paiel ut the s:mw rate allowe<l by la\\' to tllO
chicf clerk of tlw Patent Offiee, aUl] Huch numbcl' of elerks 0(' the first, secollll, thinl,
and fourth class, amI such lllunlJcrof ,,-atdunell, messengers, and 1aboT'cl's, ns thtlllnties
of the office shall fmm tilllp. to timo r('f[uire, to he paid at the HalllO nLtes as no\V allowctl
for similar services in tlle Depal'tlllellt of tlle Interior: Procidcd, That at tIle end of
tbl'ee years frolll the date fixe<l by this aet as the begilllling of the term of sen-ice of
the Sllperintenüellt of tllll (;ellsns, ami wh"never tlleil' sen'iees sIl al! ccase to be rcq uired,
tlle terms of al! officcl's a11(] elUl'loyés hcrcin pl'ovirleü for shall expireo


SEC:o 40 Al1d be it jlll't7Wl' cllacled, That, within thirty daya after the appointment of
the Snpel'intellllellt of tlw Census, the Scereta1'y of the Interior shal! ap]Joillt, in each
congressiona1 district, amI in ca eh of tho Territorios oi' the Gnited States, in Alas1m,
amI in t1](' ]Jistrict oí' Colmnl'¡a, onc tlistri<'t supcl'intenrlellt of tlle eellsnH, \\'hose Iluty
lt shall be to callse al! tlJO iulta!JitantH to !Jc CUllLlICl'atctl, amI to obtain, 01' canse to be
ohtained, tlw othél' stntistit,,,l illformatioll within his rlistrict, in the malllwr provillerl
for in thi~ ad: J''1'O 10 irlcd, Tllat in any cit~- whieh f01'l11s tI1(; who1e 01' a pa1't of two 01'
more coug-ressiuual districts, tI1/' Seeretllly of the Interior nmy, if in hia jndgmellt the
d'liciency of tlle sen-ice wi1l thpreby be prornoted, appoint one district supe1'intend-
cut t(lr slH'h eity, all{l for tlle \VIlOle tfol'l'itory oí' thA eOllgresRional distriets of whieh
81lC 11 city fonns a part, iusteatl of one t()!O eacI! congrcsúona1 district; and n rcasona ble
allo\\'ance for clerk hire may be malle to any Ilistriet snperintellde1~t, tIle amonnt
whereof shall he ¡[etcrminelI hy tIw B!'cn'tary of tlle Interior, "henoyer, in his judg-
men1, the lLecl'ssiti"H ofthe sen-ice shall rcqnire ito


SEC:o ¡;o Ami be .¡¡ j/ll-tha e¡¡nclcd, That eaeh distrid snperilltendcnt, hefore enteriug
upon tlll' duties of his offi<óe, sball, in allllitioll to the oatl1 no\\' requirccl by the COll-
stitution, takc alld subscribe the fol!owiug oalh 01' aHinllation, before any jllllge of a.ny
eourt of record, to wit: "1, --- ---, Ilistrict Snpel'illtendent of the ninth census
of the --- (listrid of ---, 110 solmlll¡]Y SWl'ar (01' affirm) t,hat 1 \Vill, to tho best 01'
my abilit~" cnllIllerate 01' cau~e to be l'Ulllllcraletl al! tIlO iuhabitants ofthe saitl distr:ict;
that 1 wilI collcct, 01' cause to be collected, the otber statistieal infol'mation witllin t.he
same; that 1 willllot ¡liselose tlle same to any person 01' personA except to llly sUJlerior
officers; aud tIlat 1 will fhitbfnlly verfonn all tlw duties enjoined on m'e by the laws
providing Jor tile tnking of the ninth cellsus;" amI ",hen duly anthenticatPf1 hy tlle
said judge, he shall fOl'\Yard a copy thereof, so antbentimtted, to tlle Snperintcnrlcnt of
the Censns,


SECo 6, AmZ be itj/lrthe/' e¡¡aclclZ, Tlmt each distl'ict superintendent, imm"llintely after
receiYiug Ilis appoilltment, :lll,1 takillg ami Ruhscrihing the oatlls llel'einbdoro pre-
scribed, shall procccd to divicl(' his distdd iuto ns many snbdivisions, to be known as
enullleration districts, as may be necessary to carry out the proviHions of this aet, and
to complo tlle ellumeratioll \Vithin one 1Il0nth after tlle <late fixcll fol' taking the een-
SUR; aud he shnll employ ono CnlllllCl'ator in cach enullleration clistrict tl11is formed,
and shall, witbout delay, transmit to tlw Superintelldent of the Censlls tlle llame am1
post of!ice acldres8 of eneh eUllmerator, togl,tI18r with a <lescription of thc subelivision
a~signed to each, aJl(1 as near as practicable tho !lumbel' oí' s<]uare miles containerl
thereino Tlle forlllation of enumeratiou tlistriets, amI the employment of ennmcrators,
sllall be snhject to tllc approval of tlle Snperintendent of the Censns. Thc enumera-




60 NINTH CENSUS.
tion districts 81u111 be, as neal'ly eqllal as practicahle in the amount of labor to be per-
fornH'd, an(1 tlwy shall together emhmce thr>, whole terl'itory of tIJa Lllited States; und
their houmlaries Hhall he clearl~' descrihed hy civil divisiollS, rive1's, l'ond~, puhlic 8U1'-
veys, 01' othel' easily distingllilllHlIllilles; amI in no case shall an enullleration (listrict
illcl!Hle parts oftwo couutics, (ol' lJal'isItes,) wards, 01' towns.


SEc.7. A/I(I be U ftlrtha en actea, That no eunmcrato1' sIta11 cnter llpon the discharge
ofllis dnties ulltil he sha11lmve recl'ive(] fJ'om the ,listrict Bllperintendent a cel'tificate
thnt he has oeell desigllated with tlw a]lJll'oval of the Snpl'J'intelHlent 01' tha Census as
an ennmcrator, in aceorchmce ,,'ith the proyisions of this act, a.Ild shall, in addition to
tIte oath rf'qnirted hy the Coustitutiou, haye talmu all(1 snhscribed, heforo Hny jlHlge of
auy COllrt oí' reeonl, ·01' an,)' jnstice of UIC peaee, ",hose official cha1'acter H]¡all he duly
certifie,ll1lHler the seal of tlH~ <:1erk nf a (,OUl't of record, the following oatIt 01' aftirma-
tion. which sllall he illdorsed OH said cert.ificate, to wit: "l, --- ---, eunmerator
oí' the --- cllnlllcratiOI1 district, of --- distriet of the State of ---, do solelllnly
swear (01' atlil'llIj thut 1 will umkA a trile amI exact enumerution of ull the inlmhítauts
wühin the distriet assigllcl1 to me, aUll will faithfnlJy collect t1le other statistieal infor-
mation thereill, in the mauner proYic1ed for hy law, amI in cOllfol'Illity witIt all hl"fnl
instrnctions wllieh J may receivA, and wil! lnake fine anel correct retnrns thereof, as
rCCJuil'etl hy law, mul WillllOt tlilldose au~' information contained in tlw sr;hetlulcH, lists,
01' statcnH'uts ohtaiuccl 1)y IllC, to an,\' l'erson 01' pel'SOnH, except to my snpcl'ior offiecrs;"
ami said certitieate, "'it1l sairl oath 01' atlirmation so ilHlorsed nnd dnlyantItentieated,
shall he fOl'wa]'(led tn the IIiHtriet Huperilltell(lellt by the <\1111111e1'3tOI' lwforn lw enterR
u1'on his dulics; aua no 1'e1'80n 8ha11 he t'Illploycd as an ellumcrato]' ,dIO holds any
offiee nnrl,'r tlw gOVAl'lllllellt oí' the UlIited Stntes, pxcept as hel'eiuafter providerl, amI
110 enumerator, dnriug actual elll1'loylllcnt aH SlH·h, sha11 I'ngage in any husincss as
traveling agent, nor shall he collocí any othcr statistics than those required hy law.


SEC. tl. And be il flll·tha el/acted, That each rlistriet supel'intendeIlt shall promptly
supply each cUlllllerator within his district with the inst1'uctiolls isslled from the CCI1-
sus Oftice, the schedule s amI blulIks pl'oyided for the enumeration 01' the populatiol1
alld the colledion of tlw other statistics l'f\qnirNl b¿' law, alld s]¡all giYP to him, from
time lo limc, ull slleh iufol'llIution amI direetiOllS as llIa~' he uecessary to l'nahle him
properly to rlischarge his duties. He shall card'u11y examine w hcther the retnrns of
eaeh !'llllmerator ar" n13rlf' i11 c011fol'lllit:y with law; und where IliscmpanciPs, f\rrors, 01'
omissiolls are detected, he shall require the Hame to he eorrecte(l. He slwll makc an
aecurate ropy oi' all the retumA rcecived 01' ol,tained hy him, which he shall trallsmit
fortItwith to the ~lll)('rintelldent of the Census, and tlle original he shall carf\fnlly pre-
serye whjeet f.o the onlpl' of tIJe saÍ<l Snperintenrlent. He shall froUl timo to timo
lIlake himsdf ae'1nainted ,Yith tlw J1rogl'e~s ma,le l,y caeh eumuerator in tbe discharge
of Itis rluhf\s, ami, iJl (;:tRf\ of illahility 01' neglect of any enumpl'ator, sllall employa
substitute.


SEl'. H. Ana be -it fUftller cllacted, That the Snperintemlellt of the Census, as soon as
possible after his appointlllf,nt, shall prepal'f' a1lf1 fnrnis]¡ TO thA rlistriet sUl)erintend-'
ents a11 the nccessary hln11k8, schellules, amI inst1'uctious for cmT~'ing into (,Ji'cct the
l)fovisiolls of this uet, to tIte end tlmt dístrict snpc1'intendcllts mal ennmcrators may
ve fully iust,ructeü in thei1' duties hdore tlw tin\(\ nxc<l for rlistrihuting tlle scheüulcs
and for taking thc census.


SECo 10. Al/d be it flll'tller ellactccl, That, in thc course of the twenty clays preeeding
the day fixed 101' taking the c"nsns, the enllmeratOl' sha]] rle¡¡ver to the hea<1 of each
family in his snbdi vision, o!' in the ahsellce of sucIt heaL1 to an adnlt member 01' surh
fitmily, a falllily 01' house1l01c1er schedule; aud to cach occul'ier of a farm, a eopy of the
fal'llI 8che(11lIe; amI to Pllch O\yno1', proprietoJ', 01' managtlr of a lllltnufactul'ing, me-
ehanical or miuing' estahlislJlllcnt, f1 copy of tlw schctlulo for munufactnring, mechan-
ieal, and mining' establishments; amI to the proprietor 01' manager of ea eh store or
trading f'stablisllllwnt, a copy of the R<:hcrlnlo tor lwrsons engage<l in tratle a]J(1 of tish-
eries; amI it sha11 be his <lllty to explaill to cach persoll to \\'hom he may deliver Buch
schedllles tlll' ohjects of the same, a]J(1 the obligation oí' such perso]] in l'elation tItere-
to, iu onlcr that the persons receiviug saia Rche,lules may eorrcetly fill tho hlallks and
complete the (lllS\WrS to the inCJuirics thel'eiu, hy lhe clay fixec1 for takil1g the census.


SECo 11. A na be 'it further e)/acted, That it shall l)e the duty of each enumerator, in
the comse of the month sneeeeding the day nx,,<! fOl' takillg the eenSllS, to YÍsit 1'ersol1-
a11y paeli fimüly, farlll, manllfhctllring, mechanical, a]J(lminiug estahlishment, store 01'
trading estfl bJishment, amI fishery in his snhdiyisioll, a11(1 havÍllg asre1'taill(é(l, frolll the
occupiel', o\Yner, manager, or responsible agent, wh"ther the schedule or schetlules 1'1'0-
vi<led fol' in the prccc,lillg seetion have heca filled, he 8ha11 procecd, in the presence
of the OWller, occnl'im" mfluager, agl'nt, 01' other responsibIe person, to rearl anrl yerify
the same, aud, in case of dl'fo;ct, to revise and cOn'eet t1le sa,nw; amI in case the said
schedule 01' schedllll\" haye 1)e<:1I llIislairl, lost, or neglccted, he shull ol)tain fi'om sorne
member of cach ftwüly, if auy C'lll be fOllnd capable of giving the illü)J'llIation, hnt if
not, then of the agent 01' otlwr acquaiutance oftlw familv, fllll auswers to [,11 the il1-
quiries relatingto falllilies amI tIte 1Ilf'1II1)ers thereof, rcq¡üred by law; alld he shall




NINTH CENSUS. 61
obtaiu from the lllost trnstworthy S011l'Cl'S a11 information reqnired by law conccrning
every farm, mili, shop, mine, storll, amI otller cstahli8hrncnt, institntion, or place in his
distl'ict, and whcu, in either case, thc information i8 obtainetl aud enterell ou tl16
schellules, he ~hall illllllcdiately l'ead ti", samll to tIlO person 01' pmwllls furnishing the
facts, to eorred error~ amI snpply omi8sions, if any sha11 exist. He sha11 also, as ofteu
as once in fivc llayS, tlnring th" lllonth in which the enumemtion iB made, translIlit by
mail or in persoll to (he rlistrid snpel~ntendpnt of his district tlw ret111'118 of statistics
obtained hy hilll, arul before llt' transmits saill retUl'ns he sDa11 afljx his signature to
each pagc of the sallle, amI sha11 certif~' that they are weH amI truthfully made, aceonl-
ing to law, alHl all !tis retllrIlS 8Iu.11 he so transmitted witltin ten üays aft,pl' the date
fixed fllr th" eOllll'letioa of tIte ellullwmtiou. He sht.11not tli~clo."e aB,)' of the iufor-
matiuIl, \vhich he may obtain in pursnanep of this act, to any per80n 01' person~ except
his superior oflicer~, 1101' sItall it be lawflll to n8<1 sahl int(ll'Ination, o!' ,my part thereof,
as c\'Í<lenee in any eonrt, for 01' against a11y p"r~Oll furnbhing the Su,llle to the enume-
mtor, except as provideü in section fOllrteell of tllis acto


SECo 12, Ami be it fnl'fhel' enacted, That any district Huperintellllent 01' enumerator,
WllO, httving taken alld suhscribe,l tIJe oat!t requir,,!! by this aet., sha11, without justifi-
able cause, neglect 01' refuse to perfol'lll the duties elljoill"ll 011 him hy this act, 01' shall,
withont the :tUthOl'ity of the SllperinteJulent, cOlllnl1lnieate to any persou llot anthor-
izell to rccei ve the same, any statistics of property 01' husiness inclutlCll in !tis rcturn,
shall be de"m,',l gnilt.y of :l llIisdemeanor, ami npo11 eonvictioll shall forÍ<\it a 8Ull1 not
eX(j,~"ding ti n' h11lulred (lollarH; 01', if he Hllall willflllly and knowiugIy HWeal' 01' affirm
i'alscly, he ~hall he doelllcd guiH,)' 01' peljury, aud ou conviction themof sha11 be illl-
prisollell not exceedillg three- years 01' by fine not exceedi11g eight hundred (]ol1ars; 01',
if he Hhal1 willfnlly ami knO\\'iugly 111ak" f:lIH(' eertificatf\S, 01' fiditions l'etnrns, he shall
he decllIe<l gllilty of a misdemcauol', amI, U]1011 con v iction of cither of the bst, llttmed
oftéllses, he oha11 forfeit and paya sum uot exceedillg five thousand tlollars, anü he illl-
prisoneclnot eXeee(lillg t\Yo years.


SEC, 13. Aud be it flll'tlwl' c/!llctcll, Tllat if any tlistrict snperintcnd"nt sIla11 rClJeive 01'
secure to himself an,)' f('e, rewal'll, 01' compcllsation, as a cOllsideration for the employ-
ment of :my perHon as t:nnnw.rator 01' derk, 01' shall in any way l'ecllÍve 01' A"Cllre to
himsdf ally part oI' tlle compellsaLÍon pl'Ovidell in this act 1'01' the scrvices 01' any ellU-
merator 01' elerk, he sltall he deelll"rl gnilty of a, llIisdemeanor, ami, on eOllvictiou
tlwreof, slutll he fine,lnot less tlmn 1ive IlllnÜl't'ü <l,)l1al's nor more titan tlm,e thollsand
dollars, in tbe discretion of tlw COHrt,


SECo 14. And be il fll}'fher euacterl. Tlmt each aucl every person more than tWCllty
years of ag(], helollging to any family l'"silling in nny enllllH\ration (listrid, and in case
of tha ahsellce of the hcads amI otlwr lllelllbers of any such fUlllily, thcn any agent of
811Ch fall1ily, shall ho, :1ml each of tlH'm hf'l'ehy is, reqnired, if thereto reqllestetl hy the
SuperintclHlellt, l!istl'ict superintt'llllellt, nI' elllllllerator, tD rt'nl!er a trne aeeo11nt, to
tha best 01' his 01' her knowletlge, of eYer~' pe1'80n hclollgiug to such famil,\', in the Vtt-
rio118 partielllars r('quired by la\\', amI whoevel' sllall willfllHy faíl 01' refuse sba11 he
guilt,\' uf a mistlellleanor, mul u]lon eOllvietion thereof sh:tll forfeit anl! paya sum not
exceeding Olle hUlHlretl !lollarK. Aud evcry prcsicl"nt, treasurcr, sl'cretary, general
agent 01' mallaging (Iirector of e\'ery eorporntioll fmm whiclt answel'S to ally of the
schetlulc~ ]ll'O\'idcll for hy this aet are hereiu reqllire<l, who shall, if thereto rnqnested
by the Snperintcntlcllt, district sllperintendent, special deput.y, 01' emllne1'ator, lJeglect
01' refuse to give true aUll complete answel'S to an)' inquil'iílS a.uthori7.erl hy this aet,
sueh officer shall forfeit and ]laya, SUlIl llot Ics~ tItan nve llllutll'ed dolbl's, nor lllore
thall ten t.honsand dollars, to he recoyeTcd hy inllictment in any COU1't oi' competout
jurisdiction to the use of the l~nit",l Stat,es.


SECo 15. Linel be it furtlwr cuucted, TIHLt [.11 finos amI penalties imposetl by this act may
be enforcetl hy iudict.ment 01' appro]ll'iate actioll at law in the courts oi' the Uuitell
States witllin the Btate, TeI'rit01'~-, 01' !listrict whore suoh offenses sltall haye heen com-
mitted 01' forfeiture incnrretl.


SECo lll. A¡¡d be it fllrtlte¡' cllacte(l, That the Supcrintentlcnt, his ellÍcf clcrk, distl'ict
superintendents and enumemtors, are Iwrehy anthorizetl to transll1it throngh the post
ofliee any papel' 01' tloculllellt l'elatillg to the censns, hy writing ther(]on "Offieial
Bnsiness-Censlls," amI sllhscribing the same, \\'ith the addition to his llame of his
official title. But t.his priyilege shall extend to nothing hut, clocuments and papers re-
lat.ing to the census, which slta11 paS8 free. Antlltny SllperÍntel1dent" (listl'ict snpel'in-
tendent, ennmerator 01' clerk, who shall use 01' exe1'cise tltis privilege for an.y pUl'pose
other thall the legitimate discharge of the rlnties of his office, shall he deemeü gllilty of
a illisdemeanor, anel upou con v iction sha11 fol'feit foI' each offense a 8um not excee<ling
oue hundred (lol1ars.


SECo 17. Llnrl be it jurthcl' enacterl, Tbat ea eh dist1'ict sllperintendent shall "receive
compellsatiOIl fol' his scrvices at the mte of eight 1l011a1'8 per tlay, but he Hhall not re-
ceive pay for auy service rendered aft."r th(' periotl of sixty days frolll the date fixed for
the compIetion of the enull1eration; amI each ellumerator sha11 receive compenaation
for hia services at the rate of four do11ara per day for the time during which he is em-




62 NINTH CENSUB.
ployed as Slleh ennmArator, bnt he shall uot receive any cOlllpeusatiou Ior nlly services
renclerf>d aner u pcrio<1 of teu da~'s from the time fixed for thc cotllpletiou oí' tite enn-
memtion, nor for a longer periotl tltau sixty (la~-s: Pl'ol'ided, 'fhat in uny of dlC States
01' TelTitorics w hel'e the tlllty of ellllmerators shal1 hnve bcen perfol'lllcll in distriets
spal'gr,ly inhabitetl, an ad,litional allowance may he made by the Secretary of tite In-
terior as a comp(msatioll in part 01' wholc of expenses in sllcll cases. 'fhe campen-
satian of tlle distriet superintemlents and ennmerators, ns providcd in this seetion,
Hhal1 he paid nnder the fol1olYillg l'cstrictions, to wit: \Vhenever a diskict snpcrin-
tendent shall certify that an enumerator has satisfactol'ily completetl the enumeration
amI made returns thereof fol' the ennmeration disírict confided to him, alld shall also
cCl'tify to the amonnt of compensation to whiclt, under tlHl provisions of this act, such
enumerator is entitlcd, designating the number of days dnriug which he has he(ll' em-
ployed, the Secretary of the Interior sha11 eause one-half of the sum so Ilue to be paid
to such ellumeratol'. And when said retnrllS have beell received by the Superintendcnt
amI cUl'efn11y cxalllillcd, if found executed in a satisfactor.v mlUlIll'l', thell he shall also
cause the otlwr half to be paid. And whore an appointment has been made to supply
a vacancy arising in the office of enumerator, auy e'luitahIe allowance sha,u be mude
for work done and accl'l'ted by each person so employed, whdhcl' by original appoiní-
met or to SllPl)ly a vacaney. And whellcvcr the Superinteudent of the Ccnsus sha11
cCl'tify that tite üistriet sllperintendent has completell, to his satisfaetion, antl made
returns of, his district, and shal1 also certi(y tho amOllll t of eornpellsat,ion to whieh,
uul1er the provisions of this aet, such distriet slllHlrintendent is t'lltitled, desigllating
how long he has heltl his offiee, the Secretary of tite Interior sllall thereupon cause one-
llalf of the sum, so clne, to ue paili to such rlistrict sllperintendellt, a1Hl when the re-
tUl'llS haye ueen carefnlly examinecl for classification, if fonnrl cxecuted in a satisfac-
tory manner, then hc shaU alAo cause the other lml1' to be llltiü: Pl'ol'iiled, That the
Secretary of the Interior .,1tall reject any rlemanrl fol' compensation undel' tllÍs aet
whiclt ahall, in !tis judgrnent, be üaudulent 01' excessive. And wllencver tIle district
superintenc1ent shall rejcct the n~tllrn of any enumerator as llnsatisfadory, he Rhall re-
port that fact to the Superintcndellt of the Census, wlto shall sllbmit snch rC]lol't to the
Secretary 01' tite Interior, anLl thereupon the saiel Secretary m:ty, in his rliscretion, ex-
tenll the time withiu which the duties of snch enumcratol' llmy ue performed, amI
eitlH\I' dirpct the district supcrilltellllent to refer such report back to snch cUHmeratOl'
for redsion aml conection, 01' to direct and antllorize tlle (1istrict sl1perintendent to
appoillt a uew enumcrator to p"rform the cluties of the enlllllcrator whose report has
heen rf\jectflfl, and tlle ne\\" offiecl' tlms appointetl shall take the sameoath aud PCrf')l'Ill
hi8 tlutie8 in tite sam" manner as requirecl by tltis ad of tIle officer originally ap-
pointed, aud witllin tlle time limitetl by the order 01' the Secl'etal'y of the Interior.


SECo 11"). And he Uful'tlwl' ('1/((('/('(/, That th0 nintb ct>nSllS 8hal1 he faken as of the first
day of Jnue, t\Íglltoen humlrecl and sevcllty. The actual ouull1f\ratioll shall begin in
eaelt aud overy cnllTneration clistl'ict on that day, and shal1 be completetl, an(l aURwers
to aU the stntistical ill'1uiries HllaU he obtnined by the cnllmerator", as providcd by
law, on 01' heforf\ thf\ first day oi" Jnly, cightecn lmntlretl and scventy.


SECo 19. Ancl be U .fllrllla el/aclerT, That iu aU dties amI illcorporatml f,owUR or vil-
lages, the cnllllleration sha11 be so malle aud th" rctnrns so compilctl as to exhibit 801'-
aratdv aU tlle stntistical information obtaillccl witltiu file limits of cach of said
corpOl:~1tions.


SECo 20, AmI be it far/her CUilctCel, 'fhat if, in any 'ferritor.)' or plaees where the pOl'ultt-
tion iR sparse, the officers of the arm~', 01' any person tllenmnto helonging, can be US8-
fu11y cIlJployed in íakillg the cenSllS, the Secretary of \Var is hereuy directetl to afl-'ord
snch aid as may be givcn without prpjudiee to the Pllblic servicc.


SECo ;¿l. Al1d be it further cnaeted, Tlmt auy agent of tite Fnitf\(] States residing upon
ally ludian re~m"Vatioll Rllall, whon required by tho Sccretary of the Iuterior, llIake,
01' cause to 1)e made, au enuIllcration oí' tllfl l11diallS residing npon said reservatioll, in
snch malllwr aA t.he saiel Secretary may directo


SECo 22. Alld be il fUJ't/wJ' el1arted, That the Snperintemleut of thc Censlls Hhall pre-
pare for snhmission to Congress, nt the uegiuning of tlHl llext necelllher scssionlleld
after the tlate of tite census, u preliminary report, cmhraciug statistics of the popnla-
tion o[ thc United Stntcs, by Sta tes or Territories, amI counties 01' parishcs, sufficiently
fu]] for t.he equalization oí' representlLtion of tlw sevtlral Sta tes in Congresa. He shan,
as 800n thereafter as practicaule, aJl(l within three years from the dnte of his appoint-
ment, prepare a earefully digesteli report, Clnbracing fu11 talmbr st:LÍernents of aU the
statistical information fnrnished hy the ce-nsus, with comparative tahlcs, showillg the
ehangcs from iormer ccnsURes, and sueh otller taLles as !llay ¡le llecessary to exhibit the
results of tlle ellurneratioll.


SECo :!3. Ál/tI be il farthcl' ellaclerl, 'fhat fWIll aud after tIte thinl tlay of March, cigh-
tcen hUIHlred aml seventy-three, thc Honse of Relll'eSentatives s]¡al1 bc composed of
tltrce hllndreü IlJembCl's, to 1)8 appartioned among the seveml Síatea in tite mallner
dil"ecterl in the next section of this acto
SI~C. 24. Ancl be it fnrlhel' enactecl, 'l'hat so ~OOD as the llext enumeratioll of the inhah-




NINTH CENSUS. 63
itants oí tho several States, directed by the Constitntion oí thA United States to be
taken, shall bo completetl nml returned to thc officc of the Departlllent oí the Interior,
it shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Interior to ascertain therefrom the aggre-
gate representative pop1l1ati~n of th;- United States, by eouuting th~ wholA nnmber of
pArRons in each sta te, exelutllllg Indwns not taxeel; but when the nght to vote at any
electiou íor the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the Uniteel States,
representatives in Congress, the AXflcutive amI judicial officers of a StaÍf', or the mem-
bers of tlle legislatuI'c thereoí, is elcnied to ally oí the male illhabitants of such State,
being t",cnty-onc years of age am1 citizens of the United States, 01' in any way
abridgec1 except i'or participation in I'ehellion 01' other Cl'ime, he shall reduce the basis
of representation therein in the proportion which the number of such male citizellS
shall locar to the whole numloer oi' male citizells twenty-one years oi' age in such State;
and it ~hall be hi8 duíy to thns ascertain t,]¡e aggrAgate representative poplllation oí'
the Cnitet1 Sta tes ; ,,'hicl! aggregate population he shall divide by three hundreel; and
the prodnct of such c1ivision, rejecting any fraction of an unit if any su eh happen to
remnin, shall he the ratio or rule of apportionment of representatives among the sev-
eral Sta tes nnder such enumemtion; and the said Seeretary oi' tbe Department of the
Interior 8ha11 then proceed in t.he same manner to ascertain the representativo popula-
tíon of eaeh State, llnd to divide the ,v1101e numher oí the representative populat.ion of
cach State by the mtio alremly determined byhim as ahove directed; and tlle product
of this lnst divison shall he the nllmher of representatives apportioned to such State
uuder the enllmemtion l)l'oyided fol' in this act: Pmvided, That the loss in the llllmber
of membel's caused lJy the i'ractious l'emainiug in the several States, on tho divisiou of
thc poplllation thereoí~ 8ha11 be compellsnted i'or by assigning to so many 8tates haying
the largest fl'aotions one aclditionallllcrnher cach for its í'raction,. as may hA llecessary
to make the whole number oí' representat.ivcs: Alld ]Jl'oriclcd also, That if, after the
apportionmcllt of the representatiyes llncler the next census, 11 new State 01' States
sha11 loe alllllitted into the l~nion, thc l'epresent.ative or repI'esentatives assigned to
8nch new State 01' States shall be in arldition to thc numbcr of reprcsentati ves hel'ein
aboye limited, "'hiel! excess of representatives over three hundred sIlall only continlle
until the llext suceee<liug appOl'tiolllucnt of representatives under the next suceeeding
census_


SECo 25. And beit jll1·tl¡CI' mwcted, That when tIle llepart.ment of t.he Interior shall
have apportioncd the l'cl'rcseutati ves, in the manncr al){)ve dil'ecte<l, ulllong the seyeral
States, llmlol' tho next cnumeration of the in11abitants oI' thc Luited Sta.tes, he s11a11,
as soon as pmcticablf\, make out a.]1(l transmit, nnder the seal of hi8 oftice, to tlle House oi'
Rcp1'csmlÍatiycs, a cel'Lificate oí t11e uumbe·r of memberH apportioneü to oaeh 8tate
llndel' the e1l11lneration proyirle<li'or in this aeí; am1 shalllike,yise make out amI tmnH-
mit, withont <lela.y, to the exc~ntive of each State, a certificate, undel' his sealoi' officc,
oí' the I1llmber of lllemlJers avpo1'tiouefl to such State, llIlflm' snch enumeration.


SECo 23_ An(l be it jUl'theJ' enacted, Tlmt au act clltitleLl "All fiel ]JI'oviüillg i'o1' the
takiug of t.he seventh a]](1 suhsefluent cenSURes oi' the Lnited Statcs, aud to íix the
numbcl' of thc mcmuers o[ tIte IIollse of RApresent.at.iyes allfl proyifle fo1' theil' flltnre
appOl'ti01Il11f'nt among the soyeral 8tates," app1'ovccl May twcnty-t.hinl, eighiecll hun-
dl'ctl alld tifty; anü also an aeí entitled "Au act fixing the number oi' the members of
the Honse oi' Hepreseutatives from am1 aiter the t.hird }Iarch, anno Domini eight.een
hUllf1red amI sixty-thrcfl," approved }larch foul'th, eightecn hUlldred amI sixty-two, be,
and the Rallle are 11ercuy,l'cpealed.


SECo 2i. Ami be it jl!l'thel' enacted, That tIte Superintem1ent of the Census shall reqnire
aud obtain from evel'y raill'oafl corporatiol1, 01' the lessee 01' receiyer thercof, in the
United Statcs, t11e follo,üng f:lcts, so far as they respectivel;}" possess tlle same, to ex-
hibit the conclition oi' such company on the first of .JunA, eighteen hnmlred and seY-
enty, 01' :tt the !late of thA last allllual report muele sinco June flrst, dghteeu Imndrec1
anrl sixt;l'-niuc, to wit: The lmrne of the corporation 01' company with corporatc nalllo
of lines lea sed ; tIle number of miles of its road projected a11(l the terminal points oi'
the same; the uumber of miles completed; the nUll1bcr oi' miles lcased; miles of double
track exclusive oí sidings; capital st.ock allowed by the charter; all10unt paid up;
nllmuer oí mail stations; highest grade, inclmling curvaturA in each division operated;
total cost of road and eqniplllcnt, anrl cost oi' purchasc oi' other liues oi' road and of tele-
graphs; the totalamount oi' deut., exhihiting, separately, the fnnded and unf'nnded delJt,
aml in what country payable; the nnmbcl' oi' acres of laml derivefl from Pllhlic gmnts,
remaining unsold; the tlmount oí' rolling stock, exhihiting, separately, serviceable loco-
motivi'S; unsel'Yiceable 10COlllOtiVCS; pasHengpr cars; express cars; mail, baggage,
and expres8 cars; box cars; stock cal's; i'roigllt antl coal cnrs. AIHo total number oí'
employés, cxhibiting, separately, the nllmber oi' conductora, station-masters, ticket
agenta, hrakemen, ellgineers, fireltlCll, ílagmen anc1 gatemell, mechanics and laborer8.
Also the total recnipts of the corporatioll, exItibiting, separately, t.he receipts from pas-
sengers; from froight; from expresses; from mails; from miscellaneous sonrcos. Also
the total expenditul'e oi' tho cOl'poration, including, separately, the kind l1nd cost of
fuel; the alllount of national, State, anel municipal taxation; interest on bonds am1




64 NINTH CENSUS.
other debts; dividends paid wltltiu the yeal' in cash; rlividends pnitl ",ithín the yeal'
in stock; repairs of traek aud brídgcs ; I'qmirH ofl'olling stock; other rÜl'airs; ,1nmages
to freight ; l'apllents foI' personal injnries; telegraph expenses am! l'(>.pairR; llew stl'llct-
ur~H amI otllP-r permaneut, improvemcnts. Also the opel'ations of the roacl, exhihiting,
sc¡mra1.el,v, the mileage of passengel' trains; mileage of fl'flight trains; miloage of re-
pHir, wooa, amI gravel trains; nnmber of ",ay passengers canied; average ",ay ünes
per mUe; numher of thl'ough passcngcrs eaniea; average of tlnollg'h fan~H pcr mile;
totalnumlJcr of pássengers carried, l'educed to ouc mile; average rate pel' tOIl por mile
on all Incal freight; average rate per ton per mile on a11 t11rollgll freiglLt; tOIlS of coal;
tous of merehanaise; hnshels of grain; barrels of flonr; nnmber of horses allll cattlA;
])Ulllber of sheep mia swine; nnmber ofthollsand feet oí' lnm!wl'; total tOIlS 01' freight;
total tons carried reduced to one mile; tOllS forwnrrled .. ast, (01' north j) tons forwúr1ed
west, (01' south.) AIso conceruillg casualties, cxhibiting spparatcly the numb"r tl1e1'eof,
amI the nnmber of passengers 01' employés killed 01' wOllnde<l; the character of the
accüIent..~, whether by false handling of s,,·itches, sigllals 01' dmws, 01' by defects in
whecls, breaking nf cnnplings 01' 1'ails, 01' by illlpe(lilllents l'laced accidcnta11y 01' iuten-
tionally on the traek. IIe slwll also, in like mauue1', rer¡uire al1r! nht.ain frolll the owu-
ers, proprictors, or managers of any canal 01' 1'iver improvement the following f.wts, to
wit; Nmlle of caual 01' river improvcmellt; poínts cunuected; miles of clmal;
miles of slackwater; rlimensions of improvemcut in feet, exhibiting the depth,
and tl1(\ width at the hOttOIll and top; the nllIllber 01' loeks alHl their stalHlard
lengtlJ, tlepth, am1 width; uumlJer of feet of rise a1l(! fit11; eo~t (Jf 8trndnres; c09t
of enlarp;elllent; numlH\r of hoats: total tonuagc; tot:;l tOIlR of freight earried cast
or north; total tons carried west 01' Bouth; tOIlS of coal; tOIlR of Illcrchan<1i8c; bllshels
of grún; bnrrcls of flour; nnmber of hor8es l(m1 cattle; llumher of sheep and swille ;
nU11lber ofthollsautl feet oflntnher; a,erage mte of l"eal tu11s pcr milo; totlLl amount
receiY~d fnr toIl" in eightceu ImmIre<1 am[ sixtY-lline; aUllual lwerage expenses per
mile for repairs from eighteen hUllr1red alHI sixt,~c to eightr",n hnndred aud sixty-ninu ;
the a,Yerage lluIllber of llionths of nayigatioll dnl'illg tite ;vear. An¡l he sha11 also pro-
eure, from tlw best antilal>le sonrees. fnll st:Jtisti¡'s (Jf the ('oastwisc trwle, nnd of the
lake mtd illlamll'ivnr llayigatinn of th" 1Jllitcd :"taJes, whieh 8hall partienlarly show
the nllmber of \'essels employt'll, [\Ud whel'e, amI whetlter of sail or p1'op<'1le([ hy steam;
al so the tomwge capacit;v of each; t{n(l t,he a<lÍllal tonnage transpu1't,ed u]lou eaeh lake,
and ri ver, awI coltstwise, dnriug the yelll' eighte,'n hnndred ana sixt.y-niue; and also
the numhcr oí' mariue (liHasters \yhich oeculTed tn the lake, river, ami coastwise com-
merlle of the United Statcs iu the ~-ea]' ~ight(,en lUlIldl'e<1 alltl sixty-nille, with the nnm-
ber of lives and vessels and value of lll'op~rty lost. He shal1 aliio, illlikc mauner, l'e-
quire and obtain from the owners, proprie((Jl's, 01' managers of every expl'ess company
tlle following fact,s, to wit; Name of corporatioll nr cOlllpany; capital l'ai(l up; total
capital stock; length oí' lincs in miles; ",hetüer tIlO hnsillt'Rs iR condncted by mil, vcs-
sel, 01' othel'wise; total amonnt l);lid to raill'oads 01' vessels for ns(\ oflin(\or lÍllPs; Ilurn-
her of nfficers ; numher of l'ersous eugager[ in gt\lH'ral adlllinistration ; lllllllber of agentR
aud messeugers; total receipts; total eXl'eJl(litnrcs; exhibiting, separately, mnonnt
paid fúr salaries, for repairs, a11(l for geueral expenses; aud he Ula~· m'lllil'f' sllch flll'ther
information (lB in his jUdglllCllt lllay he Ileeef:slll'y to >.,-,cure fuU retUl'U8 01' thc transac-
tious of sue]¡ company. He sha11 also, in like mallll<'1', rf'(¡lli1'e alld ohtaiu frolll the
owners, proprictOl'~, or malla,gers of every teJegral'll line tlle fo11owing t'td8, to wit: Name
of eorporation 01' COllllllWy; terminal poilltS COllnectetl; capitltl p:tid up; length of
lines in miles; miles of wire; numher of Offi¡'ArS; numlJer of pe1'80n8 engaged in gen-
eral adlllinistratinn; nllmber of persons eugagmI as tell'.grapll opemtors; the number
of messages transmittcll lJy officers of the Ulliteü States; the lltlIlllJer 01' lllcssages
transmitte<l for the press; tite lIl11nber of messages transllütteü fin' l'riyate ]larties;
totalnumbcr of messages transmittetl; total receipts from messages; total expelldi-
tures of the compan,)'; exhihiting separately the alllount expelltletl f()l' salaries,
for rcpairs, amI for general expenses. H('. "ha.l1 also, in like mauller, rC'luire and
obtain from tlw officers 01' managers of a11 life insuranee compallÍ<>s, 1.110 following
faets, to wit; Kame of compauy; amonllt of paitlnp capital; rhe llUllll>Cl' of l'eI'SOIlS
employcd in the general administration; tlw IInm}wr clllployer[ as agellts; the total
gross assets of tite cOlllpany; exhibitillg, sel'arately, 1'l'alizo<1 ass('.fs, d"ferrerl amI
unpai<! premiullls amI pl'eminm 110t"8 alld loaus; total liabilities of the eOlllpally;
exhibitiug, separately, losses ad.iu~tl'l1 alu1nnadjnstetl, lo~~c~ re8iste<1, scrip and other
c1ividends, dividends to policy-hold~rs not app1ied, reinsnr:mce fU11r!; all otlwr claims,
inclnding eapital; receipts Ü'om cash premil1lllS; receipts from aH otlter somees; toÍltl
cash expenditures, exhibiting, separately, nlllollllt paitl for losses and c1aims, di \'¡dcnds,
to stockholders, dividends to policy llOldt'rs; cnmmiRRinlls, inclnding SUll1S paiel to
agents by the insurers amI the insnred; nf(icer,';' salaries; llle(lieal llxamiuers' fees;
national, S1.a.te, and local taxatiou; and all other eash expellditlll'es; abo prcmium
noto expem1itures; also the numbel' and aUlOullt. nf 110liej¡,s issllerI during the year;
also exhihiting policics terlllinating rlnl'ing the yf'ar; the Illllllbcr awl llmollllt termi-
nated by death; by expiration; by surrender; b;V lapse; by cltange; totaluumher an<l




NINTH CENSUS. 65
l1lnount oí policic~ in force; exbiuitillg, separately, those of one thousand dollal's 01'
under; tbc 11l1lUUer alHl amollnt of tbose fhJIn oue thoUSl1IlU dollars to two thousanu
,lol1a1'8, from two thonsttll!l uol1ars to thrce thousau(l dollars, froro tbree thousand dol-
lars to ¡¡ve thonsalld dollars, frolll tive thollsand dollars to ten thonsand dollars; and
tho uUl1lber and :lInoullt of those abovo ten tllollsallu; also tho atnOullt of pre-
minms receive<1 on policies in force anu thc average preminm on each poliey; also tho
amount of 108ses, in cash amlllotes amI the pereentage of tlle loss to tlle total mnonnt
of policies in force; also percentage of assets to risks in force. He shal1 also, in liko
l1Ianner, rer¡llire and obtain frolll every tire amI marine illsurance eompany tlle foUow-
ing faets, to wit: Nalllc of company; mUOll11t of capital stock autllorized by cllarter;
t10 alliount paiclllp; tbo nnmh(,1' of pe1'sons employe<1 in general aurninistration; tIto
nlllllber employed as agents; the gr08s llBseiS of company ; the total lbbilities, exhib-
Hing, separately, tite umount o1'los8e8 adjusted, losses nnadjllsted, losses resisted, rein-
snrauce fllUd, tire at tifty per cent., marine amI inlanu at one hunureu per oent.; all
other liahilities, inclllding capitttl; also the total reccipts, exhibiting, separately, fire
premillIlls, marine amI inland premiums, and reccipts Ü'om aU other sonr~cs, inclnding
interests, dividends, and 1'ents; alBo the total exependitures, exhibiting, scparately,
the numher an(] mnount of firo losses, of marine uud inland losses, dividends, commis-
81on8, including 81111lS ]laid to agonta by tlle insurer and insured; officers' salaries;
State, natiOlml, and lIlunicipal t:txes, amI aU otlter expenses; coueeI'uing risks written
during the ;rear, the Illllllber amI itUlOllnt oi' firo, number m1(l aIllonnt 01' marine and
i!llana; cOllcel'llillg the risks in force December tbirty-one, eighteen hnndred and sixty-
uine; tlle n11l11ber 'l1ld am01l11t of tire l'isks haviug l(~ss tItan one year io run, less tlmn
thl'ce yf':trs f.o rnn, 1II0I'l', than f.hree yl'9rS to ruu, and tho 11nl1111er and amount ofmarine
amI inIaua risks. Aud the SUl'erilltclldent oftlle Censns shal1 rcquiro and ohtain from
eaeh and ever" bankillg associ,üioll in tllc lTnit"d States and Territorics thorcof, fuU
HtatistieR of tllc c01Hlition al1<1 Jm~inoss 01' cnch of sai<1 associations for the vear ending
the jir~t of Jllne, cig'llteen Illlllllrec1 all(1 seventy; and said snperintendpnt s'hall reqnire
milI ohtain fi'om p:1eh mul eyerv hallker a]}(l hroker fuU statistics of tho husiness of
Bnch hall kc1' amI brokm', for t,lle year oll<liug ou thc ftrst of J une, eighteen hnndred and
~en;nty.


8¡.:c. 28. Au,d be it ¡lIr/he)' enac/cd, That the Snpcriutellllout of tlle Censns 811[111 requiro
each district superilüelHlellt 01' ellllllleratür to obtain from cvery publislle1', proprietOl:,
01' euitor of a ncwspaper, magazine. 01' other perio(lical, pnhlishe<l withill the (listriot,
a cop;r of the numhel' bearill/.( f,]w date of the tirst day oi' ,Junc, oighteeu lmudred and
seventy, 01' of the <l:ttP, nearest thereLo, '1Ull also a st'ttemcnt 01' the num ber of copies
¡mblishe<l. Allü he sItall re([llÍre tlle copies thns ohtained to be forwanleu to the
Cellsus Office aí, 'vVnshillgton for clasHitieation aJllll'reservation. And he shall require
":leh flistrid snperinkllllellt to procure from tho 8tate amI municipal anrl otller corpo-
mte authorities witllÍn his <list.rict sueh inforlllation as he llIay hA :tble to procuro,
relating to the amount of tlc1Jt of eadl 8t.:tte, COUllty, OI" othcr municipal corporatioll,
amI f()]' what ]ln1'p08e such dd)t was incurre,l, tilo allloullt aud rate 01' taxation, au(l
the varions purposcs for w bich tite tnx wa,' levie<l; the nn11lh,~r of criminal pros('eutíons
in each State aUfI municipal goverlllllellt, tle llUlllber of arrests, oouvjctiolls, and
acqllittals, antl tin' the purposc (jf t:ulTyitlg into effect all the provisions ofthis section
fhe SUp"l'illtenucllt i8 reqnir(,ll to prepare u,]}(l issue aU uecessary illstructiolls and
sudl sclleunles as are lIot, prnyi,leü for by law to tho district superintendent whose
duty it shall ])p, to obtaill tho rC<]llired inforrllltt,ion.


SRc.29. And be it fu)'l/wl' cllactcd, That the statisf,i~al informu,tion to be obtained ia
accordauce with tite provisiollK of this act "hall be tho folllJwing, to wit :


H. Hep. 3--5




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0 0 a u e . I d u c t s , a f i d b e r r i e s .


~ I B L l S h e J s o f p e a n u t s .


- : - 1 P o u n d s o f g r a l ? " n o t I


o m a d e i u t o W l u e .


_ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ V i n e y a n l s .


; : ! I G a l l o n s o í w i n e .


< 1


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~ V a I n c . d u c t s I l o t e n u m o r a t e d . § ~


C ! ; I ; l !


o l 1 V a l u e . 1 D o m e s t i c m a n u f a c t u r e s , ~ ~- I


° S n S N 3 : a H . L N I N :


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SCHEDULE Ko. 5.-STATT8TTCS OF 1<'TSHERIES.


M~ ~'~ o~:S !S;9 ~ .~ If of wha,le fisherios.
a ~ ] ~ .:1 ~ .g Fish 01' Rhdl·fish taken. on.
~~ § ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -:;i ~ ~ Spermaccti. "\Vhalebone.


t: Q?i ~ o~ ;g ~ ..... ~ ~~ I ~ <l) q;¡ ~.~ ';5 I:t-r ~ ~ ~, I o>-~:3 ~ s:f $::1 o~ l':I!"::; ~ I
... ; g¡ ;:; "P."il fi"" [l~'" ;;: ..J I I.J I .J o ¡:::.,,.o: d .~ .c M,.!:l etS.o.:ii 1 .... • ~ d rd a5


S ª~ =s, ~ ~ ~ El '3 "::l ª .E i ~ ,..E p P § I .El d Q-fJ d <lJ ~ ~ Q .S ::! ~ 1 ~ C':l o c:a o ~ ~ rj, ~ ~ i<i H ~ O' po f'l P. P-< po P-< ,...
2 3 ' ----5 -- 7-] 10 1- 1~ I -1-2-1--13-1-~4 -I--~


Name of firln, or individ·
ual, and kinu oí" business.


Nnrnber nfpersollA
engaged in estab-


lislnnellt as owu-
eI'S 01' partrlPrs.


-------1--


:l


SCHEDULE Ko. 6.-MmWANTILE OR TltADING ESTABLISHM~~N'l'S.


I
I


L~=
Average amount


Annua! ren!.al.val·1 of capital cm· , . I Totl1lofpnrchaRes ITota~am'tofsales
ne of,lllllldmgs ploye<l in trade 'Ave,racre number of Amount ofwages pald dllring the year dnnngyear1869,


occupled. tluring 1869. I pe,rs¿ns employ",l, tlnrillg tIte year. 1869, in dollars. I in do11ars.
---1 ! -------¡,-~------


Purchases. Sales.


3 4


~
~


Q
trJ


Z
00


L1
¡Il


~
~




' 1


i


~ I N a m e o f c h u r f ' h O l ' p ; u ! 1 Í z a t . i o n .


-,~ I I n w h a t y t - ' u l : - C h n r c l l o r g a n i z a t i o n


. . . ~ w a A f ( ) r m e d .


- - - - ; ; - I - P r e s e n t c a s h v a I n e o t ' - - c } l l u ' d l -


: . ! I h u i l d i n g ' a m I g r o u n c 1 s .


- - t g - ¡ - V a l u e o f clmIThPropcrt.Y.---~


~


~


"


N a m e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a n d i t s k i n d .


' "


D a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t .


~ I N u m L e r t i l u t e a i l - h e 8 e a t e i l i l l P l ' i l i = - ~


- . ! e i p a l a n d i e n c e r o o m . §


~ 1 Usualnnml~Hng~--- ~


~


I


' " 1 M a l e .


; . :


?


--~ ! ! \ o , 0 1 ' u l { ' l l l b e r s o f C h U I ' c h . ~


- 1 - - - -


; : . ,


" "


---;:;-I--~~rm.onnt p a i d t o c . J ( ' r g y - d u l ' i n g - t h e ( J ª .


_ = = _ _ _ _ _ y p u r . _ _ ;


1 1 ' e m a I O .


. §


~


' " 1 A H o t h e r e x p e n s e s f o l ' r c l i g i o u s : : : : :


- p n r p o s t ' S t l n r i n g t h e ) " e R r . ~


- - 1 N u m h e r o i d l i l d r e n i n ' · S u n f l a y I % -


1 - - ' 2 i


i S I s c h o o l s u u e l e r s u p e l ' v i s i o n o f t I l e .


c l m l ' c b . I


~, 1 ~ale. ;


-~--I-Cha;'~~~(i~~~--~


~ I l 1 r e s e l l t c u s h v a l n e ( ) i ' h n i l d i l l g s .


w 1 A m o n n t a p p r o p r i a t e d f r o m i E l ~


' " I p u b l i c f u m l s . I S ' a


~"


I 1 § ; . ; -


~ I Á m o n n t f r o m o t h e r 8 0 n 1 ' C I ' 8 . I ~ ~


i .1l~


~! A m o n n t


r e c e i v e c 1 f r O l l l - l a u o r ( ) r


i m o u t e N .


5 3


1 - ' f


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l


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4


1 - ' t l l t i O I l .


. . . . 1 C i y i l e o n d i t i o l l . j a s : m m · d e d , wl(f~


~.!) o w e d . o r s i n g l o .


~I B i r t h ] ) l a c e . - - - - - -


~I ~ I


~


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¡ : ; I


t . t I


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&


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o


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C ' ; l t i o n .


~:I--~ I - - - - - --~


- J I p ~


. . 1 ~ I f


0 0 1 : : : ; :


?


I


I f i n g o o , l h e a l t h a n d n o d i s · 1


a b i l i t y , w r i t e ( i . l f t - ' i c k , '


w r i t e t b e d i s e a s o , a s : c o n -


t ' i


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í ' . -


~.


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¡ ¡


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¡ t i l o y e a r .


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I M a l e . ' . +


1 1 ¡


1 F e m a l e .


1


i t


~


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: : : 1 _ P u b ¡ i c f u n d s o r tax~tiOJ~ _ _ 1


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<


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p


' " ~ 1 E n d o w m e I l ' t U l l < l r e n ! s . l '


~ ~ 1 T u - i t - i o - n - . - - - - - - - - - .


~ I~----------f U l


$ . , 1 - - ' P r i n c i p a l m a t e r i a l H , a s w o o d , g .


g ' c . . ; : 1 b r i c k , a n u s t o n e . g


g ~


g 1 a


~ I : ; ; : I T o t a l v a l u a o f b u i l d i n g . ¡


g . i l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ¡ ; ; -


1 I I - t ' - ' _ I C o r n r n o n b r a n c h e R . 1


[ . 1 : : ; ; 1 H i g h e r E n g l i s h b r a n c h o s . ~


~ ?


§ : I " ' I A n e i e n t u n d m o l l e r n l a n - s ;


g ' - . l g n a g e s . " g


~ ~


" '


0 0


S l ' e c i a l s t u d i e s , a s la,~: m e d i -


c i n c , e n g i n e e r i n g , a g - T i c u l -


;~~le'na~~1n~~~;;í~~. m í l i t a r y


: : :


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1 f d i s a b l c d , w r i t e : 1 0 s 8 o f


l e g , a r m , b l i u d , d e a f a n d


< J u m u , i n s a n e , i o i o t , & 0 .


~


: ¡ ; - 1 N a m e a n d k i n d


. _ - - - - - - - - - " j


! 5 1 D a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ~


-~ I O~~~~p, o f d h ! ( ' a s e f o r W h i C h l


c e i n m a t e i s h e r e .


; : : 1 K i n d I 1 n d d u r a t i o n . I


o


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l : : l 1 N u m b e r o f v o l u m e s . f .


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A n l l u a l c o s t o f m a i n t e n a n c e


a n d i n c r e a s e .


' S l l S N : > I O H~NIN


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O L




KIN'l'JI CEN8US. 71
Arl'ENDIX A.


P,'odsiol/8 01 the natiollal and Statc {'0118titutions 'ond 101l'8 ¡'clalin!] fo the l'Í!]ht 018uffmge.
EXTRACTS FHO~I THE CONSTITUTION 01" TIIE t::l'ITED STATES.


AHT. 1, SECo 2. (~.) Hcpresentatives an<1 direet taxes sIlan be apportioned among the
severa! States whieh nuty oc incllHled within the Union, accorfling to their respective
numucrs, which shaU be determined by adding to thc wholc IlllTnber of free persollS, in-
cludillg tllose bound to service for a term of years, amI excluding Iudialls not taxed,
three-fift.hs of aU other persons. 'l'he actual ennmeration shaIl be made within three
years after thc first meeting of the Congress of tlle Unitetl States, amI within every
Rllbsequent term of ten years, in sueh manner as they shaU by law directo The number
of representatives shall not exceefl one for every :m,ooo, lmt each State shaU have at
least one representative; amI until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New
Hampshire shall llO ent.itled to choose three; Massaclmsetts, eight; Rhode Island amI
Providel1ee Plantations, one; C0l111ecticut, five; New York, six; New Jersey, four;
Pennsylvania, eighí.; Dela",are, (me; }brylund, six; Virginia, ten; Norí.h Carolina,
five; Sonth Carolina, five; and Georgia, three.


(4.) 'Whell vacancics happen in tIle represent:ltion from any State, the executive
:mthority thereof sIlalI issne writs of election to filI such vncaneies.


A)rEXD~mXTS.


AnT. XIV, SECo 1. AH persolls horn 01' naturalizc(l in the r'uited StateH, a11(l 8ubject
to the jnrisdietioll thereof, are citizens of the t:nited States, a,ud of tIle State whe1'ein


. they n'side. No State 8hall make 01' ellforce any law ,yhieh shall abridge thp privi-
Irgcs or inununities of citiZCll.~ of tlw Ullitcc! Statcs; nor 8haU any State deprive ally
person of life, liberty, or property withont <1nl' process of law, nor deny to auy person
within its .inrisflietion tIle er¡nal proteetion of the law.


SEc.2. RCl'rcscllt.a1ivcs shan he apportiolled amollg thc seveml States according to
tIleir re~pective numb"r", connt-ing the wholA unmh"r of persons in each State, exehul-
i ng; Illtlians uot taxed. But whell tite right to vote at any election for tlle e hoiee ·of
electors for Presidellt and Vice-President, of tIte United 8tates, rcpreselltatives in Con-
gres", the execntiYB an(\ jndicial nfticcrs of a 8t.3tl;, 01' the memllC'I's of tlle legislatllrc8
thereof, is deni'jtl to ally of tILe lIIale inhabitallts of sueh 8tato, beillg twenty-one yea1's
of age. ami eitizens of thc Ullitecl State.s, 01' in auy way abridged, exccpt for partieipa-
tion in rel'fllliou, 01' other crime, tIle basis of representation therein shall be redncecl
in the propol'tion whiclt tIlO lJulllher oi' snch male cit iZCllS shall ocar to thc whole num-
11er of male eitizcns twenty-olle ypurs of agc in sneh 8tate.


'* '* *" '+ .Jo<. "* "" '*


AnT. XV, (now pell(ling fol' adoption,) SECo 1. Tlw right of citizenH of the Unitetl
States to vote shall lIot be dpuie<l 01' ahriclgctl by the Ullited States, 01' by any 8tate,
OB accol1nt of raep, eolor, or previons (,()lIdition of SClTitnde.


SECo 2. TIlO Congress shall lmye powe1' to euforcc thb a1'tide by al'p1'op1'iate legisla-
tion.


EXTRACT8 FROl\f S'l'ATE CONSTI'l'L"TIONS.
r~. B.--Thc following rxtract.H from Statc COllSi.titutions are inümded to exhibit only tbe qualifications ol


€'lect-ors and tbe caURe8 Apecified fOl' exclu!,;ion from the right of rmffrage in t.he several State~. ThE"y do not,
tberefore, embrace ¡;f'Cti01l8 I'elating tú the time alld mauuer of hoMillg Rud making returos of í'lcctions, the
powers and dutie~ of public officer~, the punishment of franr'l.:;;, TI01' the excmptions ::md privileges of elector!:!. 1


AUB,DIA. (1867.)
AnT. VII, SECo 2. E\'ery male ]lerson hom in tite rniíetl State~, and e.very male per-


son who has bepn llatnmlized, 01' who has lpgally declared his iutelltion to hccome a
Clitizeu oí t.he Unitecl States, twenty-ono yeaT'" old 01' upward, who shaU haye l'esüled
in this Statc six Illonths Ilext ]ll'ecct!ing thc I'lectioll, an!! tllree IllOllths in the county
in which he oft'ers to vote, as hereinafter provülecl, 81laU be deemed an elector: Pro1!ided,
That no Boldier, 01' sailor, 01' marin~ in the milital'y 01' naval service of tIle United
Statps sh:tll herc:tft.er acqui1'e a rcsi(lcnce uy reason of being statiolle(l on dnty in this
State.


SECo 3. It sbaIl be tho dllty of tllP general aSRPmbly to pl'oviile, fl'om time to time, for
the registration of aIl dcctor~; llllt the foIlowing classes of persons sh:tll not be per-
mittecl to register, yote, 01' holel oftice:


1. 'l'hose who, tluring the late rpbellion, inflictf'cl, 01' cansed to he inflicted, any cruel
or uunsual punisluuent upon auy soMier, sailor, or marine, employé or eHizen of the
l'nited States, 01' who in any other ,yay violUíed the rules 01' civilized warfare.




72 NINTlI CENSUS.
2. Those who Illay he disqualified froro holding oIDeo by the proposed amendment to


the Constitution uf t1w Fnited States, known as Artic1e XIV, and thosc who lmve ueen
dis<]llalified Ü'om regish'ring to vote fuI' delcgatcs to the convention to frame a cOllsti-
tution fol' tbo State of Alauama, nndel' the act of Congress "to provide for tlle more
eftieient governlllont of the reuel StateR," passed l)y Cougress :l-Iarch 2, 1867," alld the
acts snpplementary thereto, except snch persons as aideü iu the reconstI1lCtion p1'o-
posed by Congress, and accept the poJitical eqllality nf an men hcforo thc law: l'¡'oridcd,
That the general assernhly aha11 have power tn remove tho disahilities incurred under
this clanse. t


3. Those who sha11 lmve heen convicted of tre·t80U, embezzlement of puulic fllUda,
malfeasance in oftice, crime punishaule uy law with imprisonment in the penitentiary,
01' lJriuery.


4. Those WllO are itliots or insanA.
[By article I, section 34, it i~ tledared that temporary absence from the State shall


not cause forfeiture of residence once olJtaincd.]


ARKANSAS. (1868.)


ART. VIII, SECo 2. Every malo porson horn in tho United Statos, and eyery male
llersun who has been Ilatllralized,or has legally dcclarcd his intention to beconw a
citizcn of thc Lnited States, who is tWl'nty-one yeal's olrl or u]Jwal'd, and who shall
haYA resicled in the State six months llcxt llreceding t,he election, and who at the time
i8 an actual resident nf the COllnty in w hich he oti'ers to vote, cxeept as hereinafter
provided, shall he declllcd au elector: Pl'ol'ided, No soltlier, 01' sailor, 01' marine, in the
military 01' naval senice of the Unitod Statcs, shall aef[uil'e a residence by 1'ea80n of
heing stationeü on duty in this 8tate.


SECo 3. The fo11owing classes shallnot be permitted to register, 01' hold office, viz:
1. ThoSA who during reuellion took thc oath uf allegiallct>, 01' gave hOllds fol'


loyalty uud guod behavior tn ihA Lnited 8tates governlllcllt, milI aftcrwanls gave aid,
comfort, 01' countcnaneo to those cngagecl in armed llOstility to the governmcnt of the
United State8, either by becoming a sohlicl' in the rebel al'lIly, 01' by enter1ng the lines
of sttid anny, 01' adhering in any way to the cause of reuelliun, 01' hy accompanying
ally armell force uclonging tu the reuel l1nny, OI' hy furnishing 8upplies of auy kind to
thA same.


2. 'l'hOSB who are r1i8r¡ualifiell as elector", 01' fl'Olll holding offiee in tho State 01' States
frolll w hieh they carne.


3. Th08e persons who lluring the late I'euellion yiolated tho rules of civilizcd warfare.
4. Those who may be disf[ualitied by the proposcü amcllllment to tho Constitution


of the United Sta tes, kllOWIl as Article XIV, aml those who hay e heen disqualiflcd frolll
rAgistering to vote for delega tes to thc COllvelltion to frame a constitution for the State
of Al'kansas, under (,he ant of Congress entitled "An aet to lll'ovide for the more effieient'
goverument of the rohcl States," passecl March 2, 18ü7, and tho acts SUpplcIllclltal
thereto.;


5. Those who shall llave bRen <lonvictell oí' trCtlSfJll, ellluezzlcment of puhlic funds,
malfeasance in oflicc,cl'inlCS puuish:thl(, by law with il1lpl'isOlllllent in thc pcnitelltiary,
01' hribel'Y.


6. Those who are idiots 01' in sane : Proddcd, That alll'ersons inclllded in tlle 1st, 2rl,
3d, and 4th Mubdivisions of this section, who huxe openly aüvocatetl U1' who llave voted
for tlle reconstrllctiun propused hy Cnngress, and accept the eq nalit.y oi' all lllon
beforfl tlle law, shall ue deellled qualified elcctors undel' thi~ constitntioll.


SECo 4. The general assemhly shall have the pOWCl', hy a two-thinls vote of each
houso, approved by the governnr, to remove the disabilities inclmlcd in tho 1st, 2d, 3d,
amI 4th suudivisions of sectioll thrce of this artiele, WlWIl it appears that 811('h persoll
applying for 1'elief from s11ch disabilities has in good Jaith rctllrnetl to his allegiance to
the government of the Uniterl States: PrOl'ided, The general assembly shall have no
pow"r to remoye the disauilities uf ally ])Cl'SOIl emhraeed in thA aforl\sairl suhllivisions
who, after the adoptioll of this constitlltion by t11e COllvelltioll, pcrsist in oppoMiug tIlO
acts of Congress and recnnstrnction therellndet.§


[By lt1'ticle I, section 22, persons concernctl in duels "re fmever deprived of the 1'ight
of voting at any election. ]
----~-----------------------------------


,¡. Tbis act allowed CODstitutions to be fOl'llled by ('onventions of delt:>gates H elected by tile male citizens of
said StRte, 2l yeal's old and upward, of whatever race, color, or pr~"iOU8 rondition, who have been residrut
in 8uch State for olle year previous to the day of ~uch eledioIl, except. I\uch aH lllay be disfranchi:-letl for par-
ticipation in rebel1ion or for felollY at common lnw." Tho constitutions f'ormed at ¡.;nch conventioll!-l were to
provide that the elective franchi:-ic should be elljoyed ollly by 8ueh perrlOllS as had the qualitications above
Htll.ted for electors of delegates.


i 'I'his authority bas been exerei!'ied :in thc fOl'm of a regular enactment, l'emoving all <.lisalJ:ilities, so that
no'" all males 21 yeur:-l of agü, with the excepliuu uf convicte(l cl'imillals, are nllowcd to votl'.
~ See note to Alabama.
§ Tbi8 power has not be en exercised by the general asscmuly




NINTH CENSUS. 73
CALIFOUNIA. (1849.)


AuTo n, SECo 1. Every white male citizcn of the United Sta tes, and every white male
citizen of Mexico, who shall have elected to becomíl a citizen of the United States,
nntler tllO trcaty of peace exchanged and ratified at Qllcrctaro, on the 30th day ofMay,
1848, of Ihe age of -¿l years, wllo shall have be en a resident of the State six months
next precflding the elcction, and tlle county or district in whieh he claims his vote
;>0 days, sIJall be entitled to VOtfl at all elections which are now, or hereafter may be,
authorizecl by law: * Pl"Ovicled, That nothing herein contained shall be construfld to
prevent the legislature, by a two-thirds concurrent vote, from admitting to the right
of suffragc Indians or the descendants of Indians, in such spec1al cases as such a pro-
portion of tho legislative hody may deem just and proper.


SECo 4. }'or the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gaincd or lost
a resitlcllcc hy reason of his presenee or absence while crnvloyed in the service of the
1'"nited States,t 1101' while engaged 111 thc navigation of the waters of this State, or of
the ünited States, or of thc high seas; nor while a stlldent of any semilllwy of learn-
ing; nor while kept at any almshouse or other usylum at public expellse; nor whilfl
confined in any puiJlic prison.


SECo 5. No idiot 01' insane person, or l)erson convicted of any infamous crime, shall
be cntltled to the privileges of an elector.


AUT. XI, SECo 19. Absence from tlle State on business of the State,or of the "Gnitc!l
States, shallllot affect tho question of residellce of any person,


[By artide XI, section -¿, persons concerned in duela eannot be allowed to enjoy the
right of sllffrage.]


CONNECTICUT. (1818.)


lun. VI, SI';C, 1. All persona who have bocn or shall hereafter, previolls to the ratifi-
catioll of thia const1tution, be admitted freemen, accordillg to the existing laws of this
State, 81mll be clectors.


AUT. VI, SECo :{. 'l'he privilegcs of an elector sha11 he forfeited hy a conviction of
hrihery, forgery, pcrjllry, duellillg, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft, or other ofrense fol'
which an infamous punishment i8 iurlicte<1.


A:\1ExD:\mNT: AH'!'. VIII. Adoptcd Octobcr, 1845. Every white male citizen of tIJc
United States who shall ha\'c attained the age of21 years, án(l who shltll have residecl
in this Stlttc fol' thc term of one yenl' next l)receding, mal in the town in which he
lllay ofier himself to he admittell to the vrivilegcs of an elector at least six months next
prereding tlw time he llmy so oJIer himself, [see 11th amendment,] :md shall sustaill a
goo<l moral charadar, shall, on his taking 8uch oath as may be prcscribcd by law, 1)e
an elcctor.


ÁsIEND:\I¡';XT: ART. XI. Adoptcd October, 1855. Every person shall1Je ahle to rcad
any article in the eonstitution, 01' any section of the statntes of thia State, hcfore being'
adlllittcd as an elector_


[By an ameIHlment adopted in August, 1864, (Art. XIII,) electors in the military
seTl'ice of tite Ullite<l Stntcs, dllring the rflbellion then existing, were cnahlcd to vote
whilc sbsent frolll the Sta te. A law had been previously passed for this lmrpose.j.]


DELAWARE. (18:31.)


AuT. IV, SECo 1. "* And in such eleetions cvery free white male
citizen of the age of twenty-two .veal'S 01' upwanls, llav1ng' rcsided in the State one yeal'
next before the electioll, amI tIJe last month thereof in the eOlluty where he offers to
vote, amll¡av1llg within two years next hefore tIle election. paid a county tax, which
shall have been assessed at least six montha befoI'e the election, shan enjoy the right
of an elector; and every free whito male citizen of the age of tIYenty-one, and under the
age of twenty-two years, havillg resided as nfol'esaid, sllall be el1titled to yote without
payment of ally tax: Prol'iclecl, That no person in the miliütry, na yal, 01' marine service
of the United States shall be cOllsidcrcd as acquiring a residence in this State by being


*0 went to reside in a certnin COllnty un Septembel' 22, and fin election wal:3 held tbere on the 21 st of Octo·
ber following. Held, Tbat he had not residf'd tbere 30 dn.y¡.¡, so as to t'ntitle 11im to vote under the constitu·
tional provision requiring a previous residen ce fol' su eh a length of time.-People YS. Rolden, 28 Cal., 123.


t Aman is not disqualified froro voting by rca~on of being a wldier in the arrny of the Vnited States. but
be ·n·m not acquire the Tight merely by rC1:Iirling in the country as a Jo:loldier.-Orman vs. Riley, 15 Cal., 48.


The burden of proof iH upon the party who contests the fight of auotber to vote.-lb. .
Article 2. secHon 4, of tbe COll'6titutioll, declaring that no porson Hhall be deemed to ha ve gained or lost a


rpl:lidence by reR.~on of hiJo! pTt'sence or absence in tbe ~ervice oí t11e United States, doef:, not preclude R person
from acqlliring a residence in the placewhere, and in tbe time ",hile, be is prescnt in such sen'ice. [SHAFTER.
J., di"enting.J-Ib.


t The aet ol' December 24, 1862, wbich provides for taking, out of Ihe Sta te. tbe votes of persons in Ihe
military sen'ice of the United State!'!, in the electiou of State and otber officers, ¡s, in respect to tbe election
oí State officerB and member.s 01' the general assembly, uncollstitutional.-Opinion 01 Judges, 30 CODO' I 591.




74 NINTH CENSUS.
stationed in any garrison, barracks, or military or naval place 01' 8tation within this
State; and no idiot, 01' insane person, pauper, or person cunvicted of a cI'ime deemed by
law felony, 8hall cujoy thc rig-ht uf an elector; and that the legislatnre may impose the
forfeitnre of the right of snft'rage as a pnnishment for crime,


FLORIDA. (1868.)
ART. XIV, SECo 1. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years and npwards, of


'\vhatflvflr rae e, color 01' nationality, or previous condition, or who shall, at the timfl of
offering to vote, be a citizen of the United States, or who shalllmve declared his illten-
tion to-become such in conformityto the laws ofthe United States, and who shallhave
resided and had his habitation, domicile, home, ami place of permanent abode in Florida
for one year, and in the county for six months next preceding the election at which he
sha11 offer to vote, shan in such county be deemed a qnalified elector at a11 elAetions
under this constitutiou. EVflry elector sha11 at the time of hi8 registration take amI
subscribe the following oath:


"1 --- do solemnly swear that I wiII snpport, protect and defend the Constitntion
and government of t,he L'nited States, and the constitntion and government of the Rtate
,of Florida, against a11 cncmics, forcig'n 01' domestic; that I will bear trne faith, loyalty,
aud allegiance to the same, any ordinances 01' resolntion of Ully State convention 01'
legislature to the contrary notwithstanding: So help me G()(l."


SEc.2. No pCI'son ullder guardian8hip, non com[Jo~ mentís, or insane, sha11 be qualificd
to vote at any election, nor 8ba11 ally person convicted of felony be qualified to vote at
any election unless resto1'efl to civil rights.


SEc.3. At any elcction at which a citizen 01' subject of any foreign couutry shalloffer
to vote, nuder the provisions of this constit.lüion, he 81lall present tothe 1)er80118 lf1wfuJJy
autborized to condllct and supervisA snch eleetiou a duly sealed and certified eupy of
his declaration of intcntion, othcrwisc he shallnot be allo\ved to vote; ano any natu-
ralized citizen oifering to vote sha11 produce befo re said persons, lawfn11y anthorizefl to
conduct amI supervise the election, his certifica te of naturaliztttion, 01' a duly 8ealed
and certified eopy thercof; otherwisc he sha11 not be permitted to vote.


8EC. 4. '1'he legislature shall have power and shall enaet the neceasary laws to ex-
elude from every office of honor, power, trust, 01' profit, civil 01' military, wit.hin the
State, amI from the l'igbt of sllifrage a11 persolls'eonvictell of bribery, perjnry, larceny,
01' of infamons crime, 01' who shall make or bocome, directly 01' indirectly, illterested in
any bet 01' wager, the result of which shall rltlpelHl upon any election; 01' who sha11
hereaftcr fight a duel, 01' seud 01' aeeept a eha11cnge to fight, 01' who sha11 be a secoud
to either party, 01' be the llCarer of su eh challenge 01' acceptance; bnt the legal disability
shall not :wcrne unt.il after tri al ami convir;t.ion bv due form of law.


SECo 7. TIw Icgi8lature sha11 enact laws requirillg e<lueational qualifications 'for elec-
tor8 after the year 1880, but no snch laws shall be mariA applicahle to any elector who
may have registered 01' voterl at a.ny fllection pI'evious thereto.


[Thc Scminole Illllians are, by Art. XVI, Seco 7, allowed to elect one member of their
tribe to each honse of the legislatnre. Tllis specia,] 1'epresentation i8 not to htl a har to
the representation of any count.y by thtl citiztlns thereof, ami wLcuever a tax nmy l)e
imposcd on thcse Indians, they are thenceforth to be eútitled to aH the privileges of
citizens, and wiII he barred fI'om special representation.]


GEORGIA. (1868.)
AH'!'. II, S~;c. 2. EVAry male person llOra in thA Unite(l States, and every male person


who has been natnralizec1, or who hasleg:Llly dcdared his intcntioll to become a citizen
of the United Sta tes, twenty-one years old 01' upwarrl, who slmll have resided in this
State six months next preceding the election, :mrl Hha11 lmve resieled thirty dttys iu the
county in which he oifers to vute, aud 8hall have paid a11 taxes which may have been
required of him, anrI which he may have hall an opportunity of paying, agreea.hly tu
law, forihe year next preceding thtl elcctiou, (exeept as hel'eillaftcI' pI'ovidcd,) ahan be
deemetl an elcctor; and every malo citizen of the United States, of the age afo1'esaid,
(tlxcept as hereinafter provided,) who may llil a. l'csi(lent ofthe State at tlw timo oft.he
adoption of t.his constitntioll, shall he cleemetl an elector, and shan ha ve an tlle rights
of an elector as aforcsaid: Pl'ovided, Tlmt no soldier, sailor, 01' marine in the military 01'
naval service of the United States, shaU acqnire the 1'ighí-s of an elector by l'ea~()ll of
being stationerl OH dnty in this Statfl; au(l no per80n sLall vote \Vho, if cllallenged,
shall refuse to take the fo11owillg oath :


"1 do swtlar that I have not givell, 01' received, nor do I expect to givc,ol' l'cccivo, any
money, treat, 01' othe1' thing of vallle, by which my vote, 01' any vote, is afl.'ected, 01' ex-
pected to be aftected, at this election, nor have I g'iVCll 01' promisell any rf'ward, 01' made
any threat, by which to prevellt any persoH from voting at this election."


SEc.3. No pCl'son convictcrl of felony oI' lareeny before au'y court of this State, 01' 01'
01' in the United States, shall be eligible to any oílice 01' appointment of honor 01' trust
within this State, unless he sball have, been pa1'doner1.


SKc.5. No person who, after the adoption of this cOllstitntion, being a resident of




NINTH CENSUS. 75
this State, sha11 engage in a duel iu this State or elsewhere, or sha11 sendor accept a
challenge, or he aider or abettor to such duel, sha11 vote or hold office in this State;
and every snch pcrson shall also be subjcct to sueh puuishmeut as the law may pre-
scribe.


SECo 6. Tho geueral asscrnbly may provide, from time to time, for the registratiou
of a11 electors, ¡mt the following classes of persons shall uot be permitted to register,
vote, or hold office :


1. TIlOSO wllo sllall have been convicted of treason, embezzlement of public funds,
rnalfeasance in office, crime punishablc by law with imprisoumeut in the penitentiary,
or brihen'.


2. Idiots or inSltne persons.
ILLINOIS.* (1847-'48.)


ART. VI, SECo 1. Iu aU elections, every white male citizen above the age of 21 years,
having resided in the State one :real' next prcccding any clection, shall be entitled to
vote at snch election; and every y,hite male inhabitant of tlle age aforesaid, who may
he a resident of the State at tite time of the adoption of this constitution, shall ha vo
the right ofvoting as aforesaid; but no such citizen 01' inhauitant shall be entitled to
vote, except in the distl'ict 01' county in which he sha11 actnally reside at the time of
snch election.


SECo 5. No elector shall be deemed to have lost his residence in this State by reason
of his ausence on tlle business of the 1Jnited States, 01' of his State.


S¡.;c, 6. No soldier, seaman, or marine,in tlw al'luyor llavyofthe United States, shall
¡le deemecl a. resiclellt of this State, in conseqnence 01' ueing stationed at any military 01'
naval place within tho Sta te.


SEc.8. Tlle general assembly shall have full power to pass laws exdndillg frollL the
right of suft):age persons convictecl of in1'amous crimes.


INDIANA. (1851.)
ART. II, SECo 2. In all electiolls, uot "¡'¡lcrwise provided for by this constitntiou,


every white malc citizcn of the 1Jnited States, of the age of21 years alHl upwards, who
8hal have resided in the Statc dnring tllc six IIlonths inllnediately preceding 8nch
e]ection; and evory white malA of foreign birth of the age oí' 21 years alld upwards,
who sha11 have resided in thc United States one yea,r, and shall have resided in this
State during the six months iunuediately prcccding such election, and shaIl ha ve
declarcd ¡lis intention to become a citizen of thc Ullited States, conformably to the
laws ofthe United Statcs on thc sllhject of naturalization, shall be entitled to vote in
the township 01' precinet where he lllay resi<le. t


-----------------------------------------


-... 'Vhether tbe penwn offcring to vote is un llnuntllralized foreigller or a citizell, the judgetl of electioll bave
no right tú inYt.~¡.;tigp.te, under the law¡;¡ of I11inois. Jf buch person takes t.hc oath prescribcd by lnw, the duty
is imperative upou thüjudges to receive bi~ vote, unless the onthis proved to be false.-Spragins V8. HuUglttOll,
2' Scammon, 377.


Nor can the jndges inquire whether tIle person offering to vote is nn inhnbitant and enHtled to the l'ight of
fiuffruge within the meaning of the con~titution. It i8 only where the judge of t11e election allows tbe exer~
cis(O of thc f>1('ctive fl'allchise by oue who~e rjgbt he ~uspects, or ,vhose vote i8 challenged, without tcndcring
tbe oath prescribt'u by btatute, tbat tbe jurlgc violates his duty.-Ib.


1t )o:rrrnf; that t~itizcnship i!l not a 11eee8~ary qualifica1ion of a voter in IlHnoi~.-Ib.
Each Statt'l haH tbe undoubted right to prescrihe the qualificatinTIs of its own voters. And it is eqnally


clear tbat tl16 ad of naturaHzation dOPf; noí confer on the individual natnralized t1le right to exercise tbe
elective franchíse. 'fhe qnalification which the voter is required to poss~ss in a congressional elf'ction de-
pends entirely on th~ laws of the:Str:de in which 1h0 p.lective franchil'5e is exercised. and ia purely dependent
on the munielpal r('gulation~ of the State.-Per SrtIlTH, J.-lb.


t By section 1 of the regilitry Jaw, paHseu May 11, 1867, it il! declared .. That no per80n sball be deemed to
ha ve acquired a r('8idence in any town~hip, city, or ward, so as to entiUe bim to vote tberein, until he shall
bave been a bonafide inhabitullt of such town-ship, city, or waro, at kast twenty days before the day ofeJec·
tion at wbich 8t1ch person 81mll offel' to vot~."


The law above referred to was ameurled May 13, 1869. The following section dr.finc8 tbe rjght of a person
challenged upon hi~ offeriug to vote.


" SECo 6. Any pcrsong ofl'¡>ring to vote rnay be challenged by any voter in sueh townRhip, precinct, 01' ward,
(as tbe caBe may be,) aud Jf tbe person 80 cballellged im¡j~ts upon voting, snd the cbailenge be noto with-
drawo. 8üid board of clection, 01' 80me member thereof, shall adnünh:ter to him tbe following oath: I YOtl do
tlw(~ar (or affirm, 8S th e case lllay be) tbat yon are a citizen of the United States; that you are over 21 yeara
oi 3ge, to tbe bellt of your iuformn.tion 01' bclipf¡ that you have been a bonafide re8ident of thi~ State for six
montbs irnmediately preceding this e'lection; that yOtl are now, and have been for twentydays IRst past, a bonfl
fide resident of thhi town:!bipl preeinct, or ward, (nlo! the case may be ;) tbat yOtl are generally known by tba
name iu which you now desire to vote; tbat yon have not voted llor will not vote at aoy other precinct,
township, 01' ward (as the ca.se may be) in this election.' And in ca¡.¡c of p('r~on of foreign birtb, tbe oath
relative to citizellship sba11 be dhipensed witb, snd the following word~ used in Heu thereof: I 'l.'hat you haya
resirled in tbe United States one year, aud have dee1ared your intention to bccorno a citizen thel'eof. in con·
formity with the laws tbereof. And in addition ta snch oath of such per¡.;on proposillg to vote, tbe followillg
oatb or affirmation of 'p(ome freeholder who i9 a re~ident and voter of such towllsbip. precinct, 01' ward, (as tbe
C:!lole may be,) in which the challellged person asks to vote, shall be required: 'You do swear j oraffirm, (as
the case may be,) tbat your are a freeholder, o\vning real estate in your own rigbt, held by deed in your own
lIarn~, aod that fhe said real eRtate il:J situated in tbis election precinct; and 1hat -- --, who no'W
desire9 to vote, has rel'ided in thh.¡ Statc for gix months irnmediately preceding this electioll, and has been a
bouafide re¡.ddent of thht precinct for tW€'llty dayslast past;' which oath shnll bcwritten 01' prlotcd, and shall be
signf'd by tlle pen~oD Ulaking Rurh oath in the presence of such board of eleotiolll~, which oath abaIl be admin~
i15tered by sorne me:nber thereof, who aban affix his jurat tbereto; whicb aftlduvits ahall be attached to, aud
be returned witb, the poll-Iists, to the ofliee of the county clerk."




76 NINTH CENSUS.
SEc.3. No soIdier, scaman, 01' marine, in the army 01' navy of the Ullitcd States, or


of their allies. shall be deemad to h~we acquired a residence in the State in eonsc-
quenee of lmving bcen stationed within the same; nor shall any such soldier, seaman,
01' marine have the right to vote.


SEc.4. No person 8ha11 be deemed to have' lost his residence in the State by reason
of his absence, eithcr on business of this State 01' of the Unitcd States.


SECo fi. No negro or mulatto sha11 have the right of suffrage.
SECo 8. The general assembly sha11 have power to deprive of tho right of suffrage,


and to render ineligiblo, any person convicted of an iufamous erime.


IOWA. (1857; AS AMENDED IN 1868.)
ART.II, SECo 1. Enry male eitizen of the United States of the age of 21 years,


who s11a11 have been a r(j,~ident of the State six months Ilext prececling the election,
and in the connty in which he claims his vote sixty days, shall be entitled to vote at
a11 elections which are now or hereafter may he authorized by law.*


SECo 4. No person in the military, naval, 01' marine service of tlle United Statea shan
be considered a rcsident of this State by being stationcd in any garrison, barrack, 01'
military or naval place or station within tllis State.


SECo fi. Ko idiot or insane lJerson, or persona convicted of any infamous crime, shall
be entitled to the privilege of an elector.


KANSAS. (1859; AS ANIENDED IN 1864 A)/J) 18ü7.)
ART. V, SECo 1. Every white male person of 21 years and upwarcls, belongiug


to either of tlle fo11owing elasscs, who sha11 have residerl in Kansas six 1110nths next
prececlillg any election, aud in the township 01' warcl in which he offers to vote at
least thirty daya next [lreceding s11ch electioll, shall be deemed a qualitied elector:t


1. Citizens of the United States.
2. Persons of foreign birth who 811a11 have declarecl thcir illtontiou to become


citi7.ens, conformably to the laws of tlle l:uited States on the suhjcct of natumIizatiou.
SEc.2. No persou llnder guardiallship, non COinp08 menti8, 01' insane; no peraon con-


vieted of felony, llnless restored to civil rights; uo person who has heon dishonorably
discharged frOlll the senice of the l~nited Sta tes, unIess reinstated; no lJerson gllilty
of defranding the governmcllt of the United Statt's 01' any of tlle States thereof; no
person guilty of giving 01' receiving a bribe, 01' olfering to give 01' receive a bribe; aml
no person who has ever yolnntarily borne arms agaillst the goverllmellt of the United
Sta tes, or in any manllcr volulltarily aided 01' ahetted in the attempted overthrow of
said goverllment, except aH persolls who lmve heca honorably lli~charged frolll the
111ilitar~' ser vice of the Unitetl Sta tes since the first day of April, A. D. ltiül, provided
that they haye served one year 01' more therein, shan be qualilied to vote or hold office
in this State, until HIlCh disability sha11 be removed by a law pa~~ed by a vote of two-
thirds of a11 the members of llOth hranches of the legislature.


SECo 3. For t11e purpose of voting, no person 8ha11 be deemed to have gaincd or 108t
a residcuce by reason of his presence 01' absellce while employed in thc serviee of the
United States, nor while eng~tge(l in the navigation of the waters of this State 01' of
the Uniterl States, or of the high seas, uor while at any almshouse 01' other asylum
at publie expenSA, 110r while cOllfilled in auy public prisoll; and the legisIature lllay
make provision for taking the votes of elect,ors who may be absent from their tOWI1-
ships or wards, in tho volnuteer military service of tItA Unitecl States, 01' the militia
Bonice nf this State; but nothing herein cOlltl1illCd sha11 be dccrned to allow an,\' 801-
dier, seaman, or marine, in the regular army 01' navy of the United States, the right to
vote.


KE:NTUCKY. (1850.)
ART. II, SECo 8. EYl"ry free white male citizell, of the age of 21 years, "ho has


resided in the State two yea1's, 01' in the cOllnty, tO\nl, 01' city in which he offers
* Remaíning in n township, with tbe intention of retnrning upon tbe accomplishment of ¡wme temporary


purpose, is not sufficient to give a re¡.;idence within tbe meanÍng of the electioD. lawK 01' Iowa j there lUUgt be a
bonajideiutention to make it a residence.-Sll1.te vs. jyIinniek. J5 Iowa, (7 \Vith.,) 1'23.


The eonstitution of the State of Iowa, as applied to tbe legi~lative department, is a limitation, and not a
grant of power; and tbe legifol.ln.turc may provide who ahan llave the ríght of sllff'rage, nnd the time, place,
and lliaDller oí eX0.Tcising it, whell Dot expre~Hly or llllpliedly probibited by tbe terms of the cODstitution.-
Morri8on VS. Springer, 15Iowa, (7 With.,) 304-.


The aet of September 11, ]862, autborizing legal votenl in the military sel'vice tú vote without thc Stnte
ltmitj:!, iR eouHtitutional.-lb.


t Tbe district court Itas drcided thHt a persún more tban half white shall be deerned ji white," witbin tb~
mea.ning ofthilol section, and be allowed to vote. Tbis questiun lH:l,s uever ueen carried to the supreme ~onrt,
but the aboye conBtruction has gencraUy been aequiesced in, aud tbe clasE of per¡.;ons refened to vote WltllOut
binderanee.


! :F'oreignera who have resíded in the State and pr('cinct Jbe preseribed time: are entitled to vote imllledi·
ately upon being'nllturalized.-M'organ v •. Dudlcy, 18 B, Mon., (Ky.) 693.




NINTH CENSUS. 77
t.o vote, one rear next prcccding thc election, sha11 be a voter; but such voter 8ha11
have been, for sixty <lays next precerling the election, a residcnt of the precinct in
which he offers to vote, and he slla11 vote in saiel precinet and not elsewhere.*


ART. VIII, SECo 4. Laws slmll be made to t'xclude from offiee, and from suffrage,
those who sllall thereafter be eonvicted of bribe1'Y, perjllry, forgery, 01' other crimes 01'
high misdemeanors.


SECo 12. Absence on the hnsiness of this State, 01' the United States, sha11 not forfeit
a residen ce once obtained, so as to dep1'ive any one of the right of suffrage, 01' of being
"¡ccted 01' appointed to ally offiee under this Commonwe:1Ith, nnder the exception con-
tnined in this constitution.


LOUISIANA. (1868.)


TITLE n, ART. 25. At its first session nndel' tbis constitution, the g¡meral assembly
shall provide by law that the names all(l reHidenee of aU qnalificcl electors shall be
1'llgistered, in order to entitle them to votc; but the registry sha11 be frce of cost to
thc elector.


AUT.26. No person slmll bc entitled to vote at any election held in this St.ate, except
m the parish of his residen ce, anrl at the election ]Jrecinct in whieh he is rcgistered:
PI'Qvided, That no vote!', in removing from 011e parish to auother, sha11lose the right in
the former until he has acquirecl it in tlw latter.


TITLE VI, AUT. 9R. Eve1'Y male person, of thc age of 21 years 01' upwards, born 01'
natllralized in tho United States, and suhject to the jurisdiction thereof; and a residcnt
of this State one year uext preeetling an election, and the last ten days within the
parish in wllich he ofi'ers to vote, shall be tlecmed an elector, except those disfranchised
hy this eonstitution, and persons llndel' intel'diction.


AHT.99. The following persons shall be prollibited troro voting and holding any
oftie.e: AU persons who ahall haye been eonvickd of treason, pe1'jnry, torgery, bribery,
01' othe1' erimc p.unishable in the pmlitentiary, and persons umier intel'diction. AH
persons who are estoppecl frolll c1airning the right of suffrage, by abjuring their a11egi-
ance to the U nited States government, 01' by notorionsly levying war against it, 01'
adhering to its cncmies, giving thelll aid 01' Clomfort, but who ha ve not expatriated
thelllH8lves, nor have been convietecl of ally of tlle erimes mentioned in the first para-
graph of this :trticle, are he1'eby restored to thc said rigllt, eXClept the following:
Those who held officc, civil 01' milit¡try, for one year 01' more, under the organization
styled "tlle Confcderate States of Amcriea;" those who l'egistered thcmselves as ene-
lIlies of thc LJniterl States; those who aeted as lcaders of guerilla bands during the
late rebellian; those who, in the advoeacy of treason, wrote 01' publiHhed newspaper
articles 01' p1'eached sermona rlurillg t1w late rehellion; amI those who voted fol' antl
signed an ordinance of secession in any Statc. No person iucllHled in theso exceptions
shall either yote 01' hold office nntil he shall llave relieved himself by volnntarily wri-
ting ami signiug a certifieate scttiug fmtl! that he aClknowledges the late rebellion to
have ucen morally and politica]]y wrong, and that hc !'cgrets any aid and comfort he
may have given it; alld .he shall file tlw eertificate in the ollicc oí' the secretary of
Htate, ancl it shall be published in thc ofticial journal: Pl'ovided, That no person who,
prior to tho firat of Janll:ll'y, Hl(iB, favored the exccution of the laws of the United
States popnlarly known as tlw reconstrlletion acts of Congress, t and openly ami ac-
tivcly assist<ld the loyal men of t.he State in tlleir cfforts to restore Louisiana to her
position in thc Union, shall he held to be inclurled alllong thoso herein exceptcd. Reg-
istrars of voters shall take tlle oath of any snoh persons as prima jacie evidence of the
fact that he iR entitled to tho benefit of this proviso.


ART. 134. No soldier, sailor, 01' marine, in the military 01' naval service of the United
Rtatea, shalI hel'eafter acquire a residence in this State by reason of being stationed 01'
doing duty in the same.


Mmm. (1820.)
ART. II, SF,C.1. Evcry male citÍ7:eu of the Unitecl States, of the age of 21 years


and upward, excepting panpers,t persons under guardianship, a11(1 Indiana not taxed,
having his residence esta hlished in this State for tho tCl'lU of thl'ee montha llext pre-
eeding any election, shall be an elector for governol', sellators, and representatives,


... For~igneT8 who hnve resided in tbe State, county, and precinct the length oí time required by tbe cODstie
tion, are entitled to vote immedmtcly upon being naturalized. It does not require a residence after the alien
lJecomes a citizen. 01' after he nttains the age of 21, bui. only a previou~ r~shlcnce next preceding the electio])"
either before 01' after he acqulres dtizenship, or mtaina hi!o1 majol'ity.-Murgan V8. Dudley, 18 B, Mon., 724.


t See note to Alabama.
t Per~ons whohave received R8sistnnce frÚTIl any town as paupers, or been disposed of in ser vice as Buch by


the overseers of tbe pOOf, may stilL vote for State officers, if otberwil'5e qualified, provided they have Dot been
pauper. within three month. next preceding the day of clection.-Opinion of JUBaC", 7 Greenleaf, App., 497.




78 NINTH CENSUS.
in thc town or plantation where his rcsidonce is so ostablishcd,'" and the elections ahall
be bywritten ballot.t But persons in the military, naval, or marine service of tho Uni-
ted States, or this Sta te, shan not be eonsidered as havillg obtained such esíablished
rcsidencc by being síationed in any ganison, barrack, or lllilitary place. in any town or
plantation; nor slrall the residen ce of a student at any selllinary of learning entiBe
him to the right of suffrage in the town or planíation where such selllinary is estab-
lished.


MARYLAND. (1867.)
ART. l, SECo 1. AH elections shaH be by ballot; and every white maIc citizcn of the


United States, of the age of 21 years, or upward, who has been a resident of the State
for one year, amI of the legislative district of BaltimoI'c City, 01' of thc county in which
he may oil'er to vote, for six months next preceding the election, ahan be entitled
to vote in the ward 01' eIection district in which he resirles, at aU eIections here-
after to he held in this State; amI in case any county or city shall he so divided as to
forlll portions of different electoral distI'icts for the election of representatives iri Con-
gress, senators, delegates, or other oflicers, then, to entitle a person to vote for such ofli-
cer, he must have l)eeu a resident of that part of the county 01' city which shall form a
part of the electoral district in which he offers to vote for six months llext preeeding
the eleetion; but a person who shan have aequired a residence in snch couuty or eity,
entitling him to vote at any sneh eleetion, shall be entitled to vote in the election di8-
trict frÍlm whieh he removed, until he shall have acquired a residence iu the part of
the eounty or city to which he has removed.


Sgc. 2. No pel'son ahove the age of 21 yeara, convicted of larccny or othcr infamous
erime, unIesa pardoncd by the governor, shall ever thereafter he elltitled to vote
at anyelection in this State; and no person under gllardianship as a lunatie, or as
a person non compos mentis, ahan be entitled to vote.


SECo 3. If any pCl'son shall give, or oifer to give, directly or indirectly, any hrihe,
present, or reward, or any promise, or any secnrity for the payment or the delivery of
mouey,or any other thing, to induce any voter to refrain f'rolll casting his vote, 01' to
prevent him in any way frolll voting, or to procure a vote for auy candidate or person
proposcd or voted for as elector of Presideut and Vice-Presideut of the Uniterl StatAs,
01' representative in Congresa, or foI' any office of profit 01' trust crcated hy thc consti-
tution 01' Iaws of t-his State, or hy the ordinances 01' anthol'ity of the mayor and city
council of Baltimore, the person giving, or offering to give, and the person receiving
the same, and any person who gives, or causes to be given, an iUegal vote, kuowing it
to he snch, at anyelection to be hcreaftcr lJeld in this State, shall, on eonviction in a
court of law, in addition to tlle penalties now or hereafter to he imposed hy law, be for-
ever disqualified to hold any office of profit or trust, 01' to vote at au,)' clection thereaftcr.


MASSACIlUSETIS.t


AMENDMENT. (1821.)-ART. III. Every male citizen of 21 years of agc and upward,
(exeepting paupers aud persona undel' guardianship,) who shall have resided within
the Comlllonwea1th one year, and within t,he town or district in which he may clailll
a right to vote six calendar months next preceding any election of govel'llor, Iieu-


* To qualify a citizen 10 be an elector of StRte officers, he mm~t have reMided tbe tbree preeeding months not
only in the State, but in th.e town 01"" plalltation where be claims to vote. -Opinion of JUBtices j 7 Greenleaf,
App., 492.


A person ,vho supports hi~ fami1y in one tOWll, and resides to transact bU8ines~ in another tOWD, can vote
for Stste OfliC81'8 only in the t.own where his family haya rasideu fQf the tbre~ monthi'J next preceding the cIec·
tion.~Opinio" of Judges, 7 Gl'eenleaf, App., 497.


t Printed ballots aTe within the meaning of this clause.-Opinion 01 Judges, 7 Greenleaf, App. 492.
t Penons WllO have the requisite qualificatiolls 3S to age and reMidence, but who haya been for two entire


yeara cxemptedfrom tl1xation by tOWll aS8€SSOrs, not being exempted by law froro t.axation, are not entitled to
vote for governor, lieutenant governor, 8cnators, and represeutatives, l1nder the third article of amendment to
t-he constitution.-Opinion 01 tite Jastices, 11 Pickering, 5:38.


Persons who have tbe requisite qualification as to re~i<lence in l\fassachusetts, but who have been exempted
from taxatioll on accouut of theif poverty, fol' two succe8sive year~ before tbt!ir arrival st the age of 70 years,
are not enUtled to vote 3l'1 above.-Opinion ofthe Ju,stices, 5 :'\letcalf, 591.


[The law of tbi. State fOl'merly impo.ed a poll-tax upon every male inhabitan! between the age. of 16 snd
70 yenrs, whether B citizen oí the United Sta tes or an alien, excepting tho~t' who, by reason of age, infirmity.
sud poverty, might, in the judgment of the a¡.;seSHOT8, he unable to contribute towards the publie chargeti.
'rhe Uroitation of ages waB, in 184:J, fixed at from 20 to 70 yeaTs, and hy further alllendment of 1844 a poU-tax
was imposed on every mn.le over 70, excepting paupers sud persons under guardianship, whether a citizen of
tbe United Stal •• or un alien.]


Ratable polla of alieDi~ may cOllf'ltitutionally be inc1uded in estimatiug thc Dnmber of ratable polls, to deter-
mine the number of representatives any town may be entitled tu elect.-Opinion ofthe Justices of ,he S. J. e.,
7 Maso., 523.


Payment of a State 01' county tax witbin two yeara next preceding the election of governor, &c., by ODe
who iM in other respects a qualifi'3d voter, entitles him to vote st sllch clection, nlthough Huch tax was illegally
assessed upon him.-Humphrey va. Kin.gman, 5 Met., 162.


Tbough a tax which ls assesl:Ied upon ODe person IH paid for him by another, without his previous Buthority,
yet, if he reeognlzes the Ret, and repays or pro mises to repay tbe amount, on the ground tbat Buch person
acted as his agent, he tbereby acquires tbe same Tight tú vote as if he had paid tbe tax with bis own band.-lb.


PCTHonH who reside 00 landa purchased by or ceded to tbe United States, for navy yards, forttl, sud arseuals,




NINTH CENSUS. 79
tenant governor, senators, or representat,ives, and who 8han have paid, by himself
01' his parcut, muster, or guardian, any State or county tax, wlüch ahan, within two
~'ears next precerling snch election, have been asseSSe(lllpOn him, in any tOIVU or dis-
trict of thia Connllollwcalth; alld also every citizCll who shaU be by Iawexempted from
taxation, ulId who ahan bA in a11 other respects 'lllaliíied as aboye mentione<1, shaU have
a right to vote in slleh election of governor, lientenant goveruor, senators and repre-
sentatives; and no other pcrsoll shan be elltitled to vote in sllch elections .


• h1E~mIK';¡'f. (1857.)-Axr. xx. No person shall have the right to vote, 01' he eligi-
bIe to oftice, nnder the cOllstitution of thia Commonwealth, who shall not be abIe to
read t he constitution in the Ellglish langunge, and write his name: Prorided, 7wwerer,
TIJat tIJe proyisions of this amendment sha]) not apply to any persoll prevented hy a
ph)"sical flisability from complying with if,s reqllisitions, nor to ally persoll who 1l0W has
the rightto vote, nor to ally person who shall he 60 years of age 01' upward at the
time this amelldment shall take efrect.
and where there is no otber l'eRervation of juri8diction to the State thall tbat of a right tn Herve ch-i1 and
criminal proce8~ on ¡meh l~lld~, do not, by rebiding on such lands, acquire any elective francbise as inhabitantK
oí 811,~h townR.-Opininn (Jf the Jllstices} ll\Ietcftlf, 580. Commo1l1ocaltlt yt:J. Clary, 8 Mass., 77. See jUitchell
v •. Tibbetts, 17 Pick., 298.


The inhabitants of a tcrritol"y owned by the United States, and lying ""ithin this Commonwea1th, have no
jurisdic1ion, caullot exerci~e auy civil 01' political privileges twder tbe laws of tbe Cornmotlweulth, because
theyare uot interel'tt'd in ll.uy eiectioDI:! made witllin the State, nor held to pay any taxes imposed by its
Ruthority, Dor bOUlld by any of its law~.-Cammo1lwealth YS. Clary, 8 l\1at:s., 72.


In an adion against the Mt'lectmen of a town for r~fut:li]]g tu put the plaintiff's name upon the list of voter:~
and r~jerting hi:; vote, the phtintiff may prove hito! own statemE'llt:ó; relating to his residenct', made to the 8('lcct~
men before offt'ring his vote, IlO[ ulld~r oath, fol' tlle pUl'pose of fnrllibhiug to them evirlcncc of bh:l havjng tht>
lf'gnI qunlifirutioll8 of n \'ot('r i and' he may teJo;tify to hi:-: own intention in leaving the tOWll fur a prolongelj
abl'lence previou8Iy to the time of acb complained of.-Lombard vs. Oliver, 7 AUen, (.Mass. ,) 155.


It. i¡.¡ a reqnisite qualificatiop fol' un elector oI a rt'presentative in Congres8 tbat he sball llave rt'Mided or bad
hi>l hom~ in tbe town where 11e votes, for the spaee of oue year llext precedlng the election.-~Villiams V8.
Wltiting, 11M""., 423.


A p.E'r~on havillg fL right to vote for Statc officeril. in sny tOl\'n, ",ven where a year's residence is neeessary
tú qualify bim as lsuch voter, doe8 not lose that riglu by a temporary absence, aIthough during lit! absence he
lllUy hR.ve votr-d in nnothcr town.-Linr,oln vs. Hapgood, 11 Mass., 350.


Domidle.-The followiug deci~ions have beell made in thil::l 8tate relative to tbe domicilfl;
1. Every per:omn must ha'i"e a domiC'i1e tmmewhere. -Abiugdon Vfl. North Bridgewoter, 2:3 Pick., 170, (1840.)
2. A perBon can have only oue domicile, fol' one pllrpose, at ODe and tbe same time.-Tb.
3. 'Vhere the boundary !ine bdweell tbe tOWIl (It' R. aIld N. B. pa!:ised through a dwelling honse, 80 that


the portion oí' the hou~e whieh wns in X. B. was sufficip.nt in it~ülf to tOllstitute a habitation, whilc the por-
tiOll in H. 'vas not sufficient for that purpose, it wal:S held tbat a person, by occupying sllch house, acquired a
domicile in N. B.-lb.


4. It Jo1eeIU8 that if, in 8uch casú, the line had divided tbe honse more equalJy, tha fact that the occupant had
habit.ually slept in that part which WRS in N. D. would be a preponderattng circumstance to lObow that he wa~
domiciJed in that town, snd, in the absence of othe1' evidence, would be decisiva of the qnestion.-Ib.


5. Wbere a dwelling·lIouse hl 80 di\'ided by tbe boundRry line between tha two towns as to leave tbat por·
tion of Ihe bomw in which 1hc Qecupsnt mainly Rnd ~ub~tantial1y performs those offices which COD81itute bis
lmllle, (~nch as sl~eping, sitting, eating, anu recl;>¡ving vü;itors.) in one town, he is a ('itizen of tbat town. and
has no right to pkct to reside snd be tsxcd for his perl'onal propel'ty in tbe other towll.-Cltenery vs. fValtham,
8 Cu.b., 327, (1831.)


6. "'hether I-L perHon removing from one town to nnothf'l' intend~ to change his retüdence is a question of
factand not oI law.-Filchbm·!f V~. Winch~ndonj 4 (J'I1Hh., 1911, (1849.)


7. A domieile being once fixed, wlll C()llt¡nu~, notwitlu;tnnding tbe absence of tbe P81'ty I tin a new domicile
is acquired.-.Tenniso1l. v,. llapgood, 10 Pick., 77, (l827.)


8. Tbe intention to abandoll a dumicile, and actual re~idence to anotber pIne!", if not. accompanied with the
intention of rematning there permanently, or at lt'Rst for un indefinite t.ime, wilI not produce a change of
domicile.-Ib


9. It, is dlfficult to give an exact definition of nabitancy. In general terms, one may be designated 88 au
inhabitallt 01' that place 'i,,"hich constitlltel'l the principal I't'at oi bis residen ce, of his bUl!iness pur:.uit8, conuee-
tiom~. attachments, and of bis political and mnnicipal reLations. ~t is manifest, therefore, tbat it embraces the
faet of residence at 1\ pInce. with thü ¡ntent to regnrd it and make jt, one'a home. The Ret and ¡otent must
concur, and the intent may be inferl'ed from the declarations and conducto In a case of much doubt tbe mere
declaration of the party, mado in good fHith, of hls election to make one }llace rather thOll another hht borne,
may be 'dufficient to turn the seule. But tlJe question i~ une of fHet for the jury to determine from alI the cir~
cumdances of the CIl!H".-SHA\V, C. J., in Lymo.n VN. Fiske., 17 Pick., 234, (1835.)
.10. If 3U inbabitant of a town remoYes to ar:other town in illili COlIlIllonwealth, not intending to remain


tbere permant:'ntly, but with the intent:on of not T(~turnillg to his former horneo alld doeM not so return, he
lmles bis domicile in the former town.-lIIead vs. BoxboTOUgh, 11 Cush., 362, (1853.)


11. Tbe faet that tmch perlwn W8S taxeu in the town 10 which he has removed is not competent evidence
to SbOlV tbat he did not cOlltinue to be taxable in the towu of hh~ former ref'iidence.-Ib.


12. A citizen of thitl Commonwealth removing wilh hi!lo farr:ily to anothcr State, aud ret.aining no dwelling·
place in this Cornmonwen1th, though retaining hi~ place oí' bmJines8 het'e, and intending to ret.ain hls domicile
bere, sud to return at sorne futura indefinite period of time, hUli no domicile in this Commonwealth.-Holmes
VS. Greene, 7 Grny, 299, (18.iG.) .


13. A student of a college does not change bis domicile by his occal'!ional residencc at tbe coUege.-Granby
v •. Amherst, 7 Ma.,., 1, (l81O.)


14. A seafaring maD having lands occupied by himself, bis .ervant., or bired people, altbough frequently
ab~ent on long voyages, ha!:! always been con~idered as having bis re¡.¡.idence on hi!:J landa, snd as not 108ing hi!l
dornicile by folLowiug his prof~ssion.-PARsONS, C. J.-lb. See also ArUngton Y8. lJostoll,4 Mass., 3L2.


15. The domieile of a person non compos mentis snd under gnal'dian¡.;bip may be changed by tbe direction
snd with t.he COllJownt of the gun.rdian, exprelOS 01' implied.-Holeyoke V.8. Haskins, 5 Pick., 20, (l827.)


16. Evidence that the selectmen of a town decided that a perrion taxed there was Rn inhabitant, snd put bis
name on the voting list, i'd not admÍlo!!lÍble for the pUrpOl!lfl of ~howlng that bis domicile W88 in tbHt tOWD, with·
out showing lhat (hey did it at his reque,t.-Fisk vs. Chester, 8 Gray,506, (1857.)


17. In nn action to try tha question wbether tbe plairítift', wbo bad left the country with llis family, W8S
liable afterwal'dtl to be taxed a13 au inhabitaut of the place of his former residence, a letter from bim to bis




80 NINTH CENSUS.
MrCHIGAN. (1850.)


ART. VII, SECo 1. In all electioIls, evcry white male citizen,* every white male in-
habitant, residing in the State on the 24th day of Jnne, 1835; every white maJe inhab-
itant rcsiding in this Statc on the fil'st day of Jannary, líl50, who has declared his
illtention to hecome a citizen of the United Sta tes, l'ursuant to tIte laws thereof, six
months l'recerung an election, 01' who has resided in this State two years and six
months, aIld deelal'ed his intention aforesaitl; and every civilized ma1e illhahita,nt of
Indian dcscent, a native of the United States and not a membcr of any tribe, sha11 be
an elector, and cntitlcd to vote; but no citizen or inhabitant shall be an elelltor, 01' en-
titled to vote at any election, unless he sha11 be above the age of 21 years, and has re-
sider! in this State three months, and in the township 01' ward in which he offers to
vote, tendays, next prcceding Ruch cIectiou: [Pr01!ided, That in the time of war, insn1'-
rection, 01' rebellion, no qualified elector, in the actual military serviee of the Unitetl
States, 01' of this State, in the army 01' navy thereof, 8han be deprivcd of his vote by
rcaRon of his absencc from the township, warll, 01' State in which he resides; and
the legislature sha11 ha ve power, aud sh[ll1 pro vide the mauner in which such absent
electors may vote, [ln(l for the canvass and return of thcir votes to tho township or
wan1 election district in whieh they respeetively reside, 01' otherwise.-Ámendment 01
1865-'66.]


SECo 5. No eleetor sha11 be deemed to have gained 01' lost a rcsidence by rcason of his
bciug cmployedin the serviceof the UnlteIlStatf's, orofthisState; 1101' while engaged in
the navigation oi' the waters oi' this Statc, 01' of the TTnited StateR, 01' ofthe high RAas; 1101'
while a student of any seminary of learning; nor while kcpt at au.y almshouse 01' other
asylum at pnblie expense; nor while eonfined in any pllblic prisoll.


SECo 7. No sol di el', seaman, or marine, in the arllly 01' navy. of the lTnitell St~1te~,
sha11 be deemed a resident of this State in consequence oí' beiug stationcu in ally mili-
tary 01' naval place within the samc.


SECo íl. Any inhabitallt who may hereaftcr be ellgagcd in a umol, eit,hel' as principlü
01' accessory before the fact, shall be disqnalifiecl ÜOIll holding any ofilce unuer the
constitution and laws oi' this Stato, and sh,t11 not he permitted to vote at any elee-
tiOll.
MI~XESOTA. (1857-'5íl. AH AMEXDED IN 1868.)


ART. l, SECo 17. * * No re1igions test or amount of propcrty shall ever he re-
quired a~ a qualificatioll of auy voter at any election in this State. * * • •
agel1t in tbat place, expre¡';lSing hit! intention to remain auroad permanelltly, i8 admiJooisible in evidence, if writ~
ten before he knew that a tax had beell asses¡.;~d llpOU him, tlJOugh written afler the <lB8t'8l'\rn~1lt. Otl!erwiRe
it !:leem~, R!o1 to such lett.er¡) written aner he knew that he was tax~d.-TltOrlldike Y8. BOlJton, ll\let., 242, (1840.)


18. A citizen, having liverl mUlly yeani at W., purcha.sed and fUl'nishctl a hOllse in B., and afterward~ with
his family continuecl tú sperlCt hi:-3 !iUmll1f'r:-l ut hi~ hOl1se in 'V. 1 where he cOIlti~ued to ¡Hi}' .his tl1xe:-, and 8pent
his wintel'8 at his 11ou88o in B. It was helll that be wa:! an inbabitaut of lY.-HarvJ.rd Collt:ge V!:I. (¡ore, 5 Pit.,:k.,
369, (1827.)


19. A person having a family domiciled in a town was occa,sionally absent in another town, f'ngaged in bis
duties as clerk of court~ alld making arrangt'mpnt:o; fol' the rcmoval of his fumily. and !::Illbsequently removed
hi~ fatnily tú 8uch other tO\Vll. It Wt1S held that hi8 domicile did Dot challge uutil th(~ removal of bis family.-
WilIiams v •. Wilitillg. II Ma"., 424, (1814.)


20. rrhe mere fact that a 8Tud('nt who has a domieile in Qne town resides at a TlubUc institntion in anotlH'T
town fol' the ~ole purpo~e of obtainiug an euucation, and that he has hi~ meaTIr; of ~l1pp(lrt from another place,
do not COD!ititute a te~t of hh; right tn VOt0, and his liability tú be taxed in tbe latter town j he outu.in!o! tbis
right, and illcurs thitlliabillty, only by a change 01' domicile, and the quet:ition whether he has changed hia
dowicile is to he decidcd by aH thp, circulTIstancrs of the cHse.-Opinion of Justices, 5 Metcalf, 587.


21. A residen(',e at college, or Ully other.in:ititution, for the ]Jurpo::,e uf iUl:itruction, for a ~ufficiellL lcngth of
time, will give n. right of voting in the town where ¡.;uch institution exbt~, if fhe stllo.cnt llave no otbtl' fixed
place oí re!olidence, notwitbstanding it may be his expectation to cbange tmch residence.-Putnam V8 . • Tohnson,
10 Mas8., 488,


22. A studcnt in tbe theological institlltion nt Andover, being of age, and making that town his horneo aud
having no rel::lidence el8evrhere, il-l entitled to vote in that tOWIl.-Putnam vs . • Joltnson, 10 :Mu¡.:¡;., 4~B, (1813.)


By an act approved March 6, 1865, it wa¡; providcd, thn.t whnnevcl' any pf~rson tlbould 'lIlukA applicatiun to
be aSl'lE'B8ed a poll-tax for tbe then curnmt. year, and it ¡.:hOlll<l appear that ~uch applicant WllS on the firgt day
of lIay preceding a re8ident of the city or town und Hable to paya pol1.tax thprein, but WH8 no1. ss-oestoled
therefor, und thnt. 8uch applicant hall been, during any portion of tht.1 two preceding yearl'l, engaged in the
military or naval service of the Ullit.ed States, it wa~ ruade t110 duty of 8SSPS)olOr~ to F1.!olS(~¡':S !-.l1ch tax, and notify
the trellsurer of the city or town of the ¡.:amé. The per~on thus a¡;I:)E'~8ed \Va!:!, upon payrneut of ~mid tax ,f'nti·
tled to vote, the same as if hi.~ t.axes bad beeu as!o!es~ed amI paid in tlJe U1anner heretofore providE-d by law.


Chapter 145 of t.he ht.wl:! of 186L thuH defines the qualification8 of voters 1'or representativo!:! in Congrel-ltl:
"In any eleetion of representa.tiveK to Uongress in this COllllllonweultb, 110 penmn ~hall be allowrd to vote


fol' the same until he ¡.¡hall haye re~idt'd in the eongre~~ional di¡oltrict whcrc he offerl:l to vot{;'c Rix months next
precerling ¡.;uch election, nnd shall be otherw.i8e qualified accordillg' to the cOll8titution and ltl.wH of this Sratf' :
PrQvided, That when the State ~hall ve districted anew for members nf Congrc¡.;s, he ¡.:hall bave the right 80 1.0
vote in the distl'ict whf'rC' he i;¡; located by such new anangemellt; snd proIJided also, tbat no voter re~iding in
uny city which nowi 8, or bereafter may bE:', tlivided by the line hetweE:'n congrest'iollal di:.;trich!, ahall be de·
prived of his vote in tbe district in which he wa~ Ril:-leS8ed, 01' liable tu assest:unellt, on the fin.¡t day of May
next preceding 8uch congressilJual elertioll, ir lle be othenvjge quatified."


* \oVhether a perKon offerillg to vote at au el('ction in Michigan ha~ the requi)oJite qualifications as to color snd
descent, (the constitution conferl'ing the right to vote UpOll ., ",hite male citizens" only,) IDnst, on challt'ngA
for the want of such qualification, be inquired into and <,letermioed by the inspector.í< of e1ection.-Gordon.
v. Farrar, 2 DouglaBs, 411.




NINTH CENSUS. 81
AR'r. VII, SECo 1. Every malA person of tIle 3ge of twenty-one or upwards, belong-
in~ to either of tIle fo11owing classBs, wIlo ahall have resided in the Unitcd States one
year, and in this State four months next preceding any election, shall be entitled to
vote at such election, in the election district of which he sha11 at the time have been
for ten days a resident, for a11 officers that now are, or hereafter may be, elected by
the people:


1. Citizens of the Unite(l States.
2. Persons of foreign birth, who sha11 have declared their intention to becoillo cití-


zena, conformably to the Ja.ws of tIte United States Up011 the suhject of natur3lization.
3. Persons of mixed white and lndian hlood who have adopted the cUStOlllS and


hahita of civilization.
4. Persona of lndian hlood residing in this State, who have adopted the language,


customs, amI habits of civilization, after an examination before any district court of
the Sta te, in such manner as may bc provided by law, alld sha11 have heen pronounced
bv said conrt capable of enjoying the rights of citizC11Ship within the State.


'SEC. 2. ~o person not hc1011gi11g to one of the classes specificd in the precedillg sec-
tioll; no person who has been convicted of treason, or ally felony, u11less I'estol'ed to
civil I'ights, un(l no pmson umler guardiansIlip, or who llJay he non compos mentis or in-
sane, slla11 be c11titled or pcrmitte(1 to vote at any electio11 in this State.


SEc.3. FoI' the pnrpose of votillg, 110 perso11 8ha11 bc dccllJed to have lost a re8i<1ence"
by reason of llis absence ",llile employed in the service of the U11ited Statcs; nor
while cngaged upon the watcrs of tItis State, or of the United States; nor while a
stndent ot' any seminar,}" of learning, nor while kept i11 any almshouse 01' asylum;
nor while cOlltincd in an,}" puhlic prison.


SEc.4. No solllier, seamall, or Illarine, in the aI'my or navy of th", Lnited States,
shall be deemed a resident of thi8 State in cOllseqne11ce of heing stationed withi11 the
same.


ART. XV, SECo 2. Perso11S residing on lmlian lands within the State 8hall e11joy al!
the rights amI privileges of citizells, as though they lived in a11y other portion of the
8tate, and shall be subjcct to taxation.


MrssOURI. (1865.)
ART. II, SRC. 3. At any electio11 hcld by the people under this constitution, oÍ' in


pursuallcc of lllly law of this Sta te, 01' under ally ordinance or by-law of ally 1I111llieipal
corporation, no persou sha11 be deemerl a qualified voter ",ho has ever been in armed
hostility to the United States, or to tIte lawfnl anthorities thereof, 01' to tbe govern-
ment of this State; 01' ha.~ ever given aid, eomfol't, countenance, or support to personE
engaged in auy such hostility; or has over, in auy mauner, adhered to the enemies,
foreign 01' domestic, of the Luitcd States, either hy coutributing to them, or lJy ulllaW'-
flllly sending within their Iines money, goods, letters, or information; or has ever l1iS-
loyally held commu11ication with snch e11emies; or has ever advised ol' aided any per-
son to enter tlle servke of snch encmies; or has ever, by act or worel, mallifested his
allherence to the cause of snch el1cmies, or !tia desire for theiI' trinmph over the arIllS
of the U¡tited States, or his sylllpathy with those engaged in cxciting or carrying on
rehelJion agaillst the Ullited Statcs; 01' has ever, except under overpoW'ering compul-
SiOll, submitted to the authority OJ· heen in the service of tIte so-called "Confederate
States of Ameriea;" 01' has left this State, anrl gOl1e within the lines of the armies of
the so-ca11ed "Coufederaté Sta tes of America," with the purpose of adhering to said
Statea Ol' armies; 01' has ever bnen a memher of, 01' connected with, a11y order, society,
or organization inimical to the goverlllnent of the United Statcs, 01' to the gowrnment
of thia State j or has ever been ellgaged in gnerilla warfare agai11st loyal inhabital1ts
of the United Sta tes, 01' in that descriptioll of marauding commonly known as "busll-
whacking;" or has ever knowingly alld WiJIi11gly harhored, aided, or cou11tenanced
any person 80 engaged; or has ever come into or left this State, for the purpose of
avoiding enrolllllent for or draft into the military service of t,he United States; 111' has
ever, with a view to avoid enrollment in the militia of this Statc, or to escape the per-
formance of duty therein, or for any other purpose, elll'olled himselt~ or :lnthorized
himself to be enrolled, by or hefore a11y officer as disloyal, or as a southern sympathizer,
or in any otber terms indicating lIi8 disaffection to the government of the Uuited States
in its contest with rehellion, or his sympathy with those engaged in 8uch rebellion ;
or, having evervoted at any elnctioll by the people of this State, or in any other ofthe
U nited 8tatcs, or in any other of their Territories, 01' held office in this State, or in
any other of tbe United States, 01' ally of their Territories, 01' nnder the United
States, shall thereafter have sought or rcccived, un del' claim of aliennge, the protec-
ti011 of any forei~n government, tItrough ally consnl or other officer thereof, in order
to seenre exemptlOn from military dnty in the militia of this Sta te, or iu the army of
the U11ited States; uor sball any such perS011 he capahle of holding in thia State any
office of honor, trust, or profit, uuder its authority; 01' of heing au officer, councilmau,
director, trustee, 01' other manager of auy corporatio11, public or private, 110W existing
or hercafter established by ita authority; or of acting as a profesaor or teacher in any


H. Rep. 3-6




82 NINTH CENSUS •


etlnclLtional illstitution, 01' in any COllllllau 01' other selloal; or of holding any real es-
tate 01' other property in trust fól' the use of any chul'ch, l'eligious socicty 01' congl'e-
gation. Hnt the foregoing provisions in relation to acts dOlle agnillBt tIle Unitcd
Sta tes sllall not npply to ally lwrsou not lL citizen thereoí', ,,'ho shalllul\'c cOllllllittctl
surh arts while iu the service of some forf'ign cOlllltry nt war with the l:niÍt'(1 States,
aJl(1 \\'ho has, sillce sueli acts, uoen uuturalized, ur IlIay hereaftcr he llaturalized, umler
the laws of the Uuited States; aud tite oath of lo:ntlty hereinafter preseriuetl, when
takell by any such perSún, HIla11 be cOllsillered as takeu in snch seuse.


SECo 4. [Hequircs a rcgistratiou of voters aL lcast ten dars ueforc titc tlay of clectiull.
l~lltil a system of l'egistration is estahlislted, ever>' pe1'8011 offering to vote is reqllired
to take :m oath amI uC>(3laratiou of past amI present loyalty, :mcl of allegiance to the
gOYerllluellt of the Uuited States and the State of Missouri.]


SECo 15. \Vhoever sitall he convidecl of havillg, ,lin,dly 01' Íllllil'i'dly, giY(m 01'
ofl:'eretl allr bl'ibc, to procure his deetioll ur appoilltlllellt to auy offi('p, shall u(, clis'l11al-
ifiell 1'01' any office oí' honor, trust, 01' llrofit ullllcr this State; and whoe""r shull givo
01' 011',,1' any brille to procure tlw dection 01' appointlllPllt .of nuy othl'l' lll'1'SOll to nny
ofliee, slwll, Ull couvietioll thereof', be !lisqualifiecl fOI' a voter, 01' ally oftiee of honor,
trust, 01' profit nllder this State fur ten years anCl' sllch con vidioll.


SECo 16. No offieer, sol(lier, 01' uwrille, in the regular arllly Ol' nayyaf the l'nited
States, shall ue clltitleu to vote at auy deetioll in this Stntc.


SECo 17. No person who sitall make, 01' bccurne tlircctly OI' imliredl.v interested in,
any bet 01' ,,,agel' (lep"IH1ing UpOll the l'esult oí' any eledion, shall vote at Slle]¡ l'lectiol1.


SECo lS. Evcry ",hite malc eitizcn of the lJlliteü StnteH, a11(1 n,"ory whit" Illak persoll
of tiweign hirth \\'ho lllay have deelareLl bis illtentioll to ]¡CClIllIC a "ii i"t'n 01' the 1Jnited
State~, aeeonlillg to law, llot l,'ss thall Olll, year UOl' mom than tiH' ;I"':1I'i! h .. fore lw
oU'ers to yote, who h ovcr thc nge of 21 years, \d1O Üi not, (lisqnalifiel1 by 01' mlller any
01' the prOVi8io1\8 of this cOllstitution, amI w1l0 shall have complie,1 with it.s reqnire-
mcuts, aud have resid,'(l in this State oue year uext.l))'ecf,diug :tlly "lecrion, 01' l1ext
preceding his registration as a yoter, ltJl(l dnrilig the last sixty llaysof that I'cl'Íod shall
h,we resid .. d in tlle COllllty, eity, 01' town where]w oftel's tu vote, 01' se .. ks registration
as a '"01 el', sha11 be cutitleü to yote at snth eleetiou, for aU offieers, State, county, 01'
municipal, made electiyc by the ]Jeople; unt he s1tall uot vote elscw1tere tltaU in tlw
t'lectioll distl'iet in which lw is at the tillle a resiÜent, 01' after a sy~telll of' rcgi~tratioll
of \'ote!"s 8ha11 haye ueell estalJlished in the "lection district where his llanw IR regis-
terea, excel't as ]lruvitletl in tlle 21st sedíon oí' thís urtielc.


tiEC. UJ. Aftel' the fil'st (by of January, 1876, every per~oll wllO ",as Hut a qualifietl
vote!" prior to that time Rha]], in :l(ldition to th" other ([ualificatiOlIS reqni1'pd, he alde
to read amI \Hite in onlel' Lo be<:omc a ljllali1ied voter, uulesH his iual,ility to n~aü 01'
\\'rit" shan he tIle result of phys·il'al disability.


SEc.20. 1"01' t11e ¡HlrpOSe oí' votillg, 110 persoll s]¡a11 be c1eemerl to haye gailw,¡ 01' lost
a residellce by reasun oí' his pre,ence or ausellcc w]¡ilc l'lllployetl in the senice of thc
United StateR, nor while cllgage,1 in the mlyigatioll of the ,yater, nf this Sta tI', 01' of
the CuHe<l States, 01' OftllC higlt ti('a~, UOl' whil() a stu(]ent iu ally "'lllinar,') ofl,':n'llÍng,
1101' while kept ut auy poor-huuse 01' oLhcr asylulll at l'uulic eXl'ellsc, liUl' whilc cun-
fined iu "ny public pl'isoll.


[SEc.21. Allo\\s voters \\'ho are alJSellt as YOlulltl'CrS in t11e arllly (Jf the Unite(l
States, 01' tllc milit,ia 01' thc Stalc, (o vote dlll'Íng thcir abscllce ,,,itllout registralion.]


[tlEC. 2:~. AlIows pe1'80llS disql1alitieLl u1Hlel' tlw thil'd sediou to relllove su eh t1isa-
hility by cntel'Íllg tite milital'y Heryiee of th,' Unitetl Stat.es.]


[SEc.25. After Jauuary 1, 1:371, thc gellcral assclllblr ~]¡all haye powcr to suspeml
01' repeal any pal't of t110 :3d, 5th amI 6th Sl'CtiOlIH, so far as titey lIlay ¡'elatO' to the
(IUalificatioll~ 01' votel's, lmt no fllrtlwl'. After tlHl 1st day of Jauuary, lS75, it may
whally suspend ur rC]lcal thc 3d, 4th, 5th. 6th, 8th, 9t11, 10tit 11th, tlIH112th ~ectiolls.]"


SECo 2(). 'fhe general assembly shall provide for the exclllsion from every office of
honor, trust, 01' protit \\'ithill thiH Sta te, an([ from t.110 l'ight of suffrage, of ally 1)er8on
couvicterl of bl'iuery, pcrjnry, 01' uther illfanlOlIs crirne.
NRIJRASK_~. (1867.)


ART n, SECo 2. Every male person of the age of' twenty-one yearR, or upwards, bo-
longing to eitIler of the following cla8HcR, WlLO ghall lmve relid"d in the State, cOllnty,
pl'eeillct, and ward fa1' the time proviLlctl uy law, sha11 be all elector:


1. Citizens of the United tlt,ates.
2. Pel'sons uf foreigll birtll wito 81m11 have fleclared tlwir intent.ion t.o hecome citi-


Zen!> conformably to the la\Vs of the United States 011 tlle subjcct of llaturalization.t
:<; lt was qecided in the ('a!'Ie uf Blair "s. Ridgely aud Tlwmpso1i, that the oath pre8cril>ed in Ar:irle n, 8ec-
tion~ 2 sud 6~ oí the constitution, a8 one of the qualificati:om'l for voting, dots not violate any of the pro-
vh;ions of the Constitution of the United State:l. (Mii:!i'iouri R~pOTtB, :xli, 63.) .


t 'rhe cOllstitution of this State, as adopted by the conveution, restricted the plivilege of voi.ing to
H whiteH. 1t But CongreFH in au act for admitting the Stute into the Uníon, pat;sed Fcoru8ry 9, le6-7, deelared
as a conrlition precedent, tbat there should be no denial of thc clective franchiHc, 01' of nny othér right, to any
peTI!().lll by rpm;OD of race o-r co.lor, exeeptillg Ind~all8 not taxed. This coudition waR accE'pted by the terri·
toriallegislature, in au Ret declarillg its aS8ent to the conditions of the Ret of Congrc8s aboye cited..




NINTH CENSUS. 83
NEVADA. (1864.)


ART. n, SECo 1. Eycry "'hite male citiz8n of the "Cnitcd States not laboring under the
(lisabilities nal1leL1 in tltis constitutioll, of the age of twenty-011c years and llpwards
who shall have adnally and not constructin,]y l'esiL1eél in the State ~jx Illonths, and i~
the district or COlluty thirty days next preccding any elecLion, shall be eutitled to vote
for all officers that uow are or hcrcafter mny he eleded by tile people, am1 npon all
questions sllhmiUNl to the electors at such eleetion: PrO/'h/eil, That uo person who has
been or Illay he cOllvictcd of Íl'eason 01' felony in any Stalc OI' Territory of tIJe United
States, unless restored to civil rights; anrl no person who, aftcr arrivillg at the ngc of
cighteen years, shall have voltllltarily horno arms against the United Sbtes, or ]¡eld
civil or military officc lluder tlw so-ealled "Contederate States," or eithcr (jI t.hem, un-
lesB an. amnesty be granterl to snch by the fe (1 era 1 government, and no idiot 01' insanB
porson, shall be entit,h,rl t.o the privileges of :m elector.


SECo 2. FoI' the puI'posc 01' vOliug, uo person sha11 he dcelllcd to ha\'e gaiuNI 01' l(mí
a residence by rcason of his prescnce 01' ah~ence while employed ilL t1111 sL\rvice of thc
United States, nor while ellgagc(l in the navigatlon oftlle watel'S of tho l;nited Statfls,
01' ofthehigh seas; uor,Yhi1c a stlHlellt of any scminary oflearning; n 01' "'hile keptat auy
almshonse or other asylnm at pllblie expense; nor while conflned iu auy pnhlic pl'iSOll.


SEc.3. The right oí' snffrag·e shall he enjoyed by a11 persons othe1'wisc clltitled to the
same, who Illny be in the lllilital'y 01' uaval 8(\ryice of the Unite(~ St:~tf"s: ,Pl'o¡:¡~Nl, The
votes so cast shall !lB m:Hle to apply to the eonnty and t01Y118111p oí wlnclt saul voters
were bonafidc resi,lonts al, the time of t.he enlistmcnt: Proridedflll'ther, Tltat thc ]my-·
ment of a poll-tax, 01' [t registration (jf snch voters, sha11llot he reqnired as a c:)]lditi~u
to the right of voting.


SECo 7. The legislatnrc shall provide by la \Y for the paymcnt of an allnna I poll-tax of
not less than t\Yo llor more thl'll ten clollars frolll eac11 male perSOll rf'sident in tIJe State,
hetween the age oí tWf111t.y-oue ami sixty-flve ycars, lmCÍvilized Amerirmn Imli'llls ex-
cepted, ollc-half to he applierl for /:ltate amI one-half for county pllrpOS(eS; alld the
le.gislatnre may, in its discl'etion, make· 811e11 pa~'ment a cOJl(1ition to the right of
yoting. .


[ART. XV, SECo 3, excludes P"l'SOIlS concernell in ducls from the right of yoting or
holcling office. ]


KEW HA)IrSIIIRE. (1792. )
PAHT n, SECo 28. Eve!'y mal e inllahit:1nt o[ caeh 1:0W11 ami parish with


town pridlegcs, aud places unincol'porate(l in this Sbte, of twcllty-one years of a"e
and upwanls, ('xccpting pauper,; lllHIl'el'ilOnS cxeuseü from paying tax(;s at their o,~n
reque8t,' shall lmve a l'ight at tile allll1lal 01' ot1101' meeting of tlle inhabit'lllts of said
tOWIlS amI pa1'is11e8, to he (lnly W;ll'lW¡] awl ho1(lell annually foren'r in tIJe lllontlt of
Mare11 to vote in t.llo tO\Yll 01' pa1'ish whcreiu he L1wells, fol' tite scnator in tlle di,triet
whereof he i~ a melllher,t


.... If the abatemeut of taxc:-; hy tllt' flf!ld,tJn<>n, at the requel'it of tbe lJenwn ngttin"t whulU thl'Y hIt. tib~t'~!'!ed,
is to be cOlltiirlf'rr.d as exrulling from payiog taxe~, within t11e mpfLning of the cJam¡e of the COlll'ltitution which
excllldes from votiug pau}Jel'l:j amI penmIH; cxru~(>rl from pay¡ng taxeH at. their own requel'it, it opm'ates only
to d.iRqualify llim as a voter rlnring the political yeal' for ,,-yhieh tho tn.Xl'~ wel'e atlse:-il'it"d, H.nd llot as a per.
petnal dhd'ranchisement.-Ford Vr'. lIolden, :m:-;¡. H., 143.


tTLLe Reviseu Statutt's (Chap. XXV] 1) provide tha.t none but naü,,-e 01' llutnralizpd citizPl1s of the Unitcd
Stn.tes shn.ll po~s(,~:4 th!~ right oí' votiug', aud alieuH are exprf:'!-;flly deni<'u the rigllt. No per:-!on can bo COll~
sidered a pauper within tiJe meallillg of the law, nnle!ois he ha . ; lJeeu a.~lii~t{'rl \v¡thin uillt't.Y dt-ly:-; prior to tho
meet.ing at which he ('Inim~ the l'ight to yote, If otherwi!le a legal vote1', b2 canunt he depr,n'(l uf his rigltt
to vote by reRson of haviug- been excll:-;E'd from ;;aying taxe~ ut hi~ 0\\'11 reque:->t, ir ht> Hllal!. bef,'·l'ü he ofrer~
to vote, tender payment of a.l! taXI''!; ab!4e:-!~ed Rg'aimst lÚlll durillg thc yenr prior to hi:-l Offl'I' to vote, to the
moderntor, colIector of taxeH, or OIle of the :-lelectmt'TI, and, at the time he offers to yoh., pre:-lfmtH evídence
of suoh t.ender. ~ur can n. pc:rHon be depl'iyed of the right to vote by l'eaS0ll of having receivpd assistnnce
for bims{'lf or fami1y, if he !oiIJall have teuuereu payment as afOl'E'6aid ni' an re,-u.¡onable expell!';p¡,¡ ,vhich 8aid
town ha8 incurred wjtlliullinety days by l'cason of sucb aSl:'lhstance; hut, upou Illakillg sueh tender, be must
bave bis name placf'd upon the cbeck·li~t, w]¡en his vote mll~t b(' received.


No pE'rson i8 cOll~iael'etl as uwelling in a to\vn fúr tite pllrpose oi' voting, unlesH he shall hav(> residcd in
such town ~ix IllonthH noxt ))I'('c!'ding tbe day <Jf uH'eting. ...\ rcsidrnee, when acquired, is llot interrupt('d or
lost by R temporary absence theref¡'o!fl, with thc intcntion of l'eturning.


By exerci!.üng the privilegc of voting withill a tO\\-'l1, a persoll is deemed to llave f'l{'('ted by Ruch act to
mnkn the town his home, and i15 tbereuy di.:iqualified fl'om yotillg in any otiler town untU he Las gained a new
ret'lidence as above proviueu. ,


By chapter 1, s{'('.tion 3, of the lfl.\vH of 18G8, any penwn who ¡¡¡hall have been exclued frolD paying taxes in
auy other túwn, 01' shall have receivéd help f~)r him::!elf 01' family "\vithin ninety daYK, frorn thp connt,V, or any
town otl1el' 1}¡an t.hat in which he off\'r~ to vote, !::ihall, if otherwisú qllu1ified, be entitlcd to yote at auy elec.
tiofl, by tendering payment al:! provided in the tSectioll aboye citf:'d. Panpers no!. chargealJle to Rny town can.
uot vote at any electioll, except. upnn tender of paymellt 01' aH reasonable expenses of any aS!:iistauc-e received
from the town 01' conut.y for himself 01' farnily within ninrt.y da}'!:!.


To ei:!tabli8b the faet that tbe J'espondent was not el1titled to yote in a cCl'tain wArd. unnel' t.he FltAtnte requir.
ing Mix IUonths' re¡.¡idence, evidenco tcndillg' to show tbat he had not actually relo\idf~d in su eh ,vard for the lSix
montb8 preceding tbe €'lection, but 1FHl T<'lllainp(J fol' several months in another ward. is legally sufficient, no
evidence being given by the re:-;rondent tú bhow that tbe ab~cnce was tewporary.-State vs. Marshall, 45.N.
H,281.


The proviKioml of tbe Rtat.utrs of 1840 and of 1860) l'elating to the domicile of voter.s, are not unconstitu.
tional.-Davis v, School Distriet. 44 N. n., 398.


The uncoIl~titutionality of the propo9:ed aeí. of the legislaturc of New Hampshire, üntitled, ¡¡ An 8t;!t to
.secure tbe right of suffrd.ge to tbe qURlified voters of this Stnte engaged in tbc military or naval l'Ierviee 01'
their country," affil'IIled.-Opinion of Justiccs, 44 N. H" 633.




84 NINTH CENSUS.
SECo 30. And every person, qualitied as the constitution provides, sha11 be considerecl


as !tn inlmbitant for the purpose of electing and being elected into any office 01' place
within this State, in the town, parish, and plantation where he dwe11eth and hath hi8
horneo


[Scction 13 givcs to voters for senators the right of voting for representatives.]
NEW Jl<~RSEY. (1844.)


ART. n, STW. 1. Evel'y white male citizen of t,ho United States, ofthe age of 21 years,
who ahall have bcen a rcsiuent ofthis State one year, ancl ofthe countyin whicIt lle clairns
his vote tive rnonths, next before the eleetion, sha11 be entitled to vote for a11 officers
that now are 01' hereafter may be elective by the pcople: Pl'ovided, That no person in
thc military, naval, 01' marine ser vice ofthe lCnited States shan be eonsiuered a resi-
clent in this State, by being stationecl in any gaITison, barrack, 01' military 01' naval
place 01' 8tation within this State; anel no pauper, idiot, insane per80n, 01' person con-.
vietccl of a crirne which now excludcs him from being a witness, unless parcloned 01'
restored by law to the right of suffrage, shan enjoy the right of an elector.


SECo 2. The legislature may I)ass laws to depri ve persons of the right of suffrage who
shal1 be eonvictecl of bribcry at e1cctions.


NEW YORK. (1846.)
ART. n, SECo 1. Every ma1e citizen * of the age of 21 years, wIto shall have been a


citizen fol' ten clays ancl an inhabitant of this State one year next preceding an election,
ancl for the last four months a resident 01' the county where he may offer his yote, shall
be entit1ed to vote at such eleetion, in the election district of w hich he ahall at the time
be a l'esident, and not elsewhere, for an officers that now are 01' hereafter lllay be elect-
ive by the people; 1lUt 8uch citizen 8hall haye been, for thirty claya next prececling tIlO
election, a resident of the clistrict ti'om which the officer is to be chosen for whorn he
offers his vote. Hut no man of color, unless he sha11 have be en for three years a citizen
of this State, and for one yeal' next preceding any eleetion shall have been seized and
possessecl of a freeholcl estatc of the vaIue of $250 over and aboye aU debts and illcum-
brances charged thereon, and shaU have been adna11y rated ancl paicl a tax thereon,
sha11 be entitled to vote at su eh election. And no person of color shall be snbject to
direet taxatioll, unles8 he ahall be seized amI possessed of snch real estate as afore-
saicl.


[In 1864 an amendment was aclcled, aUowing electors, in time of war, to vote while
absent from the State, in the military 01' nayal ser vice of the Uniteu States, in such
manner as the legislatnre might lHescribc.]


SECo 2. Laws may be passed exclnc1ing from the l'igllt of suffrage aU persons who
have been DI' may be eonyicted of bribcry, larceny, 01' of any infiHllouS cl'ime; and for
depriving cvery person who shaU make, 01' bccoll1o directly interestecl in, any bet 01'
wager, depending upon the result of any eIection, from the l'ight to vote at 8nch elec-
tion.


SEc.3. For the pnrpose ofvoting, no porson sIm11 be deornAd to have gainec1 01' 10st a
residen ce by rea80n of his presence or al)sence while employecl in the service of the
Ullited Statcs; nor whilc engagCll in the navigation of the waters of this State, 01' of
the Unitec1 States, 01' of the high seas; nor while a stlldellt of an;) seminary of learn-
ing; nor while kept at any alrnshousc, 01' other asyIulU, at public expense; nor whil6
eonfinec1 in any publie prison.


NORTH CAROLINA. (1868.)
ART. VI, SECo 1. Every male person bom in the United States, ancl every male per-


son who has been natllralizecl, 21 years olcl 01' upwarcl, who shall haye residecl in tltis
State twelve months next prceeding the exection, anel thirty days in the eounty in
which he offers to yote, sha11 be deemecl an elector.


SECo 2. It shan be the dut,y of the general assembl;v to proyicle from time to time for
the rcgistratioll of aU the electors, and no person sha11 be allowecl to vote withont rcgis-
tration, 01' to register witbout first taking an oath 01' affirrnation to support lwd main-
tain the Constitution and laws of the United States, and the constitution ancl la ws of
North Carolina not inconsistent therewith.


SECo 5. The following elasses of per80n8 shal1 be c1is'lualified for office: First, an per-
slms who shan deny the being of Alrnighty Gocl. Second, a11 persons who sha]] have
been eOIlvictecl of treason, perjnry, 01' any othel' infamous cril11e, sillce becoming citizens
of the United States, 01' of corruption 01' rna1practice in oflice, unle88 Buch person shall
llave been legally restored to the rights of eitizeIlship .


• A certifica te of naturallzation l. tbe legal evidenc. of tbe judgment of tbe court, nnd lB not to be colla ter-
allv impeacbed. [WILLIAMS, J., di •• enting.I-Peoplc v •. Pease, 30 Barber, (N. Y.,) 588.


ri'he elf'ctor 18 rnade the judge of bis own qualifications, snd his cODscience tokes the place of the judgmcnt
01 every other tribunal for that occaaion. 'l'he iuspectors may- in~truct and advitle him, but they cannot
decide npon bis qualifications.-Ib.




NINTH CENSUS. 85
OHIO. (1851.)


ART. V, SECo 1. Every white male citizen of the United States, * of the age of 21 yeara,
who ahan have Leen a resident of the State une year next preceding the elcctiun, and
of the couuty, township, or ward in whieh he resides such time as may be provided by
law, t ahan have the qualificatiuns of an elector and be entitled to vute at an elec-
tions.


SIW. 4. The general assemhly shall have powcr to cxcItule from tIle privilegc of
voting,. 01' of heing eligible to office, any person convicted of bribcry, perju1'Y, 01' other-
wise infamous c1'ime.


SEc.5. No l)erson in the military, naval, or marine scrvice ofthe United States shall,
by heiug stationed in any garrison or military or naval station within the State, be
considered a rcsidcut of this State.


SECo 6. No idiot 01' insane person 8ha11 be cntitlcd to the privileges of an elector.


OREGON. (1857.)
ART. II, SECo 2. In an elcctions not otherwiHe provided for 1)y this constitution, every


white male citizen of the United Statcs, of thc age of 21 years and npwarda, who ahan
have resided in the State during the six montha illlmcdiatdy preccding 811Ch election,
uud every whitc malc uf foreign hi1'th, of the age of 21 years and upwards, who shall
ha ve resided in the Uuited Statcs one yeal', allu sha11 have resided in thia Statc dnl'ing
tlle six rnonths immediately precedillg 8ueh election, and sha11 have declared his inten-
tion to bceome a citizen of the United States one year preceding auch elcction, conform-
ably to the laws of tho United States on the snbject ofuatnralization, sha11 be entitled
to vote at all elections authorized by law.


SEc.3. No idiut ur inRane pe1'son shall be entitled to the privilcgcsof an elector; and
the privilege of an elector slla11 be forfeited by a conviction of any crime which iB pnn-
isllable hy imprisonment in the penitclltia1'Y'


SECo 4. For the pUrpOSA of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained 01' lost
a residenee by roason of his presence 01' absence while employed in thc service of this
State, or of the Uuited Sta tes, 01' on the high seas, nur while a student of any semina1'Y
of learning, nor while confinerl in a11y pnhlic prison.


SECo 5. No 8oldier, seaman, 01' marine, in thA army 01' navy of the United States,or
of their allies, shall he deemed to have aClJuircd a residencA in the State in cOllsequenee
of ha Villg been stationed within the same, nor shall any sllcll soldiel', seaman, 01' marine
have the right to votc.


SECo 6. Ni) negro, Chinaman, 01' mulatto shan have the right of sllffrage.
SEc.17. All qualified electors shall vote in the election p1'ecillct in the connty where


they may reside for connty officArs, anrI in any county in tIle State for State officers,or
in any county of a cOllgressiollal district in which snch electors may reside for mcmbers
of COllgress.
P~;NNSYLVAXIA. (1838.)


AH'l'. !II, SECo 1. In clcctions l)y the citizllns, every white freemant of tho age of 21
years, haviug resided in this Statc onc year and in the election district where he offers


* In Jeffries vs. Anlumy et al., 11 Ohio Uep., 372, the court in giving a con~tI'uction to thi~ wOl'd "whitf:',!I in
the conl'ltitution of 1802, beld, that a persoIl, the offl'lpring of a whit0 man und a haH-breed ludian ,,",omaD, was
a lawful vot.ar. 'fhis COll8truction was followed in 7'kacker YS. Hawk et al., lb. :376, where it WfiH dt:'cided that
tbe court of common pIeas erred in holJiug that aman who had any negro blood in him, whatevef, was Dot
a lawful voter. The controlling idea of both cases is, tbat aU men neurer white than black, of the grade
betwcell tbe mll1atto aud the white, were, so far al'! bIood aud color were con cerned, entitled to vote as" white
male" citizens.


READ, J., di¡.¡¡.;cnted in both easetl, insistiDg' tbat 1/ white t' meant ¡'pure ulhite-unmixed j" sud that tbe CODM
stitntion intended to exclude all person~ frOID the privilegcs of thc elective franchi:)e ex.cept persons of pure
whit. blood.


The act of April 13, 1863, lito eoable qualified voten~ of this Siate, in the military service of thitot State, or
of tlle United States. to exercise thc right of Buffrage," was iatended to enable qnalified voterR oC the State,
in tba military servicc, t.o vote in accordance with its provisious, as well without as withiu the territorial
limite of tbis Stat •. -Leltman v<. MeRride, 15 Ohio Sto R.573.


Sncb net is constitlltional. fRANNEY, J., dissenting.]-Ib.
The constitution of Obio give8 a right to vote to white male citizeTIl!l. It having been decided thst male


citizens hs,'ing a vh;ible admixture of Afrieaa blood, but ia whom the white bIoon. prf'dominateH, are white
within the above clause; /¿eld, that a law imposing a hCfLVy bllrdp.n of proof on such citizens, providing that
judge8 of elec~ionil ~hould noí. be liable for damages 1'01' rejecting their Yote8, and other\Vise unfavorably
dil'!crimiuating o.gainst thero, was ullconstHutioual.-Monroe VH. Collins, 17 Ohio Sto R.665.


Persons haviug a mixture of African bIood, but a prepondel'ance of ,,,,hite bIood, or beillg more white tban
black, sud being otberwifle qnalified, were, by the 8ettled coul'!tructiou of tite scetion of the constitution of
18U2, regnlaHng the exercise of t1le electi\re fmnchisp, entitled to enjoy the l'igbt of au elector. No changa
waB made in tbis respeet by tba eorresponding sectioll oi the cOllstitution of 1851. 'l'he same perl'WU8, being
otherwLse quo.lified, are not to be excluded 00 account of color, but are enHtled, under the present comoJtitu ..
tioo, tú vote at aIl elections.-Anderson va.l'·fUlikin et al., 9 O. St. R., 568.


t This timf' was limited by 8ctofAprill';, 1868, to thil'ty days in the county, and twentydays io thetownship,
incorporated viUnge, or \Vard, before elretion; except that. heads of families may remo ve from one ward to
anotller io the same city, aud not out 01' the couuty, ",ithout IOfiing the l'ight of voting.


!A m'gro or mulatto cannot vote at a general election in Ptmnsyhania.-llobbs V~. Fogg, 6 Wattl:i, 553.
The word hwhite" ,vas introduced into tbe couBtitution in 1837, subscqucnt to tbe aboye decision.




86 NINTH CENSUS.
to vote f'ol' 10 days immccliately prece(ling sl1ch election, and within two years paiel a
Sta te 01' connty tlU,* which shaU have ueen a8s~8secl at loast lO days uefure the elec-
tiun, 8haU enjoy thc rights of an elector. But a citizcn of' the Unitecl titatns,t who had
previously lJ\'en a qnalified voter of' this St'1te, ami removed therefi-om and retlll'llecl,
and who sha1\ h,we resided in the clcctioll llistriet, and paid taxcs as af(l1'esaid, shaU
be elltitlctl tu yote, af'ter resirling in the State six mOllths; rrovidul, Th'1t white free-
men, citizcns of the United States, uetween the ages of 21 alld22 years, amI ]¡ayillg
resid~d in the State one year and in the elcctioll tlistrieH ten days as aforesaitl, shaU be
euLitled to vote, ulthough they shallnot haye paid taxes.


[By a law passed July 2, 1839, citizens in aetnal military seryice, in any tlctach-
ment of the military, 01' corps of voluntccrs ullller u rec¡niHition Ü'om th" l'l'csitlent of
the United States, ur by authority of the eommonwealth, wcre aUowed to vute ~1t
plae~s other than their usual resitleuce. In 1~(;4, an amendllleut ,,-as arlded to tho
cunstitution anthorizing snch persons to vote ullller sllch regnlations as llligltt be
prescriued by law. An aet, was aceonlingly passed August 25, 01" that year, for car-
rying this proyisioll into eiIect.~]


RHODE I~LAxD. (1842.)
ART. II, SECo 1. F,vcry male citizen of the rnitcd States, of t.he age of 21 ypal's, 1'110


has had bis resÍllcnce an(1 home in this 8taü, t(:>r oue vear. and iu tlw tUWIl or city in
1'hich he may c!aim a right tu yote six lllonthH ncxt pr'C'cedillg the time of yotiug, ;llld
who is reaUy nnfl trllly possessecl iu his o\\n right uf real estate in Rllch tO\\"lI or city
of the valne of $134, over anc1 abon, al! incnmbrances, or which shall rcut fOl" $71'el"
annllID onn· ami aboye any 1'ent resen'ctl, or tlw intereHt of ally inclllllhrancf's thereon,
bcing an cstat.e in fct') simple, fee tail, i"or the lire of any person, ur an esbte in rever-
8ion of remaindcr, which llnalifies no otller persOll to yoh', tIlo conyeyance of which
est~te, if by deetl, slu111 lHtye ueen rceordeü at lea8t ninety day', slmUIH'rcafter lmve a
right to voto at the election of al! civil ofticers, antl on aU 'luestious, in aUlegal town
01' ward meetiugs, so long as he euntinups RO qllalifie(1.


And if any person hereinbcfo1'e describo.l shaU uwn tmy such est[~te withiu this State
out of the town or city in which he resides, he shaU have a right tu vote in the clcc-
tion of aH general officers amI mcmhers of the general assemuly in the town 01' city in
which 1111 8ha1l have had his residcucc amI humo for the term of six months next prl1-
ceding the election, llpon producing a certificate from the clcrk of thc tOWl1 01" city in
which his estatc lies, bearing (1at., within ten (lays of his yoting, setting forth that such
person has a snfticient estatc thcroill tu qnalif'y him as a voter, allll that the deccl, if
auy, has been recordecl ninety daya.


SEc.2. * ~ -, -. From an(l nfterthat time, [the end of 1843,] every such citizen,
[male citizen of tho United States, 21 'yeam of ligO, two yeltrS l'eHiclellt in State and six
mouths in town or dty,] who has hatl the resirlence he1'ei11 roquirecl, amI wllOse name
shaU be registercd iu the town where he rcsiclcs, on or ]wfore the last day of December
in the year next procec1ing the time of hL9 \o(,ing, al1<l ",ho shaU SllOW auy legal proof
that he has, for an(l within the yeal' uext;prececling tho time he shall otler to vote, paiel
a tax or taxes asscsscd agaiust hilll in auy town or dt~, in this Sbtl', to ti le alllollnt of
$1; or t,lmt he has heen cnrolled in a military eompauy in this State, ueen cqnippcd
amI dUlle cluty thprein, nrcording to law, untl at leaHt for on8 day llnring snch year,
8ha11 haye a right tu vote in the election of all civil officerR, anc1 on all qllcstions in an
legally orga.nizecl town 01' ward meetings; rrouideil, That !lO person shall at any time


·k Tú cntitle a citizcn, othenvi!5e qnalified, to vote in Pennsylvallia for !}reiddent and Vire-President, he
mUl::lt have paid, withiu two years next prel'ediug tlle eledioll, a State 01' cuunty tax, at'ise~sed un himself in-
dividually, at least six months prior to :-iuch clection -Catlin v8. Smith, 2 S. and R .. 267.


t \Vbere the natura1izatioll results frorn the llaturalizatioIl of tlle parent, the parent'K certificate must be
pl'odu.ced.-Price VH. Barbcr, 13 Leg. Int., 140.


: Election districts, within tbe meauillg of the Peullsylvania statutes, denote subdivi~ionÍ!l of State territory
marked out by kllOWll bouwlaries, prearranged and declared hy public antl10rity; tbough uot detined by tbe
constitntion, they mean in it tha same as in the statute, and are recognizf>;d as among tbe civil institution~ of
tbe State, which can lleith~r be createu nor controlleu by the militúry power.-Cltase vs. ~1'iller, 41 Peull.
State R., 403.


"Residence," in the constitution, is the !:lame as domicile, tlle place where a mall establisbea his abode,
makeH tile seat of his property, anu exprcil'\el'\ hil'\ civil anO. politicfll rights.-Ib.


The party mnst not only have actually reBided in the State one year befoL'e tendering lIis vote, but such
rebidence must have be en with the ¡ntent to become a citizen of the Statc, amI. tu auandOll t11e citizenship
the party may have previous1y haO. in anothcr Stmc.-Sl1oW, Como PIeaa, Phila., 3 Nov., 1848, M. S., Seco 2d,
Par. A. D., 450; 1 Ash., 125; 1 \Vall, jr., 217, 2d J., 365, P. L .• T., 310.


The term !lelection district" signifies any part of a city or county huving fixcd boundal'ics, within whirh thc
.citizens ref3iding therein must Yote.-3 P. L. J., 310; 5 'Vright, 403.


§ The law providing for the voting of soldier¡.¡ away from home in actual Hcrvicc COYf'I'H thc case of mn·
nicipal elect.ions held at the same time as the gene1'al dection; hence tbe soldiers in camp, belonging to Phila·
delphia, at the tiUle uf t11e election of ]861, liad t11e right to yote for t11eir proper munieipal officer~, and have
their votes cOlluted ann rcturned, Rud it "",as the dnty of the judges of each 'ivard to meet on the flecond Tnea·
day of Novembt-'r, to illclude tbe votes !-lO rtlturned in tlieir elllllIleratioll.-lIulseman V8. Rt:ms, 41 Penll. StatB
R., 3~6.


The rigllt of a soldier to vote, under tbe cOllstitution, is confin~d to the election diHtrict where he l'eBided at
t!Je tiwe uf !Jis euteriug t!Je military service,-C/¡ase vo, 1I1iUer, 41 Penn, State R, 403.




NINTH CENSUS. 87'


be allo,ved to vote ill the ~lection of the city cOllneil of the city of Provir1en~e, or 11pon
any propoRition to Ítnposo a tax, 01' fo1' the expenditnre of money in ltlly town 01' city,
mlles8 he 8hall, withill the yea1' next, preceüillg, ha ve paiü a tax assessed upon his
property therein valned at lea~t at $134.


SECo 3. The a"scssors o[ cach town 01' city slwll annnallyasscss n])oll cvel'y person,
whosc nanlC 8hall be registererl, a fax of $1, 01' sueh '11m as with his otller ta,xes sha11
amount to $1, which 1'egistry tax 8ha11 be lmill into the treasury of Buch town 01' eity,
amI be applied to tIte sup]lort of pnblic schools thel'ein. Bnt 110 cOlllpulsor,\' procesa
sItall issue for the collcl'tion of any registry tax: Prorirled, That the registry tax as-
sessed upon any mariner, for 3.ny :real' while ho is at sea, shall, npon his applicat.ioll, be
relllitted; a11(lno po1'8011 sha11 be a110wefl to vote whostl rtlgistry tax fol' cither of the
two years next prcccdiug the time of voting is not, paiü 01' rOlllitted, as herein proyidefl.


SEc.'4. No 1'01'8011 in tlw milita1'Y, naval, 01' marino, 01' auy other seryice of the Ullited
States, 8ha11 be cousidered as Ita villg tlle rer¡uired re,iflenee by reaSOll of beiug employe<l
in an~' garrison, llUrl'Uck, 01' military 01' naval station in tItis Sta te; a1\(1 110 lmuper,
lllnatie, persoll lIon compOR mentiR, 11er80n ulI(lel' gnanIiallship, 01' nw,m ber of tIte N arra-
gallsett tribe of Illdians, shall be permitted to be registered 01' to vote.


Nor shan any person l'onvictcrl of hribery, 01' of ally crime deemefI infamolls at, COlIl-
mon law, be pel'mitted to exercÍse t,hat privilege, until he be expressly restored thereto
by an aet of tll(' ¡;clU:ml asscmlJly.


SECo :í. Persolls resilling OH lands ccrlNl hy tllis State to t.hc 'Cnited States sha11 not
bR el1titl~<l to ~xel'risc tlw 11l'ivilnge of electllrs.


A)IEXI))!E;S:T: AUTICLE 4. (AnoPTED JFXE 3, 18ü4.)-Eledors of this State "ho, in
time of wal', are ahsent from the Statc in the artnal military sel'Yiee of tbe Unite<l
Stntes, lwing othen,ise qualified, slw 11 hnvc a rigllt to vote in a11 elections in t,he Statc
fur eleetors (Jf Presidellt auü Yiee-rresillent of the UnitAcl Sta teR, representatives in
Congress, ami general officem of the Stntp. The general aHseUlbl~, 8ha11 ha,ve fu 11 power
to provide, by l:t", túr carryillg this articln into ef('ect, amI nntil sucll provisioll slmll he
lllade by law, :llly SUdl alJsellt elector, OH the day of such electiolls, lllay delivcl' a
"rittell 01' [ll'inted hn11ot, "ilh tlle nfllnes of the persons yoted thereon, aud his Christian
ami S111'nall1l', [\1)(1 his Yotillg resiflenc(j in the State, \\'l'ittcn at length on thc bade
thereof, to the' offieer COlIlIlll!ll(lillg ¡he l'egiment o)' cOlllpany to whieh he belougs; and
a11 surh ballots, certifiec1 by SUdl cOlllm:lll(!ing offie~r to hitve beeil givell hy t.ltA elector
WhORA lwme i8 wl'itt¡>n thereon, aIHl l'etllrnel1 by slleIt cOllllllflndillg- officAr to the secre-
tar)' of statc withill tIte time jJI'cseribeü by la" [01' eounting thfl yotes in suoh electian,
shall be I'ecci,-cd amI counted with tIte same !'ffect as if given hy such elector in 0P"ll
town, "-3]'(1.01' <li.'ltl'id lIlf'eting; and thf\ derk of tOWll or eH y, until otlH',rwise pl'ovitled
u,)' law, HItall, withill fhe tlays after any sueh clcction, transmit to t.he secl'etary of state
a certifictllist of the nallles of a11 such electors on their reRpectivo voting listo


Sm:TII CAIWLIXA. (1868.)
AHT YIII, SECo 2. E \'('1)- lllalt: citizCll (ji' tIte UnÍtp(1 Stnte,o, of the ngo o[ 21 years amI


1l1l\Y<U'ds, not lahOl'illg unü'-'l' the <lisahiliti,'s llflllletl in tItis cUllstitutioll, without !lis-
tilldion oí' mee, colO1', Ol' ±()l'llLer coutlitiou, ,dlO s]¡a11 he a residm1t of this Statü"at
the tillle of t]¡o al1o]Jtioll of this cOllstitntion, 01' ,,,ho.slw11 thereaft.er reside in this State
onc year, aml in the COllllty in whieh IH\ off'>!'R to vote sixty tlays next precodillg any clel'-
tiOll, shall be entitlell to vote fol' lL11 oflice!'s lhat are now 01' herflafter lllUy bc elcct"cl
by the peoplc, ami upon a11 questiolls sulJllütted to th" dectol's at any elections: 1'1'0-
vided, That no pel'son sha.!l be allo,,""fl to vote 01' hold offico who is 110"",01' hel'eafter may
ble, disqualified thel'efol' b)- tIte CUllStitUtiOll o[ the Unite(l States, until 811Ch disqufllifi-
cation 8ha111)0 removed hy the Congrc.~s ,of tite Ulliteü 8tates: Pl'Ol'lclcfl f/lr/hu, That
no person while kept in any allllsllO-Uf;f\ 01' :1~yjnm, 01' of unsound lllillc1, 01' confilled in
publie plison, shall be allowe<l to vote (Ji' hohl ofiicc.


SECo 3. It shall be the dllty of thc general assembly to provide froIl1 time to time for
thfl registratioll oí' al! cledors.


SECo 4. For thc pUl'l'0se of YOtillg!lO pe1'8011 shall be f1eemed to have lost his residence
by reason of absonce "'hile employec1 in tIlC service of the United 8tat.es, 1101' while en-
gaged llpon the waters of this State 01' tho United StatcR, 01' of tite high seas, nor while
temporarily absent frOIll tIte Stntc.


SECo 5. ~o soldicr, seaman, 01' marine, in the al'llly 01' navy of the l~11íted States, Rhall
he deemecl a rf'sidcnt of this State in rOllser¡uellc'(l of haYil1g becn stationed thereill.


SECo 8. Thc general asscmbly shallllC\'Cl' pass auy law tltat will fleprivc an~' of the
citizens of tItis State of the right of sntfrage, except for treason, murcIe!:, robbery,or
dueling, whereofthe person8 shall haye 1)(>.<:11 flhly t1'ied ami cOIlvicted.


SECo 12. No pC1'8011 ~l¡all he disfrandlisell fol' felouy 01' otlleI' crimes comlllitted while
su eh persou was a slave.


TEXXE6::;EE. (18:14.)
AUT. IY, SECo 1. Every free white man, of the a"e of 21 years, beillg a citizen


of tIte Ullited States, and a cHizCll of tho CUlluty wherein he may offor his vote six




88 NllITH CENSUS.
months next preceding the day of ell'ction, sha11 be entitled to vote fol' membel's of
the general assemhlyaml otber civil officers for the cOllnty or district ih which he
r"sides; Proridcd, That no person sha11 be disqualified frorn voting in any eleetion on
aecóunt of color, who is now, by the lawa of thia State, a competent witl10SS in a coul't
ofjHstice against a white mano A11 free meTl of color ahall be exempt from military
duty in timc of peaee, and also frorn paying a free poll-tax.


SEc.2. Laws may he passed excluding fl'om the right of snffragepersons who may be
convicted of infarnous erimes.


A}IEXD:lIEXT. (1866.) SCHEDULE.-SEC.9. The qualifications oi'voters, and the limit-
ntiol1s oi' the elective franchise, may be c1etermil1E'd by the general assembly which
shallfirst assemble nnder the amended eonstitution.*


VERMOXT. (179;~.)


PAllT l, ART. 8. That aU eleetions ollgllt to bc free, and without corruption, aud that
aU i'reemen, havil1g a sufficient evident common interest with, and attachllleut to, the
cOllllllllnity, have a I'ight t,o elect and be elected into office, agreeahly to the reglllatiollS
made in this constitution.


PART 1I, SECo 21. Evel'Y mnn of the fu11 age of 21 years, havin)!; resided in tlliR
State for the space oi' oue wllOle year ni~xt before the elflction of represflutatives,
and i~ 01' a quict and peaccahle behavior, and will take tlIe following oath 01' affirma-
tion, shall be entitlec1 to all tIle privileges of a Ú'eemuu of this State:


" You solemnly Hwear (01' affirm) that wheneyer yOIl gÍ\'e -,"OHr yote 01' snffl'age tOllell-
ing any matter that concerns the State ofVerrnont, you ·will do it so as in your conscience
yon Rhall jlldge willmost conduce to the best goou oi' the same, as established by tile
constitution, without fe al' 01' favor of U1'Y man."


A1IExmmxT. (182R.)-ART. l. No perSOll ",ho i8 uot already a freemau of this State
shall he entitleu to exerciRA the privilflges of a freeman, uuless he he a uatural-horn
citizen oft.his or somc onc of the United Statcs, 01' ulltil he sha11 have Leen naturalized
agreeably to the aets of Congress.


WEST VIRGINIA. (11:)61-'63.)
AIlT. lII, SECo 1. The white malo citizcns of the State ¡¡hall be el1titled to vote at u11


elf'ctions held within the elect,ion districts in whieh they respectively reside; hut no
IwrSOl1 who is a minoI', 01' of unsound mina, 01' a pauper, Ol' who is ul1(ler conyiction of
tre:\son, felony, 01' brilJery in an elcction, 01' who has not been a resille.nt of the State
for olle year, aud of the county in which he ofl:'ers to vote forthirty days next preceding
Hueh oiler, Hhall he permitted to vote while such disability eontillues.


* An Ret to limit the elective fl'anchhm WU:ol pas:o::ed June 5, 186."), Jt re~tricted tlle right uf voting to those
,,-hite men (othel'wi~e qualified undel' the con~titution) who wel'e puo1icly known to llave entertained llllcon-
ditional Union sentiments from tbe outbrf'ak of tile rebt'llioll uutil that time, aud who Lad uot voluntal'ily
gh.pl) aid to the 8o-ealled u Confeclerate Stfttes. .,


'rhi:ol act \'\'aH repealed by anot.ber, pa~8ea l\Iay 3, 1866, 800l] after the adoption of the alllendmeut given in
the text, and thia \Vas agnin fllrther amended FebrufLry 25, 1867. 'fho ('xi);ting provisioll~ uf these act8, 80
far a~ they admit 01' deny thtl right Di' verSOllti to yote, are ati follow8:


SEC, 1. Evcry mnh~ inhahitant of tbil'l State, 01' the age 01' 2L year8. a citizeu of the United 8t11.te13:,
aud i.l. rC:l.ident of the COtltlty whdreiu he may olt'dr his votl~ Hix: ffi'Hlthi'! npxt prücl!<Iing tbc fia.y of t-'lectioll, ~haU
be entitled to the privilcge of the elective f'ranchb~f': subject to tlle fullowing -t;xceptious sud disqualifications,
to \vit:


lo Suid ,-oter flhall uever have horne arms agaill~t tbe grJyerument of the Unittd State8, for the pllrpose of
aiding tbe la.te rebellion, nor have voluutarily given ni<l, comfort, countenance, coull~el, or enc')uragement to
n.ny relwIlion ngaini-!t the authority of the United States governlllellt, llor aided, countenanced, ol' encouraged
a~t:i of hOcltility thereto.


2. That fluid yoter shan have never sought ol' volnutarily aece pted any office, civil or military, ol' at-
t.empted ta exercise the fllnctions of n.ny office, ci\~il 01" milital'Y. undel" the authodty Of pl'ete1Hled Iluthority
of thf' Ho-eallerr H Confederatf.' State8 oí" Amel'ica. " 01' of ally insurrectionA.r:r Statc whatever, h08tile Of oPPoRed
to the anthority of the United Sta tes government, witl1 tlw intent alld de~ire to aid !-iaid rebellion OT illlmrrec-
tiouaryauthority. .


3. That .-saill voter Rhall never llave voluntarily suppol'ted auy pretended gov(~rnmcnt, poweT, Ol" authorlty
h!):'ltil~ or inimical to the anthority of thú UnitNl StfLh~:o', b:"i-' c()Utrihutious in mOlley or property. by ppr~ufLsion
01' inftuence, or in auy other wa.y whatever: Prooidul. That th~~ foregoing".restrictious alld d.it;qnalifications
~hall not apply to anycitizcn who muy have Herved in aud bt'tlll hOIlorably tl!i'!charged fl·om the UTllly or navy
of' tbp United States sillce the 113t day of Jaullary. 186:2, nor to those \vho voteu iu tbe prel:iidential elf'C'tion in
Nuvembcr. 1864. or votcd in thp. election for ·'ratiticat.iou or I"ejection,·' in ~~-'l"hruary. lB65, or voted in the
election hehI on the 4th 01' Mal'ch, of the sall)(~ yenr, fnr g0vernor and lIlewlJeftl of the legi.,laturp, nor tú thm;e
who have bt'cn appoillted to any ('ivil 01' military otlice by AndJ"e\\r Johm!Oll, militat"y gOVCl"llOl", or 'YiIliam
G. Bl"o,vnlow, govel'uor, of Tenne~~ee, prior to JUlle;" 186,3, all (lf whom are hereby dee1al'ed to be qunlitied
voter!!!, llpon their complyiug with tlle requirellleutl:) 01' thi>l /let: Prrmided, That tltitl latter clause shall not
apply to any cOlllmi:~¡.¡ion üomcd upon any elpction which Illay llave been held.


rThe !iecond ana thil d !5ections prúvide for the appointment of 11. COllllll\l'i¡douer of registration for ea eh C'ollnty
in the Stat!? He is reC¡llired to illsue certificate~ 01' registration tú thol:le entitled, upon pl'oduction of tlufficieut
documeutary proof.:!, Ru·d penwnal evidence of unconditional Union men, und UP.OIl the o~tl~ of tlH' p<"r!lon
mnking npplication fOI" regilüratiou. setting fortll that. he has llot borne arm~ agaJllst tbe L lllt~d States, 1I01'
w¡ílingly giVt-"Ll aid to rebellion. Per . ;ons pf:'l"sonally kno,vIl to the cOIllmisl."\ioller to huye nlwa~r~ bern ~lllcon.
dirionnl {hinn ll1('n, 01" who rr.ay be pro ved to be Hnch by two such witnesl'>es, ore excl1t1ed Íl"om takwg the
oath. Uitizeu!:) of TenneS8ee in the army of the eniteu State¡; are allowed to vote whcrever located, amI the
vote:3, are- to be counted aH of the couutles in which buch officcr8 01' 801illel"tI Illight reside.]




NINTH CENSUS. 89
AMEND:\1ENT. (1866.)-No person who, sinee the 1st day of June, 1861, has given DI'


shall give voluntary aitl DI' asaistance to the rebellion against the United States, ahall
be a citizen of this State, 01' be allowetl to vote at any election therein, nnless he has
volunteered into the milit,ary DI' naval serviee of the United States, and has been DI' shall
be honombly diseharged therefrom.


WISCONSIN. (1848, AS A~mNDBD.)
ART. III, SECo 1. Every male person, ofthe age of 21 years 01' upward, belonging to


either of the following classes, who sha11 have resided in this State for one year next
preeeding any election, aha11 be deemcd a qualificd elector at sueh clcction:"


1. Citize1l8 of the United Sta tes.
2. Persons of foreign birth who shall have declaren their intention to become citi-


zens conformably to the laws of the Unitcd States on the snbjcct of naturalization.
3. Persona of Indian blood, who have once been declared by law of Congres8 to be


eitizens of the Uniteü States, any 8nlJseqnent law of Congress to the contrary notwith-
standing.


4. Civilized persons of lndian descent, not memhers of any tribe: Proridúl, 'l'hat
tha lcgislature may at ally time extend lJy law the right of snffrage to persons not
herein ennmemtedj but no su eh law shan be in force until the same shall have been
8ubmitted to a vote of the people at a general election, and approvecl by a majority of
all tho votes cast at such eleetion.


SEc.2. No I)el'son under guanlin.uship, non Cml/p08 mOl/lis, 01' insanc, shall be qualified
to vote at any electioll j nor sha11 any person convictecl of treason 01' felony he quali-
íled to vote at any election, llnles8 restorerl to civil rights.


SHC. 4. No person aha11 be dccrned to have lost his residence in this State by reason of
his absence on bnsiness of the Lnite(l Stn.tes 01' of this State.


SECo 5. No soldier, seaman, 01' marine in the army or navy of the Uniterl States, shall
becleemed a resident of this State in consequcnee of being stationcd within thc same.


SECo 6. Laws may be passed excluding from the right of snffi'age all persons who
have boen 01' may be conYÍetetl oi' bribery 01' larceny, 01' of any infamous crime, and
clepriving every person who shaU make, or bccomc directly 01' indiroctly interested in,
any bet 01' wager depending ulJOn the result of auy election, from tbe right to vote at
such election. t


ART. XIII, SEc.2. Any inhabitant of this Statc who may horcafter be engaged,
cithcr directly 01' in(lirectly, in a duel, cHher as principal 01' aceessory, shall forever he
disqnalificd as an elector, alld from hohling any office Hnder the constitntion and laws
of this State, and may he punished in such other manner as shall be presorihed by
law.


SECo 5. All pcrS01l8 resitling upon lndian lands wjthin any eonnty of the StatE', a,nd
qualified to exercise the right of sllffragc nllller this constitution, 8ha11 be entitled to
vote at the polls which lllay be held nearest their residence, for Sta te, Unitecl Sta tes,
DI' COllllty officer8: Provided, 'l'hat no person shall vote for connty officel's out of the
county in which he resides.


COll8titutional ]11'OVi8io1/8 "elafil/g fo (he limifation of 8uffrage in Sta tes 1/ot 1'e8i(ffed to the
1'i[Jht of 1'epl'6S6ntation in Congl'C8s.
Jl,Ir~SISSIPPI.


CO~STITUTION OF 1832.-AuT. III, SECo 1. Every freo white malo pcrson of the age
of 21 years 01' upwards, who 8ha11 be a citizen of the United Statcs, and sha11
have resided in thiR State oue ypar next l)receding an election, ancl the last fonrmonths
within the COUllty, city, 01' tOWIl i1l which he offers a yote, sha11 he deemed a qualifie!!
elector. And any 8nch qualified elector who may happcn to be in any COllnty, city, or
town other than th,at of his residencA at the time of an election, 01' who shall have
moved to ally eounty, eity, 01' town witllin fonr montlls preceding the election, from
any connty, city, 01' town in whieh he wouId haye been a qllalificd elector ha!! he not
so removed, may vote for any State 01' dist1'ict ofticer, 01' memher of Congress, 101' whom
he ?ould have vote!! in the connty of his resitlence,or the county, city, or town frOID
Wh1Ch he may have so removed.


ART. VII, SECo 4. * * " Laws shall he made to exclnde frolll office and from suf-
frage those who sha11 thcrcaftcr hc convicted of bribery, pmjury, forgery, 01' other high
crÍlnes or nlisdelneanors. * * '* * '* *


* Tbe w(]rds ¡, any person Bot baving all the qualificatiollS of an elector," in tbis sta.tute, mean ally person
disquaUfied, iucapacitated, or disentitled, from nny of the causes fixed by law, refcrring to bis condition when
hi~ vote is received.-Byrne vs. State, ]2 "'-"is., 519.


1 Tbe question whetber 01' not a vuter lIad a wnger depending, upon tho reBult of the clection, is a question
of mixed law and fact, upon whirh the i08pectors act in a quasi judicial capacity, aud for an obvious but hon~
eRt mistake of the law or error oí' judglllent in thcil' decision they are not criminally responsible.-Byrne va.
State, 12 Wis., 519.




90 NL~TH CENSUS.
COl\STITUTIOX PREPARED IN 1868 AXD XOT ADOl'TED.-ART. VII, SECo 2. AH male


inhahitants of this State, except idiots and in salle per80n8, aud Iudians uot taxed, citi-
;oens 01' the Unitec1 States, or uaturalized, 21 years olel amI upwanls, who have
l'esü1ed in this Statc SLv months and in the COUllt.l one month llcxt precedinp; the day
of elcdioll at wbicb said inbabitallt offer8 to vote, nw1 who ure dnlyregistered ucpor,l-
iug to tlw rC'lllirements of section thrce of this article, am1 WllO ltre 110t üis<jllalifiel!
hy reHson of any crime, are dec1:trec1 to be 'lnulifiel! electors.


SECo 3. Tbe legislatnre shall proyide, hy law, for the registration of ull persons enti-
tle<l to vote at any election, anl! all perS011S entitlctl to re gis ter sbal1 take and sub-
scribe the following oatb 01' affirmation :


"1, ---, do solemnly SWAar (01' affirm) that 1 hav" r"sif1e(1 in this State six months,
aud iu --- couuty onc month; that 1 will faithfully slll'l'Ort mu1 obcy the COllStitu-
tion and laws of the Unitcd States anrl 01' the State of }lississippi, an(l will bear trne
faith ami allegianc" to thtl RamA; that 1 3m not rlisfmnchisArI in a,ny oi' tlw proyisions
of tbo acts kllown as the rcconstrnction ads of tIlo 39th anu 40th Congress, alld tbat 1
admit the political and civil e'llwlit.l 01' all mcn: 80 help me God."


l'rodrlerl, 1'hat if Congress shall :tt any time rmuoyc thA (lisabilities of any pcrson
disfranehiscd in tbc said rcconstructioll acts oí' the said 39th amI 40th Congr~ss, (alll1
the legislatllre of this State shall concur therein,) tbcn so mnch of this oath, am1 so
mnch only, as refers to thc sairl reconstrnntion acts, shallnot he !'e(luire(l of sllch llcr-
son, so pan1olled, to cntitlc him Lo be 1'eg-iste1'eol.


SECo (j. In time of war, insul'l'cction, 01; rebellion, the right to yote at slwh place am1
in snch mall1w,r as shall be prescribe(l hy law, shall he clljoyerl hy all pCI'SOIlS othcl'\dse
clltHlcd thcreto, who may be in tbe actual lllilitary 01' ua.val servie" nf the Fnite(l
States 01' thia State, l)rovider1 said yotes be made to applY in the eOllllty Ol' precillet
whereill they resiue. v <


AUT. XII, SECo 2. The legislatnre sha11 pa~s laws to excltH1e from office amI from 8nf-
frage thos" Vd10 shall hereafter be convicterl of bribery, pmjury, forgery, OI' otber lügh
criInes 01' Illisueweuuor:s. '* '* *" * * ;¡.


TEX,\S.


COXSTln;TION OI<' 1845, AS A~mNDED ni 18(j(j.-AuT. lII, SECo 1. F,vcry free male
person who ahall haye attained the age of 21 years, and who Hllall be a citizen
of the Uuitel1 States, aUl1 shnlllmve resided in this Síatc onc year ne.xt prececling
an elee(,ioll, auc1 tho last six lllOllths witbill the diskict, county, city, 01' town in which
he offers to yote, (IUllians not taxed, Afrieans, amI rlesCell(l:1llttl of Africalls, exccptetl,)
8hall be (leellled a 'lualifierl elector; :t11(l SllOUI<l SUdl <jllalifie<l elector happen to be in
any otlle1' COlllll,y sitllatcd in thc district in whieh he resides at the time of :in Alection,
lw ,hall he p"rmitted to VOtA for any (listl'ict ofticel': rl'o!lid(:rl, That the qnalified elec-
tora sllull be permlttell to YO te anywhere in the Statc for !:ltate otlicers: A lid JlI'OI:iderl
jurthel', That no soldier, scaman, or marine in the al'llIy 01' lI:lYY of tlle lTniteü States
shall be entitlc(l to vote nt lLlly eleetion ereat"ü by this eonstitutlon.


[Thc amcl\(lmcnts proposcLl by tllc eOllstitlltional COllYC1lt.ioll of mm cl"finfi tilo
qllalificntious of yoters in two s,;ctiolls, anrl diff~.rpntly, as will he tleenlJy tbc folluwill¡!;
qllotations : ]


" ART. III, SECo 1. Eycry male lwrson who shall have attaillerl tho agc (Jf 21 years,
aucl who shall be (01' who shall llaye deelarerl his intelltion f.o become) a citizcn
of thA lTniteü Sta tes, or who ia, at tIlO the time of the acceptance of this constitntion
hy the Congrcss of the Ullitcd States, a citi;oCll of Texas, and sha11 have resi<lerl in this
State one year next l)receclillg an election, am1 the la.st six months within tlle clistrict
or cOllnty in ,vhieh he offers to vote, alHl is duIy rep;i,tered, (Inflians llot tax(·d flX-
ceptcd,) shall be decmed a qualifiecl elector; and ShOlllcl snch qllnlific(l e}()etOl' huppell
to be in any other county situated in the district in wbich he resides, at thc time of un
election, he shall be pcnnittctl to vote for ally district oflicer: PI'Ol'idcd, That tite 'lnali-
fiel! clector sball be permitted to vote an)"\\'he1'c in thf' Stnt.c for 8tat" offi~ers: AI/d
procided jlll"ther, That no solrlier, sp,aman, 01' marine in the arllly 01' navy 01' the United
States, allall be entitled to vote at any election creatccl hy this constitntion:"


"ART. VI, St;c. 1. Every male citizen of t.hA TJniíerl Siates, of tlw agc of 21
years and npwanls, not lahoring under tite dis>thilities 11l1l1lcd in this COllst.itution,
without clistinctíon of mee, color, 01' former condition, who shall hA a rpsirlt,nt of thi~
State at th" t.ime of t.he 3doption of this ~ollstitlltion, Oi' wllo ,;ha11 thereaftcr reside in
this State one yenr, aul! in tlw county in whieh he oifers to YO te sixty daya next prf1-
ccding any election, sball be entitlecl to vote fol' a11 of1kers that are now, 01' hercafter
may be, elected by the people, and 111)on all qnpstions H1l111uitte<l to thc elcctora at auy
eleetion: PrOl'iderl, That no llerson almll be allowetl to VO(O 01' hold oUiee wlto is no,,",
01' bereafter may'be, disqualifiecl therefor by the Constitntion of the Ullite(1 Statl's,
11l1t.il snch disqualification sha11 be removNl hy the COlIgress of tlle Unitcd States:
Proricled jm·thw·, That no person while kept in auy as.)'lum, 01' coufiucll in ]ll'iSOIl, 01'
who has heen cOllyicted oí' a feloDY, or who is of ullsollud lllÍlu1, sltall lJe alluwccl to
vote 01' hold office."




NINTH CENSUS. 91
Vmm"'LL


COXSTITUTION AR ,DmXDED IX 1866.-AnT. III, SECo 1. Evcry "White ma1e eitizen oí
the commonwealth of thc age oi' 21 ~-ears, who has been a resident of tlle State
fuI' tl\'O yeal'~, aw1 nf the (,Oll11ty, city, 01' town wlwro he offers to yote for twelve lllonths
l1ext preeerlillg an cledioll, \VIto has paid aU State taxe" assesse<l to him fol' the pre-
ce<ling yeaJ', "hall be 1j11ll1ifietl to vote fór rnembcrs 01' 1,he general asse~llbly, alln all
ofticers elective hy the peo]!le; hut wlH~n n citi7.ell of the State removes frorn OIle
conl1t~', oity, 01' tOWll, to ilJjo1,hcl' in this State, he shallllut, hy reason of sl1ch ehange
oí' resir1encc, lose his l'ight to vote in the cuuuty, city, 01' to,,"n frolll whieh he rernoves
until he shall have aC<111ir('(l thé right to vote in the COUllty, eity, 01' town to "Which he
Tt'1ll0Yes: l'1'otidcd, hOU'CI'CI', Tllat uo pCl'SOll ,hall be allu\Vel1 to vote \Vho i8 of unsonnd
milld, l1 pnllper, 01' who has lwell cOllYicted o[ bl'ibery at an elcctiOll, 01' uf au infarnonA
oft"llse. No jlcrson in tbe military, n:lvnl, 01' marilw scrviíl" of tlH\ UnitcI1 States shall
be (leeUlAll a residcllt oí' this State, ]¡y reaSOll of' lwing' statioucd therein; lmt eiti7,ens
of this State, w11fm in the milit.ary scnice. of the Ullited States, shall oe pcrrnittcd to
vote, nnder such reglllatiolls as Illay be prescribed hy the general asselllhly, "Wherever
they lllay he statiollcd, the sallle as i1' they were witlJin tbeir respective citics, euuntif'R,
01' districts.


CO"'ST1'ITTIOX l'rtEl'_un:D IX 1868, X~,D XOT YET .tDOl'TED.-AnT. UI, SECo L
Every ll1ale citiz('11 of the l..:'llitcd Statcs 21 ~'('ars old, who shall have bePIl a
resident of this Stat.\ t,,'(;l VI' lllonths, aucl 01' the connty, city, 01' town in which he
shall olrel' to vote tlirce IllflIltlis uext preeeüing any election, ~hall ]Hl entitled to vote
11pon all l¡w'stioJ\s slllllllÍttCtl tú tho people aL suclt c1cctioll: Provülerl, That uo offiel\r,
solllior, sealllan, 01' lIln1'iue oí' t11e ellited States A1'lUy 01' Navy, shall be cOllsldcl'ed a
l:csidellt 01' thi~ Sk,te by reaSOIl of being ~t:ltionorl therein: Al/el prol'iiled also, That the
tollowiug p"rsous sllall be excludcc1 1'rolll vOLing:


1. Idiots allcllunatics.
2. Pe1'sOlls convietccl of bribcry in any election, embez7,lement of pnblic f'unrls,


treason, 01' fe10u~~.
:3. No pe1'sou who, whil(\ a eitizen of this State, llas, since the ac1option of this eonsti-


tntiou, fought a ducl ,vith a deadly 'YCapOll, Bent 01' aeceptcü a challf'nge to fight a
<lnel with a lleailly wflapon, eitlwr withill 01' be.yoml the bounc1arics of t11i8 State, ur
lmowingly conveyell a challengc, 01' aide<l OI' assistec1 in any manner in fighting a c1nel,
8ha~1 be allowed to yate, 01' hold any uffiee uf honor, profit, 01' trust nnder thi8 consti-
tntlOn.


Every por.gol! who has becn a Renat01' 01' representative in Congrcss, 01' elector of
I,'resident or Vice-P1'csident, 01' wilo ileld ally oftiep, eivil 01' military;llnder the United
~tMes, 01' under nny State, who huving prc\-lonsly talcen all oath as a memher of Con-
gress, 01' as an ofticer of tlw [llited Statcs, 01' as a membe1' of nny Sta te lcgislature, 01'
as an eXN'ntive 01' judidal offieer of auy Stntl" Rlwn havEl engagell in insllrrection 01'
rebellioll ag'ainst tlle same, Ol" given nil1 01' cOlllfort to the cllelllies thereof. This clallse
shaJl i1lc11u1o the followillg Ofti<:I'l'S: O",-e1'no1', lientenallt governor, secretary oí' state,
auditor oi pn blio aceount~, secoIHI mlllitor, n~gist<.'r of tlw 1,,])([ offic('., state treasnrer,
attorney gencral, sheriffs, s('1'gemlt 01" a eHy 01' town, COlllluissioner uf' the revcllue,
couuty slllTeyors, eOllBtahles, OYI\rsel,rs 01' the poor, COllllllissione1' of the boartl of public
\Yorks, judges oí" the supremo eunrL, jlUlgl"s of tile eircuit court, jUdgCH of the conrt of
h!lstillgS, justiecs of tllll ('ol1nty ('IHll'ts, mayor, l'econler, altlermen, conucilmcn of tile
mty 01' to\Yn; corollc1'8, esehcators, inspcet.ol'S of tohacco, !lonr, &c., clerles of the
supreme, tlistl'ict, eiTcuit, and COllut,v conrt8, amI uf tlle court of hUBtings, an<1 attor-
neys for the eUllUllOnW(\:Jlth: l'l'ul'id¡,d, That the legislatnre ma.v, b~' a vote of tllrco-
tifths oí' both 110118e" rCllIove the !lh,a bilities incm:red hy this clause fi'om any person
includell therein by a, separate vote in cach cagu.


S,"c. 2. AH eleetionH Rlw 11 he hy hallot, and aU persons cntitlec1 to vote sllall he
eligible to any offiee withill tho gift oí" the people, except as rcstricted in this con-
stitutiuIl.
SU~nIARY 01<' CLJ .. SSES.


Of rlwle citiz.enB ~f t/w Fni/crl Sf((fe,~, bcillg 21 yearB of aye, u'7Iose l'ight to t'ote at any
elcc/ion fOl' the choice of clcetol'S fOl' l'rc8irlcnf alld ¡'ice-Presiden! of fhe Un itoil States, /'epre-
sentatil'es in COII(j/'es8, the execl/tÍl'e and judicial v.OiCC/'8 uf a /5tlde, o/' tlw me/Jlbe/'R of the
Icyi8atllrc the/'coj; i8 denied, 01' in any I/:r/!I ab/'i<lged, ex;]cpt fOl' pa/'ticillalion 'in rebellion VI'
vtlwr crime. *


l.-o)!" ACCOGXT OF RtCE on COLOR.
Colore<1lw,rsons indircctly tleserihell hy nsing the wOl'll " \\'hite" il1 t,he c1efiuition of


yote1's-Calijol'l1ia, Con/lccth'ut, Ddall'w'c, Illiuui8, Indiana., JÚiII8as, Kmztucky, }¡[aryland,
Jlichigall, 1.1liH801lri, ]\·m,acla., Xew .JeI·~ey, Ohio, Ol'egoll, P"lIl1syll'allict, and West Virginia.


Negroes nud lllUlattocs expre~Hly exdul1cl1-Indicwa amI Ol·cgon.
Chinamcn expl'essly exelutled-Ol'c.'loll.


----------------------------------------------


~ 'l'he States 01' l\'liB~i):\íÜppi, Te~a:3, aud Virgiuia an~ llot, iucluued in this Immmary.




92 NINTH CENSUS.
II.-ON Accon,T OF RESIDENCE.


Persons residing on lands ceded l)y the State to the Lnited States-Ma88achusettst
R1wde Isktnd.


In State less than three yeara, being a colored citizen anufreeholder to the val11e of
$200-Nc1O York.


In State less than two years-Kentucky.
In State lesl! than onc year-Connectwnt, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, 1ffary-


land, Ma88achu8ett8, Mi'l80nri, New .Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsyh'a1l'ia,t
Rhode hland, S01tth Cm'o/ilt(!, Vennont, West Virginia, amI Wisconsi!l.


In State less than six months-Alabama, Arkansa8, Ca/ifomia, Gcorgia, Indiana, Iowa,
Kansas, Náada,t New Hampshire, anu Oregon.


In State less tllan four months-Minncsota.
In State less than three months-Maine anel Michigan.
In eOllnty less than six months-Florida allll Tennessee.
In eOllnty less than five montIts-Ncw Jers6.lJ.
In eounty less than four months-New York.
In cOllnty less than three months-Alabama.
In cOllnty less tItan sixty days-Iowa allll Sonth Carolina. _
In eounty less than thirty day.~-Georgia, .LYorth Carolina, Ohio, and West Virginia.
In parish less than ten days-Lollisiana.
In cOllnty or district less than six lllonths-Maryland and Nevada.
In eounty 01' district less than thirty days-Califol'l1Ía.
In county, city, or town less than one yeal'-Keutucky.
In eounty, city, or town less thall sixty days-Mi88ouri.
In town or city less than six months-Rhode 18land.
In township or ward leRs than thirty days-KuI/8118.
In township or waru less than ten days-Micltigan.
In town 01' district less than six months-"}fa8.~acJ¡u8ett8.
In town less than six months-Connecticut, Nele Hampshire.
In township, incorporateu village, 01' wanIless than twenty fbys-Ohio.
In district or pl'CcÍllCt where they reside less than sixty uays-Kentlwky; less than


thirty days-New York j less than ten flays-Minncsota and Pennsylcania.


III.-ON ACCOCNT OF 'VASTL'\[G PROPERTY Ql'ALIFICATIONS, OR FOR NON-PAYMENT
OF TAxEs.


Those who, have not paiel aH taxes which may have been required of them, and
whieh thcy haye hadan opportnnity of paying ",itllin the preceding year-Georgia.


Those who llave not paid a poll-tax, as law may require-,Ycl'ada ..
Those excllsed frolJl ]Jayillg taxes at their 0"'11 re'lnest-~Yew Ham]J8ltire.
Those who have not paiel any State 01' COUllt-y tax assessed witllin two years next


preceding, unless by la", exelllptml from taxatioll-Ma8Socl/1lsctts.
Those of 22 who have not within two years paiu a COUllty tax assessed at lcast


six months before election-Delaware.
Those over 22 who have within t",o years pai(l a State or eounty tax, assessed at


least ten days before electioll-Pe1l118!}ll'ania.
'fILOse who do not own real estate in the town 01' city, worth $134 over amI above aU


illcurnbrances, &c.; aIRO, those ",ho have uot paid a registry tax ",itbill either of two
preceding years, unle8s rcmitte(1 on acconnt of absellce at sea-R/lOde Island.


Colol'ed persons, not owning freehol<ls tlurillg one year next preceding election, worth
$250 over all incllrnbrances, anu on which taxes have been assessed anu paiu-New
York.


IV.-O" ACCOl'NT OF 'VANT 01<' LITERARY QU.\LIFICATIOXS.


Those unahle to read an tll'ticle in fhe constitlltion, 01' ally section of the statutes of
the State-Connecticut.


Those unable to read the constitution in the English language, and write their
names, unlesa prevellteu by physical uisability, or over 60 years of age when tho
amendment was adopted-Ma8sacl¿¡!setts.


V.-Os ACCOUNT 01<' CHARACTER OR BEIUVIOU.


Those who do not sustain a goou moral character-Connccticut.
Those wIlo are not of a quiet amI peacefu[ behavior-Vel'mont.


-------------------------


* By judicial deci8ioD, aud not by the expl"I~SS terms of the com~titutioll.
f If previomo!ly 8 resident of the State, aman may regaiu r_eBidcnce as a voter in six months after his return.
t Six months of 'actual, not of cOllstructive, re.sitlence.




NINTH CENSUS. 93
VI.-O!> ACCOUNT OF SERVICE lli THE AR~IY OR NAVY."


No officer, soldier, or marine, in the regular army or navy of the United States, aIlowed
to vote-Missouri.


VII.-O!> ACCOUNT OF POVERTY, Imocy, OR I~SA:KITY.


Those who are insane-Alabarna, Arlmnsas, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, Uhio, Oregon, RllOde Island, and 'Yis-
eonsin.


Those who are idiotic-Alabama, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa,
Nevada, Nuw Jersey, Oh10, and Oregon.


Those "non compos mentis," or of "unsonnd mind "-Florida, Kansas, Minnesota,
Rhode Island, Sonth Carolina, Weat Virginia, mul 'Yisconsin.


Those uuder guardianship-Florida, Kansas, Maine, Massachnsetts, Minnesota, Rhode
Isla.nd, and 'Yisconsin.


TllOse who are nnder guardianship as a lnnatic, or as a person non compos mcntis-
l'lfaryland.


Those wbo are paupers-:¡;>elaware, Maine, l'lfassachusctts, New Hampshire, New Jer-
sey; Rh()(le Island, and 'Yest Virginia.


Persons snpported in an almshousc or asylnm-South Carolina.


VIII.-O!> ACCOUNT OF NOT TAKI~G CERTAIN OATHS.t


Thosc not taking the oath of freemen-Connectient and Vermont.
Those not taking oaths oi' 10~'alty and a11egiance prescribed in the oonstitntion-


Florida and Missouri.


IX.-OTH1m CLASSES DISQUALIFIED FROllf YOTL."G.


Those who have not been eitizenR ten clavs before election-New York.
Those disqualiiied as electors in Status from whence they came-Arlmnsas.


ApPENDIX B.


Con8titutional prOVi8iol18 of Stafcs ¡cith I'~ference fo a Cel/8US as the basi8 of rtprescntation i·n
Iheir lcgislatnl'c8.


AI~AnA~[A. (1E!67.)
ART. VIII, SECo 1. The house oí represcntativea aha11 consist of not more than 100


mernhers, who 8ha11 be apportioned by the general assembly among the several coun-
ties ofthe State acconling to the llllmber oi' inhabitants in them respeetively; and to
this end the general assembly aha11 canse an ennmeration oi' a11 the irihahitants oi' the
State to be made in 1875, aml every ten years thereafter, and sha11make an apPol'tion-
ment of the representatives among the several counties at the iirat regnlar 8Cssion after
each ennmeration, whieb, whcn made, sha11 not be subject to alteration until after tha
next censns shall have been t.aken: Prol'ided, That each connty aha11 be entitled to at
least one representa ti ve: A nd provided fU.I't/wr, That when two or more acljoining conn-
tiea sba11 each have a resiclnulll or fraction over and above the ratio then fixed by law,
whicb fl'actions, when adclecl together, equal or exceed that ratio, in that case thc connty
having the largcst i'raction shall be entitled to one additional representative.


ARKANSAS. (1868.)
ART. IV, SECo 8. The general assernbly Rha11 provirle by law for an ennrneration oí


the inhabitants of this State in thc year 1875, and every tentb ycar thereafter ; and the
general 3aaembly electecl after each enurneration so rnade, and also after eaeh ennmcra-
tion made by the 311thority oi' the Unit.ed States, may re-arrange the senatorial and
representative districts, according to the number of inhahitants as ascertaincd by snch
ennmeration: Provided, That there sha11 beno apportionrnent other than tbat made by
this constitution until after the ennrneration to be made in the yeal' 1875.


* In mscy oC tba St8tes the cODstltution declares thn.t no perllon shall gain a residence by reaRon of being
!l!tationed on duty, as su officer, Boldler, or marine, in tbe service of the United States. In several instancelf
tbe conrta haya decided that persoDIII do not lose their rigbt of voting when thus tltationed, ir otberwise qualified.


t The e¡ec!ion laws of sil Ihe Stato. prescribe formo of oath. to be taken where lhe rlght of a per.on lo vote
1, challenged. In the State. above mentioned I1n oatb 1, required a9 sn indispensable preliminaryal lira!
votiog.




94 NINTII CENSUS.
C.tLIFORXU. (1849.)


ART. IV, SECo 28. Tbe enumeration oí' the inlwoitrtllts of this Statc 8ha1l he taken
undel' tlle dil'ectioll of the legislature in tlw ~'CtU 18,,2 an<118G5, aIHI at the ('ud of e\'ery
ten years tbel'eaftcl'; amI these ellumerations, togetlwr with the CellSUS that Ula~' be
taken lindel' (he dil'eetion of tbe Congl'eS8 of tlltl United States, in t,110 yeal' 18;;0, awl
ev('l'Y snhsef[tleut ten yeal's, 8ha11 s()n'() as the lmsis of representatiun in both houses of
tL() legislature.


COXXECTICCT.


A:\IEXD~mXT 1828, ART. n. [He'luil'es the general asst;mhly to he hcltl in )fay, 1829
to divüle t,he State il1to llot less thall eight, nor 1lI0re tlJall 24 senatorial rlistrids. 'file
districts \\'hl'n establisherl \\'ere to l'('main until the session next follo\\'ill¡! the eOllljlle-
tion oí' the next cenallS of the United Stntr's; ,,"hi(:h :l~H"mhly lla<l powel' t,o alter tILe
llame if founü necessary. Thi8 was to ue üone nt cad1 8'1bsol[ UCllt cellSUS oí' tlw {Jlliteü
States.]


DELAW.\lm. (1831.)
[No censns is reqnil'ed in this Stn,te.]


FLOHIIH. (18G3.)
ART. XIII, SECo 1. 'fhe legislatnre shall, ill tile yen}' 1MiS, an<l !'very tenth yeal' tltere-


after, cause an enumeration to he madI' of all tlJe inltabitants oi' the Statc, anü they
aha11 then proceed to apllOl'tion the l'cl're,~cntaLion mll(lllg tlle ditl'erellt counties, giving'
to each couuty one representative at large, am] one a<llLitional to (wery 1,000registel'eu
votel's thel'ein, hut 110 cOlluty shall be entitletl to more tlHlIl four represeutatives.


GEORGIA. (18G8.)
AUT. nI. Srec. 2. [Tlle uumbel' of State seU:1tors fixcü í'or each couuty. lt fnrtller p1'o-


vides as f()llows :
"If a uew connty he estahlislwll, it ,hall he :ul<lml tu a (listriet whieIL it ¡uljuius and


from whiel! tlw larger portiou'of its territOl'y is tak(·n. 'fhe ~ellatorial rli~trids llIay 1.",
clmuged hy t11e general aBsemhly, lmt ollly at the first s,'ssion aftt'l' th(, pnhlieatiou of
ear:h censns hy tite Cnited Staks gOYerllllll'nt, an<l theil' uUllloel' sl1a11not be inncascrl"


By scetiou 3 the a]lportionmcnt of rel'ruselltati\'l'S alllong tlle sevl'rn] (!onnties is
fixed, which may be changed after each CCllsns oftho Fnited ::-itates. The cOllslitntiou
of 1798 provi<1erl for :1 ceusus ouce in se\~en years, auu tlús enstolll cuntiuned nntil t11e
re visiou of 1865.]


ILLIXOIS. (18·17-'48.)
ART. In, SECo 8. In tlHl yeal' 18S;), an<1 (wel'y tenth year thereaftl·l', an ellllmerntion of


the illbabit[Lnt,s of this i"tatc 811:111 be malle in suclt 1Il:t 11 IlCr as slmllbe (liredcr! by law ;
ami in the .real' 1850, amI cycry teuth yeal' thercafter, the eellSllS taken hy anthorHy of
the governmilllt of the United States shalL hA aclopt.,ü hy fhe general assembly:1s the
enulllcratiou of this State; amI the uumbel' (Jf s('natol's awl1'cpl'csclltatives shall, at the
first regular sessioll holdell after the 1'etúrns herdn proyidetl for are m:ulo, be :l1'po1'-
tiOllCd amoug the several conuties 01' districts to be est:tblishell by la "', aeeortling tu the
number of white iuhaoitants.


IXDlAXA. (18[;1.)
ART. IV, SECo 4. Tlle general assemoly sha11, at its secoJ1(l scssion after the adoption


of this constitntiou, aud every sixth yenr thereaJter, cmlse au euumeratiou to be marle
oí all tbe white mal e inbabitants OYel' the age of 21 years.


IOWA. (18G6, as modified in 1868.)
ART. nI. SECo 33. The general assomuly shall, in tho ~'cars 1859, 18G3, 1865, 1867,


U169, and 1875, and every 10 years thel'eafter, cause au eUllmeration to be made of all
the iuhabitauts of the Sta te.


SECo 34. The number of senatol's sllall, at tbe llext session fo11owing each period of
making snch euumeration, alld the uext session fo11owillg each Unifed States census,
be fixed by law, amI apportioncd amollg the severa] couuties accol'ding to the uUIubcr
of inhabitants in each.




NINl'II CENSUS. 95
KAKIH8. (1859.)


ART. II, SIW. 26. The legislatnre shall prol'ide íor takillg an !'mmw1'ation of the in-
llU1itlmts oí tbe State at least Olu:e in ten yeara. l'be flrst cnLLllleration sha111e takcn
A. D. 1865.


AHT. X, SECo 2. It Rlwll he the duty of the fll'st, legi~latUI'e to make an apportion-
mellt, 1asetl u]lon tite eellSUH (Jr(I<'r'>'¡ hy tlw last legislativc asselll11y of the Territory;
aud a new apportiolllllent ,hall he malle in the Y"[ll' le66, and every flve years tlle1'e-
aner, hased ul'0n tllO cenHUS of the Ill'eceding .,e:.tl'.


KEX1TCKY. (1850.)
ART. n, SECo 6. Representation shall he c'lual amI uniform in thiR commonwealth,


and shall he forever regulatefl "1](1 H"certaillell hy the nU111ber 01' qnalifkd votel's
thel'ein. Iu the yeal' l1'!:iO, aJl(1 again in the yeal' 1857, alld evel'y eighth yearthereafler,
an enumeration 01' aH the qnalitierl yot.,rR nf the State ~hall be ltlade; and 1,0 secure
uuiforrnityan<1 eqnality oI r"presentatiou, the Btate iR herehy laid of1:' into 10 tlistricts.


LOGrSuxA. (1868.)
TJTJ.E JI, AnT. XX. A censns nf Ihe State, uy Btate authority, ,hall be takcn in t,he


:v('ítr 1873, alHllwel'y tAl! years th"l'pufter. In ca~e of iníornwlity, omission, 01' error in
the ce~nRns retnrlii; t'rom auy Iml'Ísh 01' ple,·tion (1istricl" Lhe general ass!'ltl bly lllay
()nl!'r a lWW censns talcen in snch ]>a1'i8h 01' <'leetion district; but unLil the State cen-
sa" 01' 1875, tlw apportionnwnt oí' the Slatc shall be made on the uasis 01' tho census
of the United States fo1' the yenr ü'iO.


}IAL'\'E. (1820.)
ART. IV, (P.\HTI,) SECo 2. Tlw lcgisbtnre which shall tirst be COllyenecl Hneler this


cOllstitution Hhall, Oll 01' heft)l'e the 15th day ()f Angns¿, in the yea]' of our Lord 1821,
an!l tlle legislaturc withiu ever)' snlJse'J'wnt period of al, 1110st ten years and at ltlast
111'e, cause the llUlll!"'l' of the inlmbitallts oí' th" State to lJe ascertainou, exclusive of
fOl'eigners not uaturalizecl aml lndimls uot taxetl.


'l'he numbcr of represeutativcs shall, at the several periutls oí lllaking su eh ennmer-
atioll, he ÜX(,1l alHl appOl't,ionetl llItlUll¡( the s(\V(,l'al eOlUlties, as ueal' as may he, acconl-
ing to Ow nUllIber of inhabitants. ha Villg reganl to tlw rl'lative inereaae of populatiou.
TlH' nlllllhel' oí' representativos Hhall, on- said ihst appol'tiolllucllt, be 1l0t les s than one
hUlltlred no1' more thau ono humlrotl and fifty.


J\L\HYL.\.XIl. (leG7.)
ART. IU, SE{:. :~. Until the taking amI puhlishing of tlle next national eensuR, 01'


11mil the enumcratiou of the popnlatioll 01' this State, Ululer anthority thereof, the
several eonllties amI tho city oí' Baltimor!l shall haye l'epreseutatioulll the house 01'
uelegates as i,)l1¡nYH:


-* * ;.,.
[SeetiollS 4 an(l !i pl'ovirle that as SOOIl as lllay be after taking amI pu1lishing the


next natiollal CCllSUS, 01' aft"r t he ennmeratioLL of the popnlation of the State uueler the
authol'ity t11ereof, a llew apportionllumt oí' rCl'rescntation in the 110use of delegates
8ha11 1e madI'. ]


l\fAS".~CIlUSETTS. (A~mKD~mxT 1857.)
ARTS. XXI, XXII. A censns of the legal voters of each city aml town, ou tlte first


day of ~1ay, 8ha11 be taken a]l(l retul'uecl iuto the offic!' of the secretary of the COllllllon-
wealth, on 01' hefore the Jast day oí' J 11l1e, in tho yoar 1857; ana a census of the inhab-
itants uf each city ancl town in the year 11'1(;5, and of eyery tenth yea1' thereafter. In
the census aforcsaicl, a spccial enullleration ahall be madI' of the legal voters; and in
each cHy said enullleratiou shall specify tlle lltllnlJCl' uf 8nch legal voters afol'esaid
residing ill each warel oí' 8uch cit~·. The en11meratioIl aforosaid sha11 determine the
apllOrtionment of rCl'resentatÍ\'es ior the pcrioüs 1etween the taking oí' the epnsns.


l\1WHlGAX. (1850.)
ART. IV, SECo 4. The legislatnre slmn provicle by l:lw fol' an ennmeration oí the in-


habitants in thc yeal' 11-'54, and cvery ten y"ars tllereaítcl'; and at the fil'st sessioll after
"ar,1l enullleration so made, ane! also at tlw fi1'st, ~essiou after each enumeration by the
autllOrity of the Uniteü Statcs, the legislature shall re-arrange the senate e!istriets, and
apportion anew the repl'esentatives among the counties and distl'icts, according to the




96 NINTH CENSlTS.
number of white illhabitallts and civilizAd persona of Indian descent, not members of
any trihe. Each apportionmcnt and tbe division jnto representa ti ve di~tricts, hy auy
board of supervisors, ahall remain unaltered until the return of aunther enumemtion.


l'rfIN1'.'ESOTA. (1857-'58.)
ART. IV, SECo 23. The legislature shall provide hy law for an ennmeration of the in-


habitants of this State in the year 1865, and cyery tcnth year thereafter. At their
fil'st sf\qsion after each ennmeration so mado, amI also at their first seBsiou after cach
ellumeration made by tIte authority ofthe Unjted States, the legisla,ture shall haye the
power toprescribe the bouncls of cOllgressional, senatorial, and representative elistrict,s,
and to apportion anAW the senators and representatives among the several district,~,
according to the provisions of section seeond oí this artic1e.


l'rfISSISSIPPI. (lSa2.)
ART. 111, SECo 9. The legislatnre shall at their first se88ion, a11l1 at pel'iorls of not less


than every four, nor more than every six years, until the year 1845, ancl t.hereafter at
periods of not less than four, nor more than eight yeilr~, cause an enulIlcration to he
made of an the free white inhahitants of this Stato, aUlI the whole number of represent-
atives shall, at the scveral periods oí making suclI enulIlcration, he fixerl by the legis-
lature, and apportioned among the several connties, eiti('R, 01' towns entitled to sepa-
rate reprcscntation, aecol'fling to the number of free ,,-hite inhahitants in eacb, anel
shall not be less thau thirty-six, nor more than one hundrotl: PI'Ol,Wed, howevel', That
eaoh county aha1l always be entitled to at least one repmsentatiye.


CONSTITUTIOX OF 1868, ART. IV, SECo aa, The lcgislat,nre Rhall provide for the elln~
meration of the whole number of inhabitants, and of the qualifieLl electors nf the State,
once in every ten years; and the first cllumeration sha1l be orderetl at the first meet-
ing of the legislature unLler this constitution.


MISSOURI. (1865.)
ART. IV, SECo 7. Senators amlrepresentatives shan lJe chosen aecorcling to the rule


of apportionment established in this constitntion, until the ncxt decennial census taken
by the United States 8hal1 have be en madc, and the result thereof as to this State aseer-
tained, whcn the apportionment 8hall be revisefl amI adjustpel 011 the hasis of that censng.
In the year 1876, andeverytcnth yearthereafter, there sha11 he taken, nnder the authority
of this State, a censns of the inhabitants thereof; and after eVl'ry sucb census the ap-
portionment of senators and representatives may he basee! thereon, until the next snc-
ceeding llational census; after which it may be based UpUll tlle natiol1al censna, until
the next suceeeding decennial State ccnsua, amI so on from time to tillle; the enumer-
ations made by the United States and this Statc ahan he nsed, as they respccth-ely oc-
cur, as the basis of apportioIllnent.


NEDRASKA. (1867.)
ART. n, SECo 3. The legislature shan proviele hy law for an enumeration of tI1C in-


habit:mts of thc State' in t he year 1875, and at tho enel of every ten ;rears thcreafter;
and at their first session after su eh ennmemtiou, aml also after ea eh enumeration macll!
by the authority of the United States, tlle Iegislatme shallapportioll anel district anew
the members of the senate amI house of representatives, according to the numbcr of
inhabitants, exclncling Indians not taxed, aml aoldiers and officers of the Gnited States
Army and Navy.


NEVADA. (1864.)
ART. XV, SECo 13. The enumeration of the inhabitants of this State 5ha11 be taken uneler


the direction of the Iegislatnre, if cleemed necessary, in A. D.1867,A. D.1875, and every ten
years thereafter, and these enumerations. togcthcr with thA renslls that may be taken
under the direction of the Congress of the United Statcs in A. D. 1870, amI every suh-
sequent ten yeara, shall serYe as the hasis of representation in both hOllsea oí' the
legislature.


NEW HA~1PsHmE. (1792.)
[No censna expressly required. An enumeration is implied in Part n, Secs. 9, 10, by


whieh the rights of represcntation of towns are to be fixed according to the nllmbcr of
male polls of twenty-one years of age, amI upwards.]


NEW JERSEY. (1844.)
ART. VI, SIlC. 72. The population of the townships in the several eonnties of the


State and of the several wards shall be ascertained by the last prececling censna of the




NINTH CENSUS. 97
United States, until the Iegi~latnre shall providl', by law, som .. othpr mode of ascer-
taining' it. [A l:tw \Vas ¡oa:,sl·d, !lllder this anthority, }brch 24, 1855, amI a cen~us was
taken in that yeal', amI in 1t!(15, under it.]


NEW YORK. (1846.)
ART. IJI, SECo 4. An enlll1lpration of the inhabitants of the State shall be taken undel'


the directio!l oí' the legisIatnrc, in the y¡;ar 18riS, ami at thl\ end of every ten years
therp3ft,er; amI thc sairl distriets shaJl hl\ RO alteret1 by the legislatnre at thc first seRsion
after dw rcturn oí' every 8nnmeration, that ellch SClmtc district shall conbin, as nearly
as may be, :11l eqnal llumher nf inhabitant~, exchHling alienA and persons of color not
taxe(]; and shall remaiu unaIÍl'rf'ü nntil the retul'U of allother euumeration, and shall
at al! times consist of cnntiguous territory; and no county sha11 be dividetl in the
t,)rmntion oí' a'seuate district cxcept such eounty shn.ll he'eqmtably entitlclI to two 01'
more seuators.


NOnTI! CAHOLINA. (1868.)
ART. II, SECo 5. An e,nnllH'ration of tll() iuItalJitauts 8ha11 be taken 11n(1f'1' thtl directioll


of the general assembly, in the ~'eal' 1875, lInd at the elld of eyery ten years thereafter.


Omo. (18,,1.)
[Xo censns is reqnirN[ h~' the cOTlstitntioTl. lu Artidc XI, Section 1, the apportion-


mení "iR ortI"rt'tl to he lIIalle tlpOll the basis of the whole poplllation of tllf\ State, as
asrortaillell by tl10 federal CCllsns, 01' in snoh otlwr 1ll0fIe as the general assembly may
direct."]


OUEGON. (1857.)
AUT. IV, SI':C. rí. The lf'gislativü asselllbIy sIlall, in the year 1flG5, and evel'y ten years


after, eause :111 (,nUlllcratioll to be maüe oE a11 the 'wltite popnlation of the State.


[RelH'psentation i8 retlnircll to he cqualizell once in seven yenrs, llpOll !lll elllulloration
of t:lxahlc illhabitants, malle in Buch l"anUér as sltall be diredellllj' la w.-Art. 1, Seco 4;
Atlll'ndment., Art. XII, (1807,) S¡;e. 4.]


Hlwm; r~LA;-;D. (1842.)
[]ll1presfmtation in t,he hOllse oC I'epreKcntatiycs is cstablished, by Artide V, Sectioll


1,ou a givell ratio. This seetion flll'thel' provid¡;s that "t,he general assembly may,
afte1' any new cellfma tak('lI hy the :tnthol'ity of the 1Tnited States, 01' oC thc State,'
1'e<1pp01'tio11 the representatioll, by altel'ing' the rat,io."]


SOUTH CAJ:OLIXA. (1868.)
Am.'. II, SECo 4. Tho house oí' I'('prpscnbtives shan eOllsi~t (jf 124 members, to be ap-


portioned among 1,h" H¡;vpral eOllllties aceonling to the number of ildw hitants containe([
in .. aeh. An cnllllleratioll of the illhabitallts, t,1l' thi8 pnl'pose, shall hc made in 1869,
alll1 again in 1875, ana shalJ he made in tIte e01l1'SO oC cvcry tenth ;ve al' thereafter, in
snch manne1' as 8hal1 be by law tlirectcd; aud representatiyes shall he a.~signetl to the
different countie8 in tIte abovc-mentionetl proportioll, by aet. of tIte general assembly,
at the scssiou imlllcdiately succeetling eyery enUlucraÜoll.


'*" *" )(o .;;. ;c. "* '* * * *


SRC. 5. If t,he enulllcration hcrein directed ahan n()t l)e muae in the course of the year
appoiuted fol' tbe purpose, it shall bl\ 1,he Iluty of the govcrnor to have it eifected as
800U thereafter as 8hall be pmctica h1e.


TKNNEIlSEE. (18:14.)
ART. II, SECo 4. An ennmerati()Il of the qualitiea voters ana an apportionment oí the


)'f'presentatives in the gcneral assembly shall he malle in the year 1841, amI within
eyery subsequent terlll of tell years.


TEXAS. (Hl6G.)
AltT. III, SECo 28. '1'he legislatnre shall cause an ennrnemtioll to be made every ten


ye3l'S, cOll1mencing on tbe 6th day of Fcbruary, 1875, of aH the inhahitants (inclnding
,< The first Statc censu. veas taken in 1865, llIlller an ad passed on the 17th of Mareh of that year.


H.Hep.3--7




98 NINTR CENSUS.
Indiana taxed) oftbe State, deRignM,ing particularly the llnmber of qualificd clectors,
aDII the age, sex, aIle! color of un others, herein following the clasaification oi' the Unitee!
States cCllaua; alld the ",hole number oi' rCl'resentath'cs shall, at the several periods of
making 8neh emuueration, be fixed by the legislatnre, aue! apportioned among the
several cOlluties, cities,or towns, according to the nUlllher of white popnlation in each;
and shall not be less than 45 n,,1' more· than 90: P"orirlell, Tlmt there shall hc au
ennme1'ation una an apportioulllellt made in the year 1870, in the manner here indicated.


VEH~TÜNT.


AlIIENDMENT, (1850,) ART. 23. Thc lcgislature shall make a TICW apportiolllllellt 01
the seuators to the soveral connties, nfter the taking of each eClJSIlS of the United
States, or after a ceusus takcu fol' tiJe pUl'pOH() 01' 811eh apportiomnellt, uuder the
autiJority of tiJis Sta te, reganling tiJe alJove vrovi8ious of thi8 al'ticlc.*


VmGD!IA. (1864.)
ART. IV, SECo 6. It shall be the dnty of the geul'ral asseluhly, in the year 1870, and in


every 10th yeal' thereafter, to reapportion representatiou iu tiJe Sl'uate alJ(l honse of
delegates among the cities of Norf(llk amI Rirhmoml, alld tiJe several couuties, fi'OIll an
euulllcratiou of thc inhabitants of tiJe State.


CüNSTITGTION PHEI'AlmD IN 1868, AllT. V, SECo 4. At the fil'st session of the general
asseIllhly after the ennmeration of tIte inhabitants 01' the State hy the United States, a
reapportionment of senators and naemhers 01' tiJe housc of ddegate8, ¡md evel'y 10th yeal'
thel'eaftel', shall he made.


WEST VmGINIA. (1861-'63.)
[A rcapportiounacut to UC lllalle after ellch lIatiollul census. undel' Art. IV, Sees. 5, 9.]


WISCONSIN. (HWl.)
ART. IV, SECo 3. TIHl lpgislatnre shall provÍlle by law for an enumcration 01' tiJe in-


hahitauts of the 8tate, in tiJe yeal' 1855, aud ut tiJe eull of eve.l'y ten years thereafter;
ana at thei1' first session after sucil ennmel'utiou, und also arter cadl cllIuuel'ation malle
by the anthority of the United States, thol.,giHlatnre shall appol'tioll mul district aIle\\"
tiJe memhers of tiJe senat., aul1 assemhly, acconling to tlw lllllllhn of inhuhituuts, ex-
clnding Iudians not taxed, and soldiers muI officers of tho Luitel1 Sta tes army aml
navy.


CO~fP.\RATIVE STDDIARY.


Inlen'tll si.c ycm·s.


To be ordered at second session after the adoptiou 01' coustitutioll) aUlI every six yeal',
after. [11)5:3,1859, 1865.]-Indiuna.


Intr.I'¡xtl sel'en !}cal'>I.
Censns 01' taxuhle inhabitants to 11e takcn ouce in sevell yearH. in HueiJ l11anncr as tbe


law may l1ired.-PeuuRylvunia. ' .


l/ltaml dg/¡t yWl·S.


1857, and evel'y eighth ~'cR,r thcreafter.-Kcutucky.


lntcl'1:al ten yeal'8.


1841, and every tenth yE'al' thel'eafter.-Tenllessee.
1854, aud evcl'y tcntiJ year thereafter.-~Iichigan.
1855, and every tellth ycal' tiJcl'caftcr.-Illinois, Ne.w York, ana \ViSCOllSÍll.
1852, 1855, and every tt'llth yeal' tilel'eafter.-Califo1'llia.
1857, census of legal voters, :mll in 1865, and every teuth yeal' tItcl'eafter, a eeUSUH of


tllC i¡¡ha hitan ts.-Massaclnlsetts.
1865, aun every tellth yeal' tilel'eaftcr.-Kansas, Miuul'~ota aml Orpgoll.
1875, ami every tenth year thel'cafter.-Alabama, Arkans118, Florida, Louisiana, Np-


hraska, aud North Carolina.
* No CCDSUS has been ordel'ed by law llllder this u,uthol'ity.




NINTH CENSUS. 99
1.867, (if deemed necessary,) and in 1875, and every tenth yeal' thereafter.-Nevada.
1869, 1875, and every tellth yeal' thel'cafter.-South Carolina.
1870, 1875, aud cvery tenth ye'lr thereafter.-Texas.
1859, 1863, 1863, 1867, ]8(19, 1875, amI every tenth yeal' thereafter.-Iowa.
1876, amI every tentll yeal' thel'eafter.-Missouri.
Pennitted, IlUt not rcquired, to be taken in every tenth year.-Marybnd, l'íew Jersey,


and Rhode Island.
Once in ten years, the fil'st to be ol'dcred by lcgislature.-Mississippi.
At most once iu ten, and at least once in five years.-Maine.


Use of the national Cel/8118 fol' Stale repl'c8entalion.
Use only United Sta tes eensllR.-Conueeticut, Georgia, amI 'Vest Virginia.
Use also UnHed States eensns.-CalitiJrnia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, .\filJnesota, Mis-


souri, Nebraska, Nevada, and \Vis(',ollsin.
Use alBO United States censua, after lS70.-Arkansas.
Use United States CellSllS of 18iO onlv.-Louisiana.
Use Uniteu States censlls, 01' !llay HSI) a State cenHus.-Marylanu, New Jersey, Ohio,


Rhode JBland, and Vennollt.
No eensna reqnired.-Delaware anll Xew Hampsbire.


ClaS8C8 incllldcd in t/w l·cprcsc¡¡lation.


Total popnlatioll.-Alahama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiaua,
Massaehusetts, Mis.~issippi, :'>Iinnesota, Missouri, l'íevada, New Jersey, North Caroliua,
Ohio, Rhode Islaud, South Carolina, Vermollt, aud Virginia.


Total populatilm, exccptiugaliells and eolored persons lJot taxed.-New York.
Total popnlation, excBptillg rIHlialls not taxed, and soldiNs and officers in the army


amI nayy of tite United ¡.;tates.-X/)bra~ka alld \Viseollsill.
Total cpopulutioll, eXCCjltillg foreigncrs not llaturalized und Indians not taxed.-


Maine.
\VIJ.ite inhabitants.-Illinoi8, Oregoll, amI Texas.
'Vbite male inhabitants OYer t\Yellty-one yeal's of age.-lurliana.
White inlla hitallts and ei \'ilized pC'I'SOllS of Imlian deseent not belonging to any


tribe.-Mielúg-all.
Taxahle inhabitants.-Pennsylyallia.
Qualitied yotel's.-J{entucky and 'renllessee.


App¡;xnrx C.


To Ihe Onnmittce of tlw ROIEse of RCllJ'C.~ent(ltire8 011 tlw Xinth CW8118 of the united Statc .• :
GE:XTL1DiE:X: TIlC COllllllUllity Oi' natioll i~ sirnply the SUlll total o[ a11 its parts,


the aggl'cgatn life, force, and ayailnloility of all the illdivilluals that }¡¡;]ong to it. Each
lllpmbel' 01' 1)(,1'8on iH :t eOlllpollellt elclllellt oi' the whole, and contribute;; his or her
part to its totality. The part tlms contribllterl to that totality varies widely, both in
<legree aml killrl. Olle elass am llf,lplt'H8 habes, :1Il11 another are (Iecn'l)it in age. I1ot.h
of tIllOS" dasH"s cOlltübute llothillg lu the llutÍollal power 01' wealth; on the contrary,
theyare bunlens UpUIl it, m}(l the natioll has so !llllch less effediveness in consequenee
uf theil' pl'l.'Sellce.


Anothel' class inchuIes those who are lineen to twellty amI sixty to seventy yeara old.
Thcy are geuerally able, by tlll·ir earlliug'H, tu SIl}l]JOl't themselves, ¡mt can do no more;
they contribute no surphlH to tlH' COllllllOllwealth.


A thinl class belOllg to tilo working I'cril)(l, bl'tween t\"enty amI sixty. Theyare in tIte
fuU st.rength of mauhood. These do the labor of the world; tht'Y contrilmte the force,
the power, and the cifectiy,mess of tite llution. Tlley are tlle sllstaining alld tlle cOllt.rib-
nting class. Their eal'llillgs are Hut only sufficient to snl'Port tltemselves, but to sus-
tain the dependellt classes in youth alHl age, and to crea te al! the capital oi the na-
tiOll. Whatever availahle Clwrgy there is in t,l1e nat.ioa cOllles fl'oIll thelll.


There are also dift'erences in the health amI working power of the people, even of
the working age, in their rlegree of mental force, in thilir p.(lllcatioll alld intelligilnce, in
their eapacity of self-directioll, their skill, theÍl' metbolls uf employing their personal
faeulties, tlldr efficiency; aH these affect the anlOunt of their eontrilmtion to the n3,-
tion's capital and power, and make tbem !llore 01' less valllable elements of tlle COlll-
J!1oIlwealth.


There are varicties of occupatioll, aU of which are necessary for tIJe common good,
hnt whieh contribute varionsly to tIJe publie wealth.


Some are Ulftl'l'ied and aid in the preparatioll oí' the dClllents of the generation tha,t
shall come after, alld in secnring tlle permanence of the nation, keeping it. fuH aild
strong when tlley sha111eave it.


Human force, the energy and action of muscle and brain, are the SOlll'ee and founda-




100 NINTH CENSUS.
tion of all the po,yer and weaUh of the eommunity. Thcy alone create, aceumllbte,
alld administpT an 1,he property of the world; alllands, mills, ships, maehinery, hOllses,
atores allflmoney are managel1 by tlJeir agency anll are useless and worthless without it.


'J'he proflncts of human indus1,ry, the property created, the crops raised, thc goods
mallufacturea, the effects of commerce in the illcreased vallle given to graill, merchan-
dise, &c., by removillg them from places where,or challgillg thelll froIll cOllllitions in
whiel! tlley are not wantefi 01' callnot be used, to places and cOl1(litions in which they
are uecded alld can lle appropriatel1 for the benefit of man-these, whieh are all done
by the ageney of human force, bear, in each year, a very large prol'Ortiull to tlw vallle
of an the aceuIllulatel1 capital of the nation. Al! this is lllllinly, almost entirely, ac-
cOlllplished by the ¡leoplc in the sustailliug period, who are hetween twenty amI sixty
years old.


As the melllhers of this c1a~s, in the productive pedod of life, b(;8i,le eaI'ning sufli-
cient foI' their own susten::mcc and for that of thc depellllent clas~es, older antl yonngm'
than themselves, earn also a snrplns, which is added to and forms the whule capital of
tho world, and as they and they only put capital to mie anll make it profitable, the
power and wealth of the nation are not in proportion to the total nUlllber~ of the peo-
pIe, but in the proportion whifoh their ereating amI sustailliJlg clasa boara to the whole.


RELATION OF GOVERN;lIENT TO THE CENsua.


The government is the concentrated illtelligence amI will of tlHl nation, tho super-
vising agent to watch over tbe whole, to hold in ita central eye all the eompunent el-
ements, all the indiYirlual members of the bolly politic, their peraOllH! interests, and
their mean S of susteuallee amI of adding to the uatioual wealth all(l power. 'Yith
UlÍs kuo\\'ledge of the ground on whieh it sbuds, and of the meaus intrusted to it, the
governmellt extends ita arm to every part, ltn!! protects every element under its con-
trol; it lays Hs plans for the futnre and provides law for tho commou good. To fulfill
this rcspollslbility for the CommoIl\Y~alth, to ll~e the natiollal resources for the best au-
vantage of the people illdividually amI eolleetiY!~ly, it i8 neeessary f()r the government
1,0 itlmlp:e and IlleaRllre the natioll, to learn acenrately the ingrediellts tlmt cumpose it,
and understalld dl'arly th~ nUlllher, tim:e, amI v>tlue of the pcople whom it represcnts.


AH ciyilized natiolls feel the irnportauee of tltis self-analysis to determine thílir own
elelllentR, in or<1e1', as fa.!' as l'0ssible, to kuo,," tbeir alllount of vitality, thelr lLnlUuut oí
force and productive power, tite matllHlr in which that power is emplo,Ycd, their dc¡,:ree
of culture, ancl the qnantity of cOlllfort allc!llllj)pilless that i8 eujo;pod ilmollg them.
They have, titerefore, from time to time, ennlllerated their pcoplo alltl aseertained in
various degrees of miuutelless a1l(1 accuracy tille eonditioll alld character of tbe indi-
viduals.


As, in the progress of time, in the natnral la W of growtlt and decay of indiyiduals,
therc may he ehallges in the nllmbel's all" proportiollS of the several elasses, aud au ¡n-
crease or decrease of t,otality of force, it i~ neeessary th~t thes(; mflaS111'ements of the
natiuIl, the enumeration of the people, shonld be repeated at periods of l()lJger 01" shorter
duratjon, aeconling to tllE' nrgt'lIey 01' the desire of the goyernment 01' country to keep
their plans, legislatiou, ami mCllsurellleuts iu exact harlllouy with 1,he means 01' the
meaSllre of the \'ital forces nuder tbeir control.


Nations diifer in regard to thei1' perio(ls of self-enllmeration. The Unitcd States,
Great Britain, amI Ircbull, Holland, Delgium, Rwitzerland, Portugal, Sweden, and
Korway take their <lensua once in ten years. Dcnmark, Fnmce, l\tlll Austria take it
once iu .ti ve years. }!ost of the German natiolls aucl principalities OBce in thrcc ,rcars.
\Yurtemberg once in tweh'e ~'ears.


SI:llJl':CTS OF INQUIRY.


It is important to make thi8 analysis of uatious as miuute as possihlé, to lflarn, as
nearly as may he, the exact measure of aH the elements of force in each individual,
and kuow what and how mnch he has in himself, and can contribute to the snm total
of national power and wealth.


As this cannot be done as completely as a ehcl1list analyzes a compollud 8uhstltnCe,
as we cannot learn and makfl record of al] the elements that enter into the Bature and
eonditioll of indivil1uals, we must make a selection from those that are dl'simble, and
take only such as are possihle, and such as bcst represent tIte person aIld hest show his
worth to himself amI to the body poli tic.


IXTERNATIOXAL "TATISTICAL CONGRRS8.


These matters have heen suhjects of consideration at al! the meetings of tite iuter-
llational statistical congress, and at sorne of them the Ce11811S, amI the mar:ller in which




NINTH CENSUS. 101
it sllould bc taken, the extent to whieh tl18 investigatioIlS of the charaeter ana conai-
tion of the people should be earried, were promillcnt among the manifuld objects of
intereBt and discussiun.


COMI'OSITION AND CHAnACTEU OF THE CONGnESS.


The international statiatical congress is cornposed principally of men from all civilized
nations, who, at their several homes, arc members, leaders, and chiefs of their govern-
ment bnreaus of statisties, and have chargo of thc censuses, ann of thc rcgistratiun uf
births, marriag-es, ann ,leatha. Through tile appointec1 agenta in the provinces, towns,
anrl localities of their countri"s, these nHm gather the facta in respect to popnlation,
living and dead, digest them i!lto theirreports to their governmcnts, aud show the cun-
dition and progresa of thcir pcople.


Tilese men, cornpetent from erlncation and experience, have, in the eourse of their
official work, studied and obaerved the yarious plana of aseertaining and reporting tile
vital condition ana power of their countries. They haye sought out irnprovements
from their own observations at horne, an(l from the experimenta of ot11ers. All these
are brought and offered to thcsc statistical congresses. There they are first carefully
considered alld disenssed in the section especially (levoted to censns anri popnlation,
and then their eOIl"lnsions are rAporteü to tile whole congresA, where, aftcr still fllrther
discussioll, t,llCY have oecn rcjected 01" adopte,l by the whole body.


Feeling the t1ifJJcultica and the ,,'ant of a seheme as perfect and as practicable as pos-
siole, thi8 ,vas one of the earliest :m<l most ahsorhing snbjects oí consi<leration at thc
first meeting of the congresa aí Drnssda, in 1853, antl after cxamination. by the cen8US
section, the congresa recummcnt1ed the following list of topics of inqniry as to personA.
They voted t,hat the censns should comprise :


::'Same and surname.
Age.
I3irthplace.
Languag-e spoken.
Heligion.
Civil 01' conjugal con,lition.
Profession 01' oecupation.
Persons permanently or temporarily resident, and travelers.
Children f'rlueated in public or priyate schélOls.
Distribution of honses hy stories.
Gardens attaehed to the llOll~es.
Apparent ll1aladies or infirmitios.
Blind.
Deaf and dumb.
LunaticR at home amI in pnhlic or priyate asylums.
Cretins. .
'l'hese were taken np amI cOllaidere,l hy the congress at Paris, 1855; Vienna, 1857 ;


London in 1860; Berlín in 186:,; amI Florence in lH67.
The prclilllinary prograullnc of the Loudon eougress, 1860, givcs a statcmcnt of thc


exact condition of the cenans 1l10YCll1ent at that time, and what nations har! adopted
the several rACOm1l10lldations of the prnvions congress for theÍr plan and practice in
cnumemting the lleople.


From this statcmcnt the following table i8 constrncted :




SIl~ject8 uf itiqltíry as to pe/'B01I8, 'in thl~ cmmwratioT! uf Ihe ]lcople, ]lroposcd by the 11¿fernaliollal Statistical COl/gres8, at B¡'U88ClB, 1853, and adopted by ¡he
following nations, prcvioll8 to 1860,


.~
Subjects.


oi
"


g .,.¡ =E
"


¿ P'l ~ .~ " S '" ~
"


'SJJ
"
~


" S " " " "' '" '" .;j po; P'l H F. c!J


.¿
" ¿¡


o
P1


.~
'"


" ¡l:;
~


fl
" w.


g
"" " ~


!
:::



]


ª


•• ¡¡
."


~
~
~~--_.- --.---- f-' -------~.~~~ ...... ~ ... ::::: :::'.'::::: .. ~:l~f:e(~.: . ~d(a~te(~:: . ~d~f:~~. :'. ~~.~f.~e(I.::. ~d(a~ted.: . ~d~f:e<~:: . ~~~r.~~~ .. ~~.~f:~~:: . ~<1~f.~e<1:: ~<1.~f.~cd::I. ~:'~r.~~(~::
~;~;í~¡~;~:s¡,~~~~:::·:::::: :::J~ :::: :~~~i:á:: :::::~'~::: .. ::J~ :::L:::~'~::::: :::::~~.*::: :::::~~:~::: :i;l(:~Ot¿(i:: ::<'~::::: :::J~ :::r:::~~:::::
CiyiloI'(~()n.ingalümHliti()ll . ..... <10 _ .. _ .<lo ._ .. Adopted. . ... do _ ... 1 Atlopted .. Adopted .. .Adopte(L ...... do . ___ Adopted ........ do .... 1. ____ . ____ ..
~~~;~~~:(~~lt o(~l'''1~~ir~~~~\ ...... do ........ do ......... <lo... .. .. <lo ... -¡-- ... do ......... (lo ......... do ......... do ......... rlo .... ' ..... do .... 1 A(loptcd..


01' tl':t"'ielers ......... ____ ..... do .... __ .......... __ . ________ .... 110 '_"I' __ "'_~_~_~ _~~ ___ ~ __ ~_~ _____ do _~ _____ ~. ______ . _____ 110 ____ 1 ____ .110 ____ : ___________ _
~~}~~:;::;}·:i, I :':',,""'~~"L",L:, ~;"~;:",J'"~~~'~'L


blmd, deaf amI dumb, ..... do .... 1 Arloptcd. Aclopted .............. , A,'opted ............. and(lumb ...... do, ... amldumb.§I Acloptcd§ Adoptcdll
llluatwH ___ - - -- - - -.- - - - i I


I '


* Lans"uag;c illlrc1aIHl.
t Hcjllal~d a~k~ mul recorlls" yeal' of bidh, and clcdnc.pfl. Uw nge.


! Prnssw has a special eewms 01' bliml anO. dcaf and ílumb.
§ AIs? cre_~inR in Saxony find in Sweden.


11 ITmted :'Hatcs asks idiots.


Adopted,
Do_


Do.


Do.
Do.
Do.


~
O


t-.:l


z
....


Z
>-'l


iI1
O


t>:l
Z
~


rn




NINTH CENSUS. 103
The preceding list of jw¡uiries were thosc a,loptctl in 1853, and were agaiu bronght


officially and formany b,~fore the congreRR at London in 1860. 'Vith other and collat-
eral questions, they wel'e thol'oughly discus~ed in the cellSUS sectiou, and aftcrward
by the wholc congl'ess. Some snggestions and improvements arising out of tIle further
experience iu the several nations wl're proposed, aud ;joUle of them adopted.


As thus improved, thc proposi tious for the personal eensus stand thus :
"1. It iB desirable that thc census ShOllld be /¡y 'llames, and baseel upon the principIe


of the actual population; but special retllrns Rhoul(l also he ohtained to establish t.he
legal population, which shollltl incllltle the arllly, navy, rnel'ehant seamen, fish¡;rmen,
and other persous tempomrily auscnt from the eouutry at the time of the cnumera-
tion.


"2. The cenHns shoultl hA t:1ken at lca8t decennially; aud where the elllllll/érations
have takell place reg'ularly :1t qllinquennial 01' trienniall)criods, it is not dcsirablc that
the interva1s ShOllld be altercd.


"3. It i8 fOll\l(l, by experlence, that the ('llulllcmtiou of t!w poplllation on a sil/gle (lrlJl
is greatly cou,lucive to the aecuraey of tllc rctnrnR. In counh'ies wherein for :1 par-
ticn1ar rea8011 tho censns call1lOt he taken in olle Ilay, it is desirable that the agents
who have charge of the census be held l'esl'oJlsible to carry it out within a given
period, and in as short a time as possible. If a certain llumber of days be gralltcrl to
the cellSllS agellts to carry ont their instructiolls, it i8 impOl'tallt that the l'0pnlatiou
be enumcrated with reference to OHe fixeü üay, aIHI that such day he the same for the
whole country.


"4. Althongh the population in most conntrics i8 genemlly in a settled state in the
mOllth of Deeemhcr, yet, whem it m~y hA praet.i~abl" to tnlm tlHl Ilellsns in one day,
the accomplishlllent of ihat ohject. l1lust be considcred as of [laralllonnt illlportance in
determining the seasou and period of the year in which the cnnmeratiou should be
maele.


"5. There shouhl be a SC¡Hlrate schedule 01' uLLllctill, to be fiUcd up with the particu-
lars relating to each family 01' household.


"6. The spcdal agents or Cl.nnwrators chargcd with the (listrihntion al1tl collection
oftlle sehedu[cs ,,'ill.~ec tlmt tlle.\' are conectly filled Up,OI' ",ill fill them np thcm-
selves fmm the infol'lllatioll given uy the occlIpiers of honses. In on[el' to inslIre, as
far as possihle, acenracy in tlle elllllllfíration of the particulars which haye l)(;cn Ileci(le<l
upon as nec,'ssary fOl' colledioll, it is important tlmt the law under which those 1'artic-
ulal's are to he olJtained shonltllcvy a penalty n1'on su eh indiyiduals as may refllse to
fllrnish t.llClll, 01' who llla~' giy," tllPlll in a. ",ilfnlly in~orreet. manner.


"7. 1n order thai a tletillite Hlf':lllillg ltlay u,~ attached to tIlO tenu 'family,' it sllaU
bc held that the oecupil'l' 01' (he \\'1",le 01' parto 01' a hO\l~e shall he deemefl the head of
tILe family, autl tll;lt fhe tel'lll 'oecllpÍf,r' sllall he apl'[irable to (1) a resid"nt 0\\'111'1',
or (2) the pcrsoll l'ayillg rent, \\'hdher :IS a ten:mt for the ",hole of the l!OlIse, 01' (3) as
a lotlg¡;r for a11y di,tilleí lioor 01' aparLllH'nt.


"8. It is tlcRirahle that tlw snbjl'ets of illC!llirr 8honl(1 he (livid,,,1 into t,,'o clltt'gorips;
thc first to embnwe those ill(li'peu~ahle in eyery Atate; :mll tIt" secoll(l, those l'roper
to ue inclm!p'¡ in the ccn8118 of all the COlLlltrics in whic]¡ it lllay ue expedicut 01' prac-
ticaule to obtain the retumBo


"9. 'fhe foUowiug heatls of inf]uiry relntillg to jJcr&on~ ,hall uc con,idered as ;,uUs-
pensable in the census 01' eycr.v State:


"(a) Nanlfl.
"(b) Sexo (This faet, altllOngIt gÜllerall~' illllkate,l by the Christian llame, SllOUld


be expressIy stateíl, as a cllee k II ]Jou ofhc1' details. in (he retnru.)
"(e) Age (Jast birthdn~') 01' date ami )'I'ar of hirtll. Thl', govl'rnl1wntR arA illyitN!


to seek the memis of illSUl'illg as nmch as 1'0>lsible the exaetncss of tlle dcclamtiou as
to age, ami particlllarl,V to examine ir it he not pl)s~ible tn take measures in order that.
on the oecnrrenc¡; of tho CflllSUS, tlle age ue provE'fl by the l'ro([uetion of aH flxtract
from the certificate of hil'th.


" (d) Relatiou to bead of falllil.v.
"(e) Civil 01' conjugal COIHlition.
"(f) Professiou 01' occlljlation.
"( fJ) Rirthplacc. Nlllllhcr of foreigllCI'S (ltol lIUlllrali::ell) amI statcmellt of the


coulltrles to which tlwy r"spl\diyply ¡",long.
"( h) 'Vhether blind, Ol' tleaf antl rlUUlU.
"And iuformation on the followillg snhjectH, althongh not in(lispensahle iu every


State, ShOllld ue obtaine(l where expedicnt amI practicable:
"(a) Lallgnagc SpOkCll .
• i (b) l{llligioll.
" (e) Residellce, wlwther llsllal or tem]Jorar~·.
"(d) Chilllren rcceiviug instl'llct.ioll at school 01' at home.




104 NINTH CENSUS.
"(e) Persolls'¡Jfunsonm111lilld. The census of perSOllS of unsouml mina to be eOll-


finecl to those in public 01' private asylums, hospitals, aud establisLlIlcnts.
"(f) It i8 (lesirable that in all eonntries in which the oltstacles are 1l0t insnrmount-


able, thcrc shonltl be establishcd local registers of population, to be cOllstalltly kept
correctetl to the currellt date.


"10. The information to be colIected respecting 1/O1l8/!8 8hon1<1 include :
_" (a) Whether inhabit~, uninhabitetl, 01' bnil<1ing.
"(u) ,Yith l'espect to in)¡n/¡ited ¡/alises: Tlle 11lll11her of stories, dwelling-rooms, aIH]


windows; "\vhether a private honse or in part llsed as a SIlO]>, warellOnse, \York-roolll,
01' for any 01-111\1' il1(ll1strial pUl'I,o~e; and by how llJauy iamilies oecupied. Hotels,
illUS, pul,lic hOllRes, alH1 publie institlltious of cyery kind 8ho111.1 also he <listiugllislted.


"(e) ,Yith 1'espect to IIl1iu/¡abitcil ¡'ollses: ,YlIether llllillhabitcd u,v reason of thcir
recent ('OIlHtl'uction, OI' fllei1' tlilapi<lat.t'd cOlldition; all oíheI's.


"(a) Scpantte lmil<liugs uot u8eü fin' the plll'pOSf'R of hahitatioll, as ehurclles alll1
othel' placeR of worship, manufactories, mills, &c., SIWllld be lloted b,v the enumerator
in books pI'oyitle<1 foI' t he pUl'p08e.


"11. In oraer that a defillitc 1lleaning Illay hc attaehe<1 to thp, won1 "hOllSI'.," it 8hnll
be llcld to eomprise all the space bet.wl'cll tlJe extulI~ll alld part,v walls of tlJe
hllil.lin~.


"12. H sllall be consÍ<lere<1 unllecessary to inrlndf> in tlH~ tables rclnting to tmells any
1,laf:e ,,-hieh shallllot contaill, \yithill stl'idl~' 1ll'Uan lilllitA, 2,000 inllahitallts_


"13. 'Vherc, in ,Hldition to t.he retnrJlR l'datiJlg to 1'''1'.''''118 al"l IHllIses, other informa-
tiou ueccssary for the elueitlatioll of "'H'ial al,,1 C(,olloluÍ<'al 'lnestiolls cau he collectc<1
hy nwans of the special machiner,l 01' the ccnsns ",itllOut. nuy g'['cat flngllwlltntion 01'
eXjlell~e, it is desirable to utili7.e it for Hnch collnteI'al ill'luiries, a.s fal' aH lIIay be dOlW
with <111e regard to tite pal'amoullt illl]lo1'tance of obtailliug cOlllplete amI accuratc
returus of the esselltial pa.rticnlal's." (Trans. Statistical Congl'ess, Londoll, Hl60, p. 14H.)


SEXo


Th" sex was not incl11dcd iu the list of iUf(uiries by t·he congress nt Brussels, on the
sll]l]lositioll tltat the llame wonl<l <lesigllnte it. Hut nall"', are not exclnsively app1'o-
priatec1 by .either lllale 01' fcmalc. Sidlley am1 Floreuce are eOlllIllOlI to botl!. A relllarka-
hle inst31we of this is that of LordAuue Hamilton, \Vilo ",as b01'll iu thereign oi' Qllecll
AlllJe, amI by being he1' goclsoú was ea]]",] AmI<' after her, \yhich name he hflre throllgh
life. Some other llames n.l'e so llearIy alike in sOllnd :llHl SIH'llillgas t.o give great chanee
of lWÍllg misllnde1'stood when orally reported. Frallcis all<l Frnnees, 1I10st of tlle Rom:ln
WUlles gi\'ell to both SOUA all<l ,Ianghtt\l's, \yere .1i,till~lIish.,.1 only hy the te.rmillal syl-
1ablp8 n8e<1 to rlt'signate the lIlasculiul' aUll itmü"ine gelHlel' of llOllUS aml adjectiyes, as
J nlius allü Jlllilt, AlIgnstns alltl Angust<1, & e. lt had, ho\\'eyel', bcen tlle practice of
ncarly allllatious tu tlistillgllish the sex('s in thPÍl' in'luiries amI n'ports. AlId it ,,-as
fOl'mally 'Hlopted hy th .. statistical cOllgress at L01,,101l.


OPIXIOXS OF TIIE 1''l\,nSTW.\L coxwmss.


In alI the discussions by tbc congress nt tlJe se\'(~ral meetillgs, t.here was a perfed
Itarmony of opillioll as to tll('. great pnrp08e8 all(lllecessity 01' the Censns. A11 consid-
('l'e(l it as a neecssary rneaus of SllO\yill¡.r, as lI(':ll'ly as l'0ssihle, tl1<\ exaet personal C011-
dition of the }leople; their lllllOllut of vitality; their vallle of lit,,; tllei1' eapaeity fo1'
Jallor, of prodnf'tion 111111 seJf~sustellance, alj(l \\'hat p1'ogrcss has beell l1lade, amI.
wltdllcr tltere be HUy obstad" to tlle n<1Yalwcuuéllt of human Jife whkh may be Icarne,l
and o\'crcome.


In l'egnnl to the ~rí'atel' points, llame, sex, age, ciyil cOlHlitioll, andoccupation, there
\Vas a l'erfect ullanilllity. .


AII tlle topies proposed aí Brusseb aud LOlHlou \n're com;i<le1'e<l as dt'siral,le, amI
~]¡()llld be obtaitH'<l if ]lossilJlp, hut tlIl'Y "'e,r" l!Ot ull e'lllall~' Jlece~sary,. llar ef(llally
practicahle ill all coullt1'il'~. The cOlJg1'ess tht'reforn ,]jyi,]p.1 thcse i!lto two elasses,
placing in the first those ",hich were iIJ.li~pellsahlc to silo\\' the st:üe oí tlw ]lcople aIJd
eOllnÍl'y; aIJd iu tlw H('(:OIl<1, those which \yo1''' desirable to sho\\' the conditioll nud
vitaIity amI po\Yer 01' tlle pcople 11101'0 (·ompletely.


AC'lTAL AXI> I,EGAI, POPT:LATIOX.


Tilo matter was ag:dn eonsi<ler~(l nt Berlin, amI all 010 <letails, beforc nccepted, werl'
agnin brought U[J fuI' c011:;ü1eratioll amI rf'nftirllll'd, \dtlt a sillgle ('xccptillll, that of the
'luestioll whether tite actual IJl'c,'ellt ]lo]lulatioJl, all.l t.hat, only, sltonl<l 1)(1 tak"n and
ilLcluded, 01' the legal populatiolJ, those \Vito ha le legal l'eside11ee~ i11 the Ilouses am1
places examined.


The British nnd lrish system take tlle fOl'lner. Theyre'luire the falllilies to cuterinto
the filmily schedule ouly those who were there thc nigLt uefore.




NINTH CENSUS. 105
Thu8 in the English census of lSí)!: "Thc enumcrator "as to dclivcr, in the COU1'8e


nf the weck preceding the 8th of April, tn every occllpÍcr of a hou8e 01' tenemellt 01'
householde1', a schedule to be fillerlnp by or on behalf of 8nch occnpier with the fol-
lowing particulars respeeting hilIlself and family, viz: name, age, sex, mnk 01' occupa-
tion, condition as respects lIlalTiage, relntion to lwad of falllil~-, and hirthplace; lloting
also whethe1' any were bliml 01' deaf anrl dumb." (GenslIs, lH61, III, 2.)


"The schedule \Vas to be [and \Vas] fllletl up by th" oecupier with the reqllisite infor-
rnation concerning Ilve1'y person who aborle in the honse 01' apartment on tbe night of
Snnday, April 7, 1861. No mcmhers of the famil:v absent 011 that night \Vas to be en-
tt>red, except in case of personll who \Vere enagaged at thei1' lIsual labor rlnring the
llight, and also w!lo regulady retnrnerl home in tlte morlling. Pp.rSOllS tmvelillg by
railways 01' othcrwise \Yere in like Illallner to ue enlllllerated at t,he h01els 01' hou8e at
wbicl! 'they lIlight stop the followillg day." (GeIl8u8, 1861. In, ~.)


"Thp. imUlllerntOl'S were directed to make diligent inqniry, for the pnrposc of ascer-
taining tbe lllullber of persous unt in aay rlwdlillg-honse on the night of the 7th oí
April, lmt sleeping in h:.rn8, sheu8, canwalls, tellt~, &c., 01' in the open air, mlll to cnter
snoh partieulars as migltt. 1le obtaine<l respectiag tltem in :t form provided fol' the pu1'-
ll0SC." (GeI/SII8, lII, 2.)


"On ~Ion'¡ay, the r!Ut April, 11361, the ennmerators had to visit [mHI rlirl visit] cvel'y
dwellillg-hollsc in ElIglantl aurl \Val!'8 in ouler to collect tl](~ sche<lnles which they had
10ft in COllrse of tlle wenk pr,~ee<1ing. \Vhcn tite schedule \Vas already tille<l np the
eIlllmeratOl' hall to sce that tI", en tries were made in a ]lroper llH1 nll el', antl to stttisfy
billl~elf that the [Iarticulars \Yt're likdy to be torrcct. If from auy cause t.lte schedule
was not filler! np, it was his fluty to jiU it up himself frolll the verbal iuformation nf
1.1le occupier, Ol' some ntIter coltl]letent lllcmber nf the falllily. He was ,lir .. ctetl, in aH
cases, to ascertain carefnlly that 110 [11'1'1'\011 WllO ahode in the h0118e 01' lotlgillg the pre-
Yi011S night was omittecl, al1,1 that lIO lwrso]] t11en abs(\ut was illcludecl excellt those
traveling 01' out at \York during that nigltt amI whn returnccl home on the follo\Ving
llloruing'." (CI'118118, 18Gl. III, 2.)


These extracts froIn the repoI't of tIte last EIlg1i8h censns exp1ain the natu1'e and
llracticc nf the systelll of ael"",l popnlation, whkh shows only those. actually prcsent
01' absent in the night.lmt ]lmRont in the ,by, antl thosc tr:wcling. This inclnrle8 visi-
türs, temporary sojourners t'or hcalth, bw,inl'ss, 01' other pnl'[loses in ally place.


LEGAL POPCLATIOX SYSTE~l.


'fhe orhl'1' Rystem ,whidt is l'nlctil'cd llt're in the Cllited States, includes all thosc, and
olll~' ihost', wllO uelol/[/ In 01' rexidc il/ {/I/y place-that is, the legal popu1ntion. Keither of
these systems ofrer ,dI that iR tIt',ira ble.


'fhe e"llSllS iR takt:ll hut OlIte ill a long period, three, five, ten, 01' more years, au,[ the
]Icr~01l8 \\'110 are thllS CnUlllel'aterl :UH[ rf'conletl iu HUy place are preSUlllt:tl to represcllt
a }lt'TJl'allellt popnlation, alle! it is inf"He,1 tlw1. tltey 01' other8 like them haye hecn and
,,-i11 \lo tlwrt1, for moutlts I'r,,\'ioIl8 amI follcn"ing':


The actual pres('nt population system indmlcs yiútors, ,,,ho may be many, person8
presellt ¡¡Jr telllllomry l'llrposes, health, lJ11sines,~, &c:, who are no part ofthe I'Cl'lllanent
pOlmlatiou of tite tOWIl 01' ]lbl'(" aIul catlllot repl'esent its l'erlllallent life, power, (Ohar-
aeter, 01' \\'ealth. Tltese acc:i,lcmtal accessiolls to au~- place lllay h" Ytwy great, so great
as to give the tOWll :t factitions character, ,,-iüely üiflerellt from it, natural :tuü perma-
ncut oue j as nt waterillg-plac,'s, sea-beach,'s, springs, lllountaills. anrl others places of
fashiollalJle resort. ::lo ¡tiRO t)('e"8i01l8 of :t ~till m-ore fieeting llatnre, the sesúons of


,eonrts Í11 r:0l11lt1'y shirtl~, musters, t11e uccasioll of tIte peaee jubilee at Boston, festivals,
holiday s('asollS, college COllllllellCC'IlWnt w('ek. If tlw ceUBIlS ~honld fall upon any of
these, and aU tIte luclgers ",ho tllC'll \\'el'(' ia tIte tOWIl shoulcl he illelll,INI, these places
woI11([ show a large l'0pulatioll, llluhiplil· .... in some illstlt1leeS, lImnif"ld ueyond that
which 1lclongs to tILl'Ill. \Vhile thus tl1<'8(\ tr:ll\si,>ut yisitorB give a mUlllentary expan-
8iou to the pOlllllatinll amI aH exaggt1rated fullncss of lIumbers to th8 placea where they
happell to be, on the contrar)', tltey take so mally ,,,,,ay frolll the plaees ,,'here tltey
lmhitually resirle aml l'tally hdollg'; :uullH'iug C0111ltetl elsewhcrc, thoy dimillish the
apparent, thougb llOt th .. 1','a1, pO]lulatiou uf their OWll tO\\'llS; t11U8 they givü false ideas
oí' tite eItaracter amI illlpol'tance of both t}¡e platcs w Itere tlwy happeu to be fol' a few
clays 01' a wcek, aml where t,hey SpOlHI the grC'akst part of their time.


If tite censns ha,[ ouly reganl to tllO \VllOle COlllltl'y, without respect to ally of its
parts, tO\VIlS. amI States, if it wcre oIlly desirahle to 3[;Certaill the ",!tole numher of tha
people, wherevcr they might bl\, alltl'if it \\,('fe of lIO cOllseqllencc where any one 01' any
ll111ll h~\' of l;<ll'sons 8houl<l he fOl\lul alal eOllllletl, ]ll'Ovi,["d ouly that they aU are included
in tite general re~l¡]ts, t,his sy~tem 01' actual pOlmlatioll ,vo111<1 :tuswer all tite pnrposes
01' the cnullleration. Bnt be,icle asc"l'taining' the t,ot:tl llUlLlber 01' the peollle of the na-
tion, it iR "rIually importa lit to kIlO\\' their tlh,tribution iu States, connties, towns ancl
villagesj it is llecessary to know thc numbers in each oftlle localities, the cxtent and the
constit llent elelllPltts of thoi1' general :tud permlment pOlllüation.




106 NINTH CENSUS. ..


There are difficulties in either way that may he adopted. Both systems ha,e üwlts
oí excess and of deficiency. There are many who have a divided residence; theyare
partly in one place, anu partly in another, and in neither coustalltly. There are UltLlly
who spend aH their days at thlli1' places of husiness ill cities, alld a11 their llights at their
h011ses 01' lOllging 11laces in the neighhoring country. Sorne spend all the lmsiness smlr
son at thc south, sojourners only, living at hotel s, an(l tbe warrn soaso n at their homes
in the north. Sorne are moying constantly, without fixell homes, on the western ri vers,
at sea, &0. A frienu who was captain 01' a steamboat, that general1y ran frorn Louis-
ville, Kentucky, to New Orleans, was on tho 1'ive1's from the rise 01' the waters in the
autumn until their fa11 in .July, aud thell lail1 up hi8 boat for the season at Louisyille,
aud there rel/laiued hil/lself, principal1y through the wa1'm season. Yet, as he couhl
take bis choice, he claimed New O1'lean8, as his legal place of resideBce, paid his
taxes there, anll hall the privilege of voting there, and refnsetl to yote in Louisvi11e,
where he usually was at 1he time 01' tbe eleetion in Angust.


There are also mally who liye mostly nt sen, yet elnim somo place., port, 01' city, as
their home, however little they nmy be there. Many ofthem go to the same hoardiug-
hou8e when on 8hore, and perhaps leaye some oí' their property there when they go
abroad. In some of the forme1' cenSllses the marshab \Vere instructed, wllen inquir-
ing at tbese sailor hoarllillg-houses, to take aCcollnt not only 01' n11 the hoarders at
home, hut 01' al1 who usually hoarded there when on shore, hut, were then at sea. In
tbis way some houses repol'terl enormons families. As seamen are at hoJile only for
short periods in the intervals 01' their voy~tges, amI absent the largest, part 01' the time,
the memhers 01' these fmniliC8 chauged Ü'equently; aBll if the llOuse i8 COllstantly full,
and aH these t1'ansient loflgers are clain,ed as pennallcntly helOllgiBg to it, the total
Ilumhers must he very great. If u honso has accommodati'on 1'01' twellty, :tUll is al ways
fi11ed with sailors who are absent five. months and at home ollo,on an average it would
have one hU1Hlrpd 31111 tWAllty who made their home there and were, constrnetively,
llOanlers, amI, as such, returneu to the marshals, w hile the actual lllUll ber present
were ouly twenty.


A few years ago the State 01' Massachusetts amI the Unitetl States took the eellSUS in
the SUIlle year-ollo in May, the other in June. In Boston it was fouIlfl that tbere was
a differenee of seveml hund1'eds hetween the results of these two enumerations, made
within a month of each other. This difference was principally in that part of the eity
where the sailor hoanliug-houses \Vero, anLl was due to the faet that olle ellumerator
took only the seamen who were found in port, while the otllCr inclndetl an that matle
their homes in these when on shore.


Yery Illany seamen haye no fixell, 01' a douhtfill residen ce. Theyarc most of the
timc out of the country, and carry aH their goods wit,h thelll; ",hon they retllrn, tllf'Y
Jan,l wherever the vesRel, over which they llave uo eoutrol, lea ves them-BostOll, Now
York, Bultimorc, No\V Orlcaus-ulla there they rest HIl,1 make their temporary homA.
until they find auother voyage and go ahroall agaia, to return perhaps to anotlwr
plaee and thl,re make :l1lother home. Thcse have no permunellt place to wlJieh they
clillg. They pay no taxes; tlwy havo uo right ofvotillg :tnywhere; they haye no legal
residenee; yet they helong to the natifm; they are lllelllber~ 01' the bOlly l'0IHie. They
constitutr a 1)~1'Í of the national force, aud ~hOllld he incll1detl in the lltttioual enu-
mcmtion; amI if found in any place at the time (lf the cellSUS thcy would he cOllnted
there
A~IERICAKS ABROAD, FOREIGX TIU YELJ<~HS.


Besides those Americans ,,,ho are a,yay from tlwir homes, either witIlÍn their OWll 01'
in other countries, there are fo1'eigllf'r8 telllporarily here 1'01' purposfls oí' llU~illcS8 01'-
travel. By the actual population SystClll tho rOBller wouM 1l0t he cllumerutcLl, ií' the
ecnSU8 should. he taken durillg their abseuce; the lattl'r w.(luld he includetl among ou1'
own popnlation, if the peo1'le ShOllll[ he counted while they were alllollg us.


!iT.'TISTICAL COXGRESS AT BEllLIX.


This matte1' w~s discussed. again at Berlin, aml the same (liffieulties prescuted them-
selves; a11 saw the very great ea~e aIld couvenience in cOllntillg ouly the l'ersons pres-
cnt, hut were convinced of the illlportallN' of tletcl'lllillillg' the legal popnlation.


Not willing to forego eitlH'r :ulvantage, they calllO to 110 cOllcl11Sioll, huí. l·e["r1'o(l it
to the next cougress at Florellee, in 1867, ,,'lteu amI wlwre it shoul<l receive especial
attention.


STATISTIC.U. CONGllESS AT FLOREXCl<~.


At Florence, the census section, after surveyiug al1 the other points antl fiudillg them
satisfacto1'ily settled, conshleretl tlüs questilJll in aH its heaÍ'iIlgs, and the delega tes
frolll t.he various nations severa11y gave th!'i1' experiellcc amI practice at home, antl
cxp1'essed their opiniolls as to the way whieh shuuld he pursued.




NINTH CENSUS. 107
The follow\ng coneluBlonB were a\l0l'tI~\l \ll\\H\imol\\\l;:¡, both by th\\ Cml%l\B sectiol\.


and by the wh010 congress:
"1. The actual popllIation (defait) is the basis of the enumeration.
"2. It is necessary to ascertain and record the manner and dnration of residence of


each person enumerated. For this purpose, insteatl of the column healle(l 'ReMdence,
transitar!!, 8hm·t OI'pcnnancl1t,' there shoultl be headed 'Mode of 1'IJ8iclence 'ilt lite place.'


"( a.) Rorn in the towns to he answered by yes 01' 110.
"( b.) Boru in any other town.
" 'Vhat town 1
"How long resident in this town, to bo answered in days, weeks, months 01' years.
"3. As to the abscnt. The enumerator shoullllearn t,ho length of absencc, the place


ofpresent sojourn. This should be recorded at the bottom of the schedule, separateIy
from the recor(l of the persons presento Information should be obtained from the
family 01' relations of the ah8ent, as to


"Dllration of absence, in days, weeks, months 01' years .
. ' Place of his prC8ent sojourn.
"None of the abscnt should be thus registcrcd, exccpt the lleads ofthe family.
"Their wives
"Their children, who have not established homes 01' familles eIsewhere.
"ür relatiolls who yet IICloug to the llOuseholü 01' falllily.
"4, Tho censns shouId he takell at the time whell the slIlallest number of people are


awa,y from home-that is, at tho cm1 of the year.
"5. TIlore should be in the schedule a, colunlll in whieh the degree of bIood relation-


8hip between the father and.rnother lIlay be entered.
"6. Thore shouId be another coIullln for the record of the found1ings."-(Rep. Stut.


Cong., :Florcnce, 1867,470.) _
These are the final resolntions oí' the CongresA in resppct to the personal inquiries in


tho, cenSUR. Those whieh refer to the aetnal 3nd legal poplllation are in harmouywith
the practice of a largo part of the nations, whose üelegates reportea Umt they not
only enumerated the population actua11y prescnt, and so made the record, lmt also
made such inqnirif's as to the abstmt, and snch othf'r inqniries concerning the present,
as to enable thclll to determine thc legal population.


PRACTICE OF YAIUOUS COLNTRIES.


1 have now llerA the latest c¡;n811S of twentv-RtWpn difl:'tlrent Stat<)s amlnations show-
ing how far tltey have hecIl ahle to adopt ·the sllggest.ions of the congress. 1 llave
analyzed thCSl', aml copied a11 the personal inquiries made hy any amI 0111 of tlHJIll, and
designatel1 sllch as each of tite severa1 Stntt'R anrr natiollS ul10pted aud llacd in the
enllmeration of their llf'op1e !1lH1 pulJlishetl in their census re]JOrts. \Vith these facts,
1 llave eonstruetcll thefo11owillg tablo, which shows at a glance the poiuta of inquiry
as to personal contlitioll whicll eacl! cOllntry has made :




Subjecl8 of 'in'1uiry a8 lo pm'sons, in IXinntric8 and 8üttes, malU! at t7Wil' enu/ltel'ation8 and pl.tbli8lterl irl tlteir C61l8U8 '·cport8.


I '" .;1 1..; I . ~ ~ ~
":;:! ~ CJ ::l •


h '1 I ~ 1 ¿ " t ¿ 1 '" ~ ..; S . ~ 'ª ~ ,¿ . fA ], ~ ~ . ,g l:'l ~. ~ .;S S "?Z ~ ~ :: ~ -: ~ ~ S ~ ~ . ~ :f ~ § 'g ~ ~ ~ ~ .g ~ ~ ~ o ª ~ § I ~ ~8 ~ I ~ 1 ~ ~ I ~v E ~ ~. '@ ~ ~( ~ ~ ;g ~ ~ ~ § ~ § ~_l.-~~I~_ Jj _ --'=-- -=-I-==--_~_=..J~I~_I~~~ ,Z' ~ _~_~~-==-~~I~_~I-=:_~
1865, 1066,1 1863. l~GO.! 1>'64. 1>'64 1864. 1864,11BG4. 1862. 1864. 185u.ll~"6.1]186LI1860. 1861. 1860,llilG4. 1"61.11861. 1861. 1e6J,11865. 1863,11863, ,1801,11861. •


1 I N,un~,-__ -= -1- --1-~~ --1-1---;- -1-~~ -1-'~~ --1- --1- --1- --1- --1- -.. -. ---;- --1- --1- --1- --1- ---;- --1-1-1-'-1- --1- --1- --1- 1
2 '" .. __ ' __ .. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2


3 Age __ -- -- ______ -- .. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
4 1,d,lIiou to farnily. ... ______ , __ , __ 1 1 1 1 4


5
ti


7
B


!I
10


11
12


13
14


15
Hi


17
18


ID
20


BirthjllaeB .. _ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Ahsl'ut 1 ,,__ __ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6


Oeenpation ,. , ... ' 1 1 __ --, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 7
Ci di eOlluitiOlL __ , 1 .. __ . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8


Sick 01' illtirUL. - - - _ . _.. . _ ... 1. 1 1 9
J\liud --,--,------, ,.--. '1' 1 I 1 1 10 D,'nl' and dnmo __ , I 1 1 1 I 1 11


Insano __ .......... _ 1 1 1 12
T,li,,! ", ".. ,.1 1 1 n


t~~I~~:~.~.:::::::::::: ,::::: 1::::' i::::' ,-- -- -- --, -- i --~ -- -- 'i ~~
l<'orl·ignúl'A. _. o ••••• ,1 •• 0.. 1 1 1 1 17


P:ll'(lllta.!!;e ___ . ____ .!, ___ ..... 1......- ____ o "_'. ••••• 1 18
Condd,H.......... I 1 19


};(llleatioll _. _. ..... 1 1 1 20
21 Tu sehoo!. ______ , .. , ,¡--, 1 ~ '1" 1 21 ~i ~;!ifl~~L~·~~¡;~¡: __ .. ' :, .. :, ..... ".. " , 1 ..... f~:; .... , J,::::: ::::, .~~~: ;~~ __ :::: . __ l. ~1
26 ' Votprs ... -- ....... '1--'" .. .., '... .. ..... '-- .. , ¡ .... , .] .. --. 1 1 1 26


211 v(.)terSllfitnralized_ ... " .... ... . .... 11 • ••• ••••• ••••• .- '--.. • ••• _- "0" 1 . 1 __ "'127
28 Pamily ___ .. ' __ __ __ 1 , .... ____ , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 i.. ... 28
~~ n~::~~"st;;l:¡~~:-::::I .. ~ .... _ .. ,.~, .. .. ....... ~ .. ,~. [,1, __ 1 i i,,~~, i 1 1, __ ~.. ..... 'i ~g
~~ ~~::~~:,'g~r'l~~::::,::::: ":'1:::" ':. :':'1--:: l'::' :,::::::::: ... _ .. --, .. -" .......... ::::'1::::: i , ........... ' "'1 .. 1 ~~ ~a I,A~y~:~,a~'h~aVYSCr' ____ ~_~, 1' .... _ ..... ' .. , 1 .. _ .. : .... 1.. . ..... ' --_.. .._ .. ] ......... ,! .. _ .. I .. , 1 1 .. · ... J3~


)-L
O


00


z
>-<


Z
>-3
~


e
M


Z
U2


L1 ¡n




NINTH CENSUS. 109
Ikside theso inqniries sorne others havi~ heen made by some uations.
As to persons presenf" whef,her they \Vere transient, as visitors 01' accidental so.iourn-


OTS, 01' constantrnembcl's ofthe hORsellOld all(l resideuts in the towu. AIso as to the ab-
sení, whether away for a day, 01' weok, &c., or lllnger period, as visiting 01' on tempo-
rarv business, 01' traveling für health or otItar purposcs, 01' at sea.


As to housos, sorno ask wlwther inhahited or ernpty; and if tho last, whether by rea-
son ofunfinished state, 01' decay. Some obtaiu tlHlnnmber ofroorns, SOlle ofwindows,
80me whether tlw honse is partly nsed iúr dwcUiug aud IHLrtly for store, shop, officc,or
other pUl'poses; whether iuhabitea hy more than oue family, aud how many.


Especial note i8 made as to such as are usea for lurgel' pnrposes than onlinary tlwel-
lingA, as taverns, hot,els, boarcling-houses, and aU instltutious use!! as dwelling 01' lodg-
ing plaees, hospital s, asylUllls, eolleges, prisons, &c.


All of these were recommellded by the statistkal congress at Berlín.
Senral states malle the inqniry as to IlUlUber of convicts.
Looking at the table of iuq uiry, it is seen that every natioll inquires the sex, amI :tU


hnt IinAsia inquire tbe age.* _
NearlyaU took note of tIte name, birthplace, eivil conclition, oecnpation, families,


h0118e8, religioll, and the number oftItc blintl, antl d.,aLll](l dumh. 'rhesc clen'u elements
seem to he admütfld by all 01' lIearly aU natious to be ueeessarily included in the rcpre-
sent.atioll oí human life and eomlition.


111 rcspect to age, which wonId se cm to be clear in !wery one's mind, but which is íar
otherwise in mauy cases, several natiolls reqnire the statemflnt of the birth 01' ye.ar,
amI more than this, they rcquire a eopy of the town, municilJal 01' parish, 01'· family
rct,ord of the {act. In some conntries the la w r!'qnirfls every person to be tlms reeol'ded
as to biH or her hirth, amI ,,·!ten he 01' shc rt'llloves to mlOther town, he or she Ulllst
ohtaill a copy of this record, amI h¡tve it entered on the municipal hooks of the new
placo of resiüence, anel thns there i8 ever present pl'oof of his 01' ber birth .


. Com;c'lnently, we find in tllfl c,msuses of sorne nations, as thosl\ of Prussia, Holland,
Bavaria, &c., iu the general tahle oí pOlmbüioll, hy ages, a coluum oí yeal' of hi1'th,
begiullillg with tht· year next prt'ceedillg' tlw date of the enumeration anc1 going ]¡ack
to ·the year ill ",hich tIlO oltlest livillg per:;on was horu. In Holland, at the censns
taken in [)t,cemher, l8G0, thpl'e ·\Yere 48,109 femal"s ho1'n in that year aud theu living,
oi' COIll'SC uIHler one yeal' oltl, al,,1 :m;oüo hora in 1858, and thns over one year ohl, ¡tlld
so fuI' ('very year lmckwanl to 17(JO, when thrce, then surviYing, werA h01'11, and of
conrRe UU years of uge.


In the eeltSUH of l'rnssin, taken 3r1 Decembcr, IS54, thertl is a record of 576,702 1,hen
li"in)!; who \Vere llOl'n in tlmt year, alltl were llllrl?r one yeal'. 'rhe re~ord is mOlde also
oí thOR'~ horn in each ~"ear baekwltnl to 1764, \\'hen 10H of thc survivors were horno


The tel'm "aliBent" in the tables of ceusns rc1crs to tIlOse who, withont giving up their
h0ll1e8, \Vere aWlty, either ",itILin tl1<:ir ""'n or in otber COUUtl'ÍflS ; but, in some oí the
eensnses, account is taken a11(l record mmle oí all tlw nativcs of the country who \Vere
abrolltl without heillg )taturalizerl in tlie strangc laml.


In the primar;\' illt¡niries, thc aUSWt,r to thc qnestion of lJirthplace inclndes those
horn ill otiler COIlIltri('s, as \Vdl as nMi ves oí the land, thongh of other tOWllS, alle!
thus th,' unmber of aU tlw foreigllers an<l iUll1ligrauts was ascertained.


Althongh tlle natiolls are so ueurly ull:tnilllons in reganl to the importanee of infor-
matioll llpOll these eleven poinj.s, yet in rcganl to t,lle others they dUJer. They severaUy
select such aH seClll uecessary f,o n~prt,st,"t tlll'ir peo]Jle aeeonlillg to their own ideas.
Yet sex allCI age ¡tre the oul.'" [loiuts whieh fl\""ry Ilatiou illquired into; a.n(1 oí' the
thirt~'-eight 01' more ot,hers, llone recei\"ed )llliv('r"al attentioll. Ireland 8eemB to llave
been the rno"t inql1iHitive; Franee, Ital,)', and the Uuited States came next in the order
of rninuteness of illvcstigation .•


INQUIHIES OF TH~ CESS¡¡S 01' THE UNITED STATES.


The question now presents itself whethcr we shall, in the next ceU8U8 of t.he Unitell
States, Illake aU thesfl ill(jlliries, whieh have beeu made by an~' and all other nations ;
and if not, what. shaU be askell 1,0 obtain that informatiou which will best Hho\\' the
liíe, condition, ami progress of thc people of this nation.


In concurrence with nearly a11 the civilized worl(l, aUll with onr OWIl past cxperience,
we shonlfllearll the ten íacts oí' uume, sex, age, hil'thplace, ('ivil ('ondition,occupation,
whether del1í and durnh, or bliml, the numbcr oí families amI houses, which are gen-
erally asked.


As the inquiries are all to be made in regaffl to each persoH individua.Uy, t.he name
is the first essential, fixing IlpOll amI retaining' Itia or her identity through tho wllolo
of the subsequent examination. Sex, age, ami color are the lirst, and most obvious
poiuta tllat distinguish humanity, alld the onl~' qn:llit.ies that uatllraUy and inseparahly


* Hpre Iet, me say that this is not an analysis of the Rm,u~iHn census, which 1 have, huí. am lmablf"; to
read or eYt'll understalld the tables, but thm;e thn'c faets here quoted are taken froro the l'eport WhlCh
~L Semenoy, t.he Rnssian delcgatc l made to the atatistical congrt'ss at Florcnce.




110 NINTH CENSUS.
belong to aU. AH the others are artiftcial, yet ncccssarily conncctcfl with any completo
invesfigation of population and of hUlllau progress, and fe\\' 01' none of them should be
omitted.


To tbese shou1d be added as lllany other questions as can be asked and reliably
. answered, withont so enellmhAring the enumerator or (listurbing the informant as to
peril. tIte aecuntcy amI vaIne of the wholc. Color here bclongs tU' Mw neccssary ca.te-
gory nf inqniry.


Chihlren in SdlOOls, anO. \VIH;ther ahle to re:Hl amI write, are indications of tlle gen-
eral adyancelllcut of popnIation, and tlle prosl'"ct of tlw future.


HE.\LTH INQtJIHY.


Tlle lastpersonal inquiry relates to tlle mental amI physieal health oftlie individual.
In determining tlle power of any peopl .. , tlwir ca'¡lacHy of labor aI,,1 production, their
ability to cOlltrilmte to the power aud wcalth of thc wholc, ¡tlld the vallle of ICach to
tho body poli tic, it is 1l0t sufticient merely to count them and ascertain their scx ana
age; they (Iilfe!' wiae.ly in tlleir pp,rsonal force-one is weak a.])(\ cOlltrihutes notbin~
even fo1' bis O\Yll support, stillless for tho support of othcrs; another is strong, nnd
not olll~' creaÜ's ~llfficiellt ft)l' his own and his f(nllil~"s sURtenal1Ce, hnt also a surplns to
increase hia own ami the national eapital. Estimnting, th(m, the power of any natioll
by counting the indivitluals, is Jike clllleavorill~ to t1etennille the general wp,aH.h hy
couuting tlw estates. In hoth cases tllese must he llleasnred, examillcd, aIld allalyzed,
iu order~to learn how mnch each i8 wort,h, ane! how mneh tlach contributes to the gen-
eral ,,'hole.


For this pur1'ose, then, tho inqniry shonld be made, wllether he 01' she is in the full-
UPss of nwnhoor1, womanhood, 01' childhood; whether he 01' Hhe is in tlle tmjoyment of
tIte aYera~e 01' nsnullu'alth aml st1'en~th of une of his 01' her age, 01' hUH ally Sieklle.SS
01' infirlllity that dilllinishes his 01' her l'0Wé1' to do 01' nceo)llplislt as llluch as others of
his oI' her age.


If tbe per~on iB in gooc! hea1th a]](1 strellgth, alHl has no üisahilit,\' 01' (Jiscase, tllC
record may he made agninst his ll[\1ne si)))ply by a mark, to sllow that the 'lnestion has
beell asked anll llnswered. TInt if the :luswer iR iu the ncgatiye, tben the fnrther (1'1eS-
tion wiU foHo\V, '''hat is the disalJilit~, 01' infirmit.y V Ir the ans\YC'r be fey"r, COllSlIIllp-
tion, erysipela8, brokelJ leg, loss of arlll, bIÍl)(I, deuf aurl ,111mb, itlRane, idints, &e .• the
reeord wiU be so maüe. TIte whole "UUI of these auswers, when fillally digest!',l, wil!
show the amount aml kind of disability that exigts in the whole country amI in eaeh
of its parts, amI what diseases ami physieal or mental illlpairnwnts are tl",n presl'nt.


Frnm this can he c1ete1'minec1 tbe allloullt nf 10s8 of hlllllau foree tlw nation suft".rs,
und wbat diseoullt lIlust he made frolll the lll'csumptiyc i,)rce, apparent fmm tIte total
numhers, in 01'(1('.1' to 1'each the nH'asnre of actual anrl :tyail:tble f'lrce that Iwlongs to it.


This wa~ tried in Hu; ceJl~u~ of Irelaud ÍJI 1861, [[",1 \l'ith goocl Sllccess. The yohulle
on tbe status uf disease sbows the n1l1Ollllt of sidnle~s, infirmity, and disalJility.oí'
every 801't tlmt existerl at that tillJe iu 11'..1:1])(1.


Portugal alla Australia also made (he salllC ÍJl'luiry. In their CCllSUS rcports llot.!ling
is said of auy more objcction to tltese qllestiollS, 01' of (llly rlinieulty in obtainin~
1'1'01'''1' auswers, than in reganl to otilo' inquiries.


111 the last thrce cnulllerafions oí' the UuiteLl States, aml tbose of ~ew York alld
~Iassuehusetts, the in quiries were made as to the insllne amI idiots. Eight EurOpea!l
nations asketl fol' the insltlle, and six fol' the ilIiots, a])(1 all reportell tbem. TI)!>", arp
aIIlollg tlw diseases amI dis!thilitieN concerning which üuuilies amI fricllds are tlw JIlost
sensitive, which t011eh their personal 01' fal1lil~' pri(le ))IOre tkm others, a",l which they
are most uu wi!liug to speak of beyowl their O\YII ('ireles. Yet 110 cOJllplaiut is lIear;!
fmm üUllilies of tlw illlJll'oper int,eI'ü,rcI:cc \dtIl tlwir private a1l'air,;, nor i'rolll (he lllllr-
shals of especial <1itliculty in obtainin~ this inforlllaticlll. No ,Iouht there \Vas conceal-
ment of these fads in mal1y cases, amI thc reports are far Ú'OIll ueing' cOlllplete. Yet
thc failure was llOt sufficient to induce our 01' auy other ~ove1'ument~to giye UI' these
inqniries in snhsNlnent cenSllses. In r"gard to tli"sc ami other common (wils att,,,,,l-
aut on human Jife, the pcople are ¡'(c!lerally (,ollliug to consi,ler thClll as parts of the


, coudition of their being, as matters oí' whieh they may speak as freely fur help or
sympathyas they,yould of conslllllptinll Ol' no lost limb. The people 3m more (1llr1
more ",i!ling to ten of these matters, llna tbe reporta in regard to tItem are Illore full
and make nearcr approaeh to tlle prohabl .. trnth.


It wiU be the aame with thA more extm)(!t'!l ,lIlcl complete inqniry as rf'ga1'ds bodily
ailuwnts. TIIC rel'o1't of uJan,\' an!l-e.vel\ mosí. oi' these human ills ,vi!l he as fu!l, oI' as
llearly fu!l, as 01' any other snhject of inquiry; fe ver, consulllptioll, plleuIllonia" hrokeu
limhs, \ViII be titit.hfnlly 1'f'tlll'IlEr!, but SOBl<' other, as ages,. hirt.hl'lac,·, 01' o(,eupation,
ailments less agreeahle to ]>crsonal pricle 01' rldicac.v, \Vil! faH sl!ort of tilO truth. Yet
tbe whole will IJe a valuable aid in tlle estimate of public health ancl í"rce, aucl each
suecessive enumer:tf,ion willmake nearer au,luearer approacll to cOlllpletenPRR.


This matter was reported amI u1'ged at the statistical cOllgress at Loudon. 'fhe report
\Vas too late for actioll at tbat sessioll, but \Vas l'rinted at Jength in tha trausactiolls.
The ~ubjeet iB gradually coming into favor, anO. natioIls are extentlillg the illqni1'y




NINTH CENSUS. 111
beyolld the original Cluc~tions of blindness ann rleaf-mutes, to "insanity," "idiotcy,"
"goiter," "cretinislll," anfl "othel' [j1'il¡;e disea8e8." The last ítem is very elastic, a]](I
eOlllprehell(1.~ as 1lI1lch as tlle cnurnerator lms coumge to ask foI' a]](I tlle informant is
willing to give.


,Ve have Httle conception of the amount of sickness constantly prevailing in any
cOlllmullity, however llealtllY, :uHl the extellt of the 10s8 01' national force on that
account.


There are in G1'eat R1'itain a$soriations called benefit socÍeties. Thcv are mutual
health insnrance associations. Each memhe1' pays a certain small suin weekly,01'
lllonthly, on condition of receiving certain SUIlIS weekly, when sick 01' disabled.


A mgiste1' is kf\pt of an th" slckness and inahility to labor, mal of the ages of the
persons ,vho c1aÍln, on tllis groulll1, amI 1'eCeiYB the hounty. These socicties have heen
in operation m!llly years, and they embrace many lllludl'ed thonsand memuers. Their
experipllce is therefore a gootl means of (letermining the average liauility oí tlw peo-
pIe to sickness and impairmellt, to losB of proLlnctive forc!' in eacll period of life.


Sorne time ago the British governlllent gatherel1 all tlle recoI'(ls of these soeieti~s,
amI ¡mt them iD the hands of MI'. Alexallller G. Finlaison, one of the most ltccolllplished
actllaries of the king<10111. He calculatcd tlle exact aYe1'uO'e nnmhel' of days of sick-
ness wllÍeh persons of eaeh sex and eaeh age snffe1'ed, and tlwir IOBs of time in conse-
qucllce in each year, al,,} also tlle average p1'oportion per thonsand of tlle Sllllle who
were cOllstalltly sick 01' disabled.


From the C'xperienee of OHr health insumnce eompanies, it is probable that we have,
at lcast, as IIluch sickness in tllis conuf,r'y as thfl people of Great Bl'itain.


Appl,ring tiloso proportiolls to tilo Uuited States we can approxilllate the probable
nnl1lher alld proportioll oi' our own people, wllo are couskllltly sick and eOl1stantly
"withdmwn froIll productive lahor.


1 have llOt Hw time now to make thoso caleulatio11s, hut 1 made them several years
ago, fol' J\lassachusetts, when its population nUlllbered about 950,000.


Tilo rl'snlt of tlw caleulatioll sllOwed tllnt, at tlmt time in this State, 01' the 1'01'80115
at the ages (Jf-
15 to 20, theI'e were coustalltly sick ............... _ ....... _ .. ____ ... ___ .... _ . _ .... __ .
211 to 30, tho1'e were constan n.y Hide _. ___ .. ____ ... ___ .... __ ... ___ .. _____ . ____ .
;l() to 40, there were cOllstantly sic k .... __ .... _ . _ .... _ . __ ... _ . _ ... __ . _ .. ____ . __ . _
40 to 50, tll"1'e were cOllstalltly siek ....... __ .. ___ .... ____ . _. __ . ___ ... __ . ____ .
50 to 60, thcre werc cOllstautly sick. _. __ .. '... _ .... _ ... ____ ... ____ .. __ .... ___ _
(JO to 70, tllere were constantly sick. ___ o •• __ ..... _ ..... __ .... _ .. ___ ... ___ • ___ •


1,188
3,029
2 tll6
2; 20:3
2,262
2,933


14,421


AmI in the working pcriod, Ir) to 70, there were 14,421 constant1y sick and unahle to
lahor.


'Vithont doulJt, the loss of timo fI'olll thi" cause in pI'OjlOrtioll to the population of
:\1assaehl1"etts i8 as gl'eat now a.~ it \Vas tllen, and as great in tlle other States a~ in this.


So great an illtel'est a11(1 RO great, ¡, loss of pl'odnctive force is wol'thy of considera-
tioll amI oC inquil'Y thn.lugll the ceusu~.


METIlOD OF IXQT.:IItY.
In al! the fonner CellSU8f'R of tJw Uuited t-ltates, amI i11 th08e of the individual Statcs,


the inquil'Y "as maüe hy the lluu'8hals, WllO cilni"ü a se!tedule on sheets diyjdetl into
colullms, Oll" Lin' ('ueh topic of illl"estigatinll, all<1 O/H' ¡()I' the II[Llll(~H of e¡¡dl lWI'SOll.
The sheet.s fol' l'0l'ulatiou had pages with forty lines on each, alld SOllle fol' oue hUlL(ll'ell
and sixty n:llll~R, 011 t-he whole Rh~et. \Yith these t,he m:tl'shals WC1lt frolll house to
hon8e, asking eac!t questiou coueerning each iudividual alltl makiugthe 1'eeorcl himself.
The families were nnlllhcl'ed in the onler oi' visitation alld were placed suceesúyely on
the sarne sheet., nntil it ,vas fille(] a11cl tlwn anothcr was taken anclnse.(l in the same way.


This was fOl'lllerly t.Ite CllStOlll in all Europe, but it iB now gcnerally ahanclonetl and
the family schedule adopted. In tbis tbe vertical COIUlllllS are arrallged amI headed in
the same way, hut thiR lúrm is ollly large cllough for olle family.


The next following is one of the sdwdulcs u~ed in Englaud in 1861 :
GEC>;lmAL IC>;~TI¡UCTION.


Tllis papel' 18 to be filled np by the occnpiel' 01' pel'ROn in charge of thc Llwelling.
If t11e llOllse is let or 811h-l('t to ditt'cl'ellt familillR 01' lorlgcl'S, eaeh occupier 01' ludger
must make a return fol' his portion of tllc houRe upon a separatc papel'. (See examples
of thc 1ll0cIe of filling np the retul'll.)
IX~TRUCTIUC>;8 ~'OR FILLING ur "fIlE COLl'~IX IlEADED "RAXK, rROFI<~S8ION, OR OCCl'-


rATIOX."


The superior titles of peers, aml other persons of rank, to be inserted, as well as any




112 NINTH CENSUS.
high offiee ",hieh tlwy may h'ol!1. Magistrates, a1<lermen, aurI other import:wt Pllh1ic
ofijeel'~, to ~tutc their I'rofcssiull uf'tm: the¡r offioial titlc.


Armyami 2\'nl'y.-Add, after the r:mk, "Army," "Artillery," "Royal Xavy," "Royal
Engilleel'~," (, Marines," "East India ~eJ'Yiee," as tIte case !llay he. Officers OH "halí~
pay," 01' "rdired," to he so descl'ihed. Chclsea, GrecllwicL, and other 1'ensione1's, to
he so designat~d.


rorsons ia the ('ivil 8tTvicc to stato the de¡mrtlllellt to whieh they aro utülfJhe<1, after
their rank; those on the superannation list to be so distinguished.


CIr.1'gymm of t,]¡e chnrch of Ellgland to retnrn themselves :lS "Rector of ---,"
"Viear uf ---," "Cnrate of ---," &c., or "without cure of souls." They are
requested 1l0t to em}lloy tlw indefinite tel'Dl "Cll'rk." Roman Catholic priests, a11<1
ministers of foreign churches, to returIl thelIlselvcB :LB such, and to st:tte t.l1C llame oí
the ehurch 01' chape! in whieh they ofliciate. Disst'llting millistprs to returll themselyps
as "Illdependent mini,ter, oí --- Chapel," "\Vcsll;yan minister, of --- Chapel,"
&c. Local 01' o('cas~onal preachers must return their onlillul'y occnpatiolls; Lllt may
add "Local :MethoclIst preacher," &c.


Legal ]Jrojessioll.-Barristers to state whether 01' not in Hctnal prnctice; officers of
any court, &c., to ~tate the descl'iptiun I)f oftiec mlll nmne of court. Thc designatiol1
"Attoruey" 01' "Solicitor" to be confined to those whose names are actually lll)()n the
roll. Clerks in solieitol's' oftices should state whether solicitol"s managing, artieled, 01'
general clerk.


MemLers of the rnediealp1'ofession to state the nniversity, college, 01' hall, of which
they are graduates, f¡'1l0\V8, 01' licentiates; also wlll'tlwl' tlll'y praeticf\:ls ph~'skian,
surgeon, dcntist, oculist, gCllerall'l'aetitiollCI', &c., 01' 1ll'C "lllJt l'raetieillg."


PI'OfCS801'8, teaChCl'8, pub/ie Il'l'itc1'8, anthors, amI seim¡(,ifie IllPll-to sta,te tI,,; p:lrticnJa,r
bralll'll of scienee 01' lit"ratll1'e which th!'y teaeh Ol' pUl'slIe; artists, the :tl't whkll they
cuIti vate. Gradnates sho1l1d entcl' thei1' dcgrcl's in this COIUlllU.


Pf1'801!8 ellf}agerlin commacc, as nlPrChallts, hl'okers, :lgellts, commercial travelers, to
state in all cases the particnl,n: kiu(l of hllsilless iu ",hieh thcy are eugagetl, 01' the
sta]lle in whieh they chicfly tlenl. Ml'lllLcrs of tlle stock exchange, East Illc1ia mer-
c!lauts, &c., may be so desc1'ibed.


Commacia[ cle/'k-ah,ays ar/el in what hrandl of lmsiness. [Non:.-Clcrks in the
civil servicc, antl solititol's' oflic('s, SllOultl be distillgnishecl as ahoye di1'eded. ]


The term fa/'JI!c1' to be applied ollly to the oecnpi"r of Jan(l. Example:" Farrncl' uf
:317 anes, C1tlploying tllal101'el's amI :{ h()~'s;" tlle adual lIUlllbcr uf :tcres, anrl of nll'n
:lIlcl hOJ'H l'mplo~'('(l ou the fal'UL OH A]lril 8th, heing in all eases iusl'l'ted. DOIlS or
danghtel's elllployed at home, 01' on the fal'lll, ma~' he l'etllrlle(1 "Farlller'~ 80U,"
"Fal'llwr's danghter." Fann 8C¡·t'({lItR sll\l'pillg in t1w farlller'H huuso rnust Lo dcscribed
in his sche(lnle as "Carter," "Dair~'lllaid," &c., as the ea se 11my he.


An ollt-doo1' labore)', workillg' on a farlll, lllllst be (lescrihed as "Agriculturallahore¡',"
"Shephel'll," &c., llB the (,·:lS(j may be.


In tl'adC8, 'IIWII/(!'twtllrf8, 01' other 1l1LSiucss, the clllployPI' lllllst, in all cases, he (1istiu-
gnishec1; exalllple: "Carpentt'I'-:\lastl'r, employjng (j lLLen aml 2 hoys;" ilJsertillg
always the llUl1l/¡er of }l"r80ns oí' t,lle trac1e in his elll]Jloy, jf un)', OH April t!th. [1\ the
case of firms, the lLllluhcr of persons cllIployell ,houl(l 11" l'r-tm'Jl(ld hy Olle ]Jartno!' only.


In the case of lI'ol'kel's in minc~, 01' manllfactUI'C8, allll geLLenllly in the aris, the partic-
ular bmnch of wOl'k, [111(1 tite material, aro al\\'a,\'8 to he IlistillCtly expressecl if tlH)'
are not implicd in the nallles, as in "Coal mine1'," "Brass fOllu(ler," "Silk throwstcr."
IVhere the trade is Illuch subdivided, hoth tradc amI braneh are to he 1'etnrned thus:
" 'Yatcltmakel'-Fillishel';" "Printel'-Compositor."
Artililln~ amll1wehallic~ shoulcl invariahly state their particular hranch of art or LllSi-


I1C-St:'.
II"ca¿'er shoulll ahvays write "Silk," "IYool," "'Vorsted," "Cotton," &c., beíOl'e this


general term, so as to eX]JreS8 distinctly the material which he we:LVCS, thus-" Silk
weaver."


Messenget'8, P0l'te¡'8, lab01'C1'8, an<1 SCl'l'allts, to be described accorcling to the nature of
their employment on the day of the cenSURo


A persoll following 1I10re than one distillct bnsiness shol1ld insert his several occupa.·
tiollS in the order of their importance.


Persons following no professioll, trade, 01' calliug, ami hulding no public office, buí.
deriving their incomes chiefly frOIIL laml, llOl1SeS, mines, dividends, interest oí lLLoney,
anlluitics, &c., IIlay desigllate thelLLsehes: "Lan(t..d proprietol'," ;( PI'ul'rietor oí iron
mines," "Proprietor 01' honses," "Fuml-hoJaer," &c., as the case may Le. Persolls
who have retired from business lll:Ly Le cntered tlm8-" Hetired farmer," "Retirf\d
grocel'."


Persons in almshonses, after being dp.Rcrihed a~ HlIch, shonlcl state their }lrevions
occl1pations. '


Tramen arld chUdreu to be entered aceording to tlle 3 hove instrllct,iollS. Thc occu¡m-
tions of those who are regnlarly mnployed from home, 01' who follow any business at
hlJlLLe, to be di~tinctly rccordcd. Against tite llames oí' children, daily atteJl(lillg
8ehool, 01' receiving regular tuitiou at home, write "Schola1'."




~


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f~ I~ ¡t3I~ !:='i~ i~


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s - s ' d a n " H


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i OPPOSi~~ t h e n a m e s o f t h o s e ¡ - -


U O T 1 I i n E n g l l 1 u d , w l ' i t e t b e


C O l l n t y , a n d t o w n n r p a r i s h .


1 f h 0 1 " l l i n S c o t l a n d , I r c l a n d ,


~


& 1


t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s . 0 1 ' t h e


R m ; t , I n d i e s , s t a t e t l l C C O U l l -


t r y . l f ' b o r n i u f o r e i g n p a r t s


A t a t e t h e (~ountr'y; a u d i r


a l s o a B l ' i t i s h s u h j e c t . a d d


1 , B r i t i s h 8ubj(~ct,l' 0 1 ' ¡ ¡ n a t u -


r a l i z l ' ! 1 R r i t i s J t s u u j P c t , " a s


t . h e c a s e m a y h e .


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_.~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r . . . . ; : -


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' Y r i t c " d l ' u f a l l d t l U l u b , " o r


H h l i n d , " o p p o s i t e t h o l l a m o


o f t h e p c I ' s o l l ; a I H l i f 8 0 f r o m


l J i r t l l , f l d d l . f r o m b i r t h . ! !


"SIlS~3;) H J . N I N


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_Ul.H'I.¡~JI¡j1d .l.:iil. ]\cuy' t;::~·-':":~d¡;Jl:.I'.
, ;;~( ,,' -ti,;.:f~ .,' ~ ,.. ¡~.",,\,II:!""~ ~~J ~.P _ p~ ..... 1 • o'. 11 11 .í.'..J '1 :"1, "~J.~ ~,;¡,'t


-- - -Exa¡nl)le~ of ihe nlOqe of filling 1/P OW ¡'C/tlTII,


I
Rclatiún tú ]leful of I I .• )lame antl SUl'IUllne. fUlllily. I ¡- Cou(hhou.


lrt'Org~ Wo:-_~=~I-ITca';~~~~II~iI~ .----l:I.Man-icd ..
2 1>-{ltria Wood... ... ,Vi!'e ... _. _ .. _. __ , ___ Marrie,l .. -


3 A'lan WOOtl. ....... _._ SOlLo __ . _ Ulllllarrit .. tl. .... :.
4 }lloraJaIleWOotL.~ Dangllt""r .... _ -- .- .... ---


5 ,Elle" Macdonultl. _. Visitor. __ . _ \\'ido\\. - - - - - .-
6 ~,.E)íza Edwal'<1s .. _ Servaut _. _ _ .... Ulllnarriüll


7¡:Alln YOllllg .. ___ .__ Servant .. . ... Umnal'lit~tl __
S .. ThornflH Jon(~~. __ . _. St'l'vallt. _. __ . ... 1 UJlmarrietl. _. __ -


-1---- --- --------------
Headof family ____ _ 1 I J:anet COY. - ... - --


2 ,Sophia Cox . __ ... .
3 I All~xalHlel' C-ox .. .


4 ' Vlilliam Cox .. __ .
5 I l-fargaret Cox. - .


ti J Ohll TInt]"". , ..


Walter .}Ohl1S011.


Daughter-ill-Iaw _.-
GraUtlson ....... - _.
~()11 .••• _ ." _ ..• ~


Mothrr-in-law
l3oanler.


.1 Lodgcr.


Wi<low .. _.
MUl'ried ....... __


T:"nmarric(l ___ ...
"\Vic1ow ____ .


\Vidowf'l'_


Umilarl'iptl.


I~ S,'x.
.1 ;\L


F.
~f.


}1'.
1".


1,"
lo'.
~i.


F.
F.


M,
M.
F.


111.


~L


Age laHt I R k f ' . '1 1
bil'thday. an) pro eSRlOll~ O~_~~:::l~:I~~ J ___ ~ tero _,"_r_n_. __ _ TI' c1eaf allll dUlllh) 01' blindo


48


44
~o


12
61
~4


22
~l


_ 49
; 24


11 mOllth.
18


7:3
42


2~


Farnwr 01' 317 arrps, employÍ1lg'
8 la hOl'era and :3 hoy~,


Farmer's wife _ ....... .
Farmür's ¡;;¡Oll.


Rcholnr .. _ .... _ ......
FnndhohlC'l'. _.
Honso sel'vau1 ... _.


Dairvmaitl.
Carti-'l' __ . . ................ .


Shl~Tmaker .....
Drt"ssmak('l'. ___ .... _


Ba¡.;kd lUil.Jn'l'. ___ . __ _
FOrnH~l'lY l:llllltlI'P~R ..


l'l'iIlf,t'I'''':''(:Ollll'URitl)1'


SUl'T't'.\T, (i-o(lstone.
Seot1<llHL . _ . _. _. _ .


DUrl'f'\', G<HI.stOlW._
Kenf.,'Jtamsgatn_ ..


Callada ____ .-. _ ._
}¡'ii<llllt~st',x) P:ultliu.gtoll ............... ___ . _.
~nlTl'y I !;r~'yclon. I
J\'HHt~X) Epl'm¡.r ... _ ....... ·1······ .............. .


1_-


Rcotland
~I idtHt'Hl'X, POI llar ' ............ .


)'Iiddlcs0.x. Slwreditch . _ .. i _ •. _ .. _ .•
Hlll'J'PY, Lambcth_ ... _ .... _ lllillfl (fl'olll lIirt1l).


TrclmHl. _.. .... . .... .
}'l'allCe (Hrith,b Huh,ieet) .·1 .. _·_ ..... _ ....... _ ..


---------- ~--- -----_._--------


Ship t'al'})f'uteJ ........ _ ... . DllrllHm, Snntll'l'l~lllll.


f-..J.
¡-...¿


tf:-.


z
Z


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>Ii


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ro


c:
¡t.>




NINTH CENSUS.


No. __ _
CE~SUS 01' E~GLAND A:'>D \VAU:S, 1861.


[
" HOVSEHOLDER'S RcmmuLE.-Prepare<1 nnder the direction oí Olle of TIt:!' Majesty1s principal Secrp ...


taries of Stat.c, pursnaut to the aet 01' 23 und 24 Yict., c. 61.
I .-


\


Parish-


_:'-~)=.~~.~~;-
1
, City, town, vil· I
lagc 1 01' llamlet. I i~ _____ ._


1I Street, squ"rc, I &c., nI' road. I __________ _
¡
1 N ame or num· ber of hon8e.


I Name.of Q(~en' i
}uer.


'fo 'fHE OCCUPIEn.-You are requestetl t.o insel't tho particulars specified on tho cthor
page, in compliallco with an act which lJasscd tho House of Commons, ami tho House
of Lords, in the last sessiou of parliarnent, and receivef[ the a,sent of Her Majesty, the
Qnecn, on tho 6th of AlIgust, 1860.


'fhia papel' will he called for on Monday, April 8th, hy tho appointed enumerator,
amI it i8 llcsirahle that yon Rhouhl haye the answers written in the proper columns hy
tite morning of that da.y, in onlcr that his progress m~ty uot he deIayed. It willlle his
tluty, nudel' t.he aet, to complete the return if it he defective, amI to corred it ii
errOlleOU8. Any IlCrsoll anthorizetl by you IDay "rite iu the particulars if you are
yOllrsolf una!Jle to do RO.


rersol1s who refuso to givo correct il1forrmttioIl aro liable to u penalt.y of nvc pounds;
hesides the inconvel1ienee nnd nl1110yance of appearil1g hefore two justiees of tl1e peaee,
amI being convicted of lluviug malle a "ilful mis·statemeut of ago, 01' of any of the
othcr particnlal's.


'rhe return i8 rcqllil'l'd to enable tho Sccrctary of State to complete thc seventh
censns; which is to silow the exact Illlrnhcrs, ages, amI eondition of thc people-their
arrangcruent hy families in lliffcrcut rank8, professions, aull tracles-their distribution
over tilo conntty ilt villagcs, tOWllS, fiH,l cities-their inerease amI progreRs tluring the
last ten years.


The facts will be l'nhlishe,[ in general abstracts only, alld strict care will be takcll
tltat tll('- l'ettulls are lLoL ns,,!l fúr the gratificatioll of clIl'iosity.


Approve,l,
G. C. LE\VlS,


Homo QUier, TFhiffiwll, ¡YO/'clllúc/'13, 1860.


Gl:ORGE GRAHA}I,
Registrar aeneral.


'rhe next lli 11, tmllslatioll fl'OlIl the ltalian copy of the sclledulc proposel1 by the
slatisticlII COllgl'CSS at. Flol'l'IlCe fol' families 01' honsehol<1ers.




FAMILY SCHEDULE.


State of Massachusetts, town of Dorchestcr.


Person-name.


1


S I "1 . t' "- urnume. I v lrI~ lan-
I llamp.


-d
" ~


.,:¡


.~
.¿


" '§
S


Age .
]~Iluca­


tion.


Can-
Con!lition


01'
profession.


Relation to head
of family. Birthp1ace.


____ 1 1-- 2
" I ~ I ~ I ~ .g li ~ ~cZ~~~~1 l'


_ i---------- .----


-3!41!ti 8' I 10
--"-_,1--- __ _


1


11


PerHon~ })reBeut in thc f'amny OH the night 01' thr cnumel'atioll:


DuratioD,
presence or


absence,


..: §
';1


~
E-<


12


..,;
~
~


.¡;:;


13


s .. mith ....... 1 Jan,,'" ...... : M. ~.f.! '151 1 I Gohlsmith ..... Hushaml ....... ~1ilton .... .... F. ~Illith .. _ Soplüa _ _ .! Ji', M.! 44 2 1 Scamstrc88. \Vife ........... - Quincy - - ... _ F.
~ltIith_.... .Jnlin ",_,_. F. ~. 120 1 1 Scamstl'ess o" _ DaughtcI' ....... Dorchester._ F


i'lmith ....... Charl,''' .... :'Ir. S. '10,3 1 ................. Son:..... Dorchesler .. · F:
Slllith .. _' .. __ J~lwit1¡ _ _ _! F. H. ' 7 I 9, Son. __ . _ .. ___ . - Dorcbester. F.


Smith. Emily _.Ili'. S. 29, 6 < ___ .~ Laundress Sister __ . MUton _ I~" .
Br("vn Sarait _ _1 F. ",V. 40 7 _1 ___ SCl'vunt. l)onlt~8tic ._. __ . IIrPlullIl F.
Stl'an¡:!er~ 111'C'R,C'llt on the ni~ht of the cnnmeratioll:


Language
spoken.


14


Religion ln'o· Infirmity-deaf,
fcsscd. mute, blind,


15 16


Engli~h. ...... 'l'rillitariall ... .
English...... Unitarian .. .
English .. _. LTllitariall .... _


En,glish ... __ . _ Unit,arian...... Denf and dumb.
EuglislL Unitarian .. +_. BUnd.


. Ellg'lish ....... Trinitarian. I English .... __ . Cathúlic.


Jonos. .. ". }farr ... -:1 F. ,M.!27!. - -·1 ,1 I Wife of James. l' Visiter ... - .. ' "1 Quincy.. .¡I T. .: ..... -/ English ... _ ... ] McthOllist ... .
AIl"ll ........ lsaulllel ..... M.'i'l. 19101 1.Stntlent.... Visiter ....... BostOll ....... T. , ... _ .. English ....... IBaptist .... ..


\Vanelt. ___ .: Erllst- ____ ._ "11. S, 23 ... _._ 'Painter.__ _, lloRrdcr ______ ... l Gel'luany .... . ]i"'. German .. __ ... , Luthí'nl.l1 ...... _·
Mcmucrs oi' tIte f¡:lmily allAt-'llt Oll the lIight oi' the ennmeration:


1 I College sLllIlont .
í 1_ .... ·· .......... .


1 lIierchant ..... .
_L


Smith.... ,Thomas"'I:l.L S.
i'lmith ....... '1 18al><,l1a y ,S.


Blanu. .. _ . . Gcorg-c .. M. S.


18
1


Hi.
~.t ;


i


Ron ____ ._._
Dau.ghtcr


Nepltew.
1


Dorchester ... - - - '
Dorchester ...... 1


.\ Hingham '.-.-' I


7
7


7


Eng;lish ......
Ellglish.
English.


JA~illS S~UTH. Hcud o/ tI/C Pamily.


.......


.......


o;¡


z
...


Z
>-'l


iJ:i
O


t"l
Z


rn
t::l


rn




NINTH CENSUS. 117
These family 8chedules are prepared in advance at tllp central office, and sent to the


leveral enumerators, in all the districts oftlle couutry, in sufficient numbers to sllpply
each'family with one. Earh of these local agents leaves one with evcry falllily in his
distriet, and tltey are directf\cl to fUI t,he blanks with answers to the several questions.
in respect to each person in the famUy or householcl, and have tlwm ready for delivery
on a certain day.


On the day appointetl, the enumerator (:aIls on pach family, examines the schedulc
in company with the most inteIligent Illclllbcr he can find, to see if it is completely and
apparently correctly filled. If any part is cleficient, or if none of the questions are
answered, he either aida the family to do so, or taking their oral tcstilllony, fills the
blanks himself.


In Englaml, "there were two sizca of schedules, the smaller adaptf\d for onlinltl'y fam-
ilies, cont,aiuing spaces for fifteen names, and the other :ulapted ior lal'gc establish-
ments and schóols, alt'orfling room for fifty-fiye. An adequate supply of each descrip-
tion, with a liberal allowancc foI' wast.e, \Vas forwar!lecl from the census office to tlw
local rcgistrars, and hy them supplied to tlw, enl1merator8. Thf\ total nllmocI' of sepa-
rate forms thns distrilmted heing nearly 6,000,000" in 1801.


"The large puhlic institutions were not fhrnislled with schedules, hut the goYernol'or
principal rcsidcut officer received from the registrar an ' cnumemtion book in which to
enter'the particulars reqllired hy the aet.' For tlw use of the cnumerator in deliver-
ing and co]]ectillg the schcdules, a melllorandum book was proYided,* in which'he was
rcquirccl to uote the elescription of el wellings, whether privatf\ house, lodging housc,
hotel, &0., the llulIlber of oeCllpif\rH 01' separate falllilies, aud of sclleclules left with
other particulars. The whole weight of thc seheclules, blank enumeratiou hooks"alld
other fornm dispatchcd frolll th" central office, ut London, prior to the 8th of April,
exceeded fifty tons."-Census of England, l¡-<GI, 1, \l.


This plan of family sehedules was ullltllimously recolllmeucled by tlle statistical con-
gress at LOlldoll, iu 1860, who votetl that "thf\l'e should be a separate schedule or bul-
letin, to he filled with tlle particlllars re1ating to each falllily oI' honseho!d!'


The plan is put'in practiee hy Ellglaml, 8eutlaud am1 IreJand, Nonmy, 8wedell, DCIl-
mark, Prussia, Saxony,t Huuoycr, Bayaria, Baden, \Vurtemberg, 8axe-Gotha, Saxc-
Coburg, Austria, Hamhurg, Rollan.l, Belgium, France, Haly, Spain, Portugal, and
perhaps oyother uatiolls, whose reports do uot speak of the fact.


None of the reports of these nations speak of any difficulty 01' objeetion tu tlw prac-
tice of this method. Ün the contrury, th" Bad.m report says: "Tho nso of these family
schedules was cOlllpletely snccessful, amI facilitatcd cxaetness and execution," a.ml
thia scellS to he tho opiniou of the ecuws bureaus of the other nations of Europe.


This plan has several advantages. The schedule being left in the house for several
daya, ¡,hf\ probahility of heillg se en hy the hl'ad is incrcascd allllost to a eertainty,
whereas, in the other SystcllI, iu whiclt t.lw enumcrator calls frol1l hOllse to 11Ouse, fl'OIll
mornillg' to night, he will, in a large part of tlltl families, faj] to find t,he heaüs at home,
as clllring the business amI \Vorking' hOllrs they are away at their shop~, offiees, a.nd
farms. Moreover, it gives the family timo amI opportullity to conslllt a.nd think oyer
the matter, a]](l if nced be, to call in Rome í'riell(l or npighhor to aid in forllling the au-
8wers, ancl in writing thllm down.


OB.JECTIO~ OF IGl"OHANCE.


A natural a])(l a very reacly objection í\l'ises to this plan of f:tmily 8chellule, fI'olll the
ignoran ce (jf some titmilies who can neHher reallllor write, anel somc of whom canuot
comprehentl a flucstioll until it is ¡HIt to them in many forms, and explained with mueh
patiencc anel elcarncsa. It ia feared that tllis \Viii operate with insurmollntable force
at the 80nth, amollg tlle colored pRople. This is not au nnrf\asouahlc objcction, nor is
it an insllperahle one; ellrtaillly it has uot beeu sllch in the practice of otber lIations,
where iguorauce is as gl'cat, alld thc ¡¡copIe are as stolid as tlley are here. They haye
tried th~ plan in sncceasive pnumeratiollS, a11l1 ;l1lÍ uo complaint is malle of it theI'e as
a system; no hint of its impractieability; uo llropusitioll to rcturll to the ohl plan in
future enumerations.


In 8cotlaud, in 1861, the year of the l'ell~n~, lO,DO per CPllt. (jf the lllell, alld 21.33
per cent. of the women, wlHm lll:11Ti"a, were Hua hle to write, am1 signetl the registers
with their mark. In fhe northwesterll t1iYi~ioll of 8col1:1]](1, 'the ]lroportion of igno-
rauce was 56.70 of tho fcmales, yet the census was takell by f;lIllily Rcherlules through-
out all 8cotlaml, aud even thesfl (lark .1istrict8, 'without failnre.


In seVf\n C01llÜillR of Euglana amI in ,Valc" in COlll'SC of scventceu years, from 1838
to 1854 inclusive, therc were 749,927 marriages. In theae lllarriagf\s, 47ll,907, or 63.06
per cent. out of the females signetl their uanws v,-jj h t,heir lllarks. This ca.lculation
was madI' some years ago for :l1lot1wr pnrpose, amI aia not iueladc the males. I have
now cxarniued the report fuI' 1861, amI ¡illll that in that year twenty-niuf\ per cent. of


* A copy of thL~ Engli14h f'nnrnl'rntor'H book is appf'lHlt'd to tbi:-l report.
tPrus~ja una Saxony have schedulet: for each hOllJ~ej inclndiug' a11 the fn.mi1ies rm:idcnt therein




118 NIN1'H CENSUS.
thc males anú forty-nine per eent. of the fenmles, in these seven eounties, signed with
th<:'i1' marks. Sorne single eounties and towns showed a brger pl'oportion of igno-
rance. 1'his was the yeal' of the census, when it was taken uy family scheduIes. It
was taken in the same way in 1851. 1'llose marrying' men anú women were the hcads
of families thereafter. Yet the census did not fail.


1'lle same ignorance was fonud in Ireland. In one dass of counties, eontailling auout
one-quarter of the population, thirty-throe to sixty-six pcr cent. of the females over
five years oltl could ncitller read nor write. In another amI smaller dass of eonnties,
containillg about one-fifteenth of the people of Irelaml, sixty-seven per cent. amI over
of those who were of the same age were in the same ignoran ce. Tlle eensus was takcn
hy family schedule!!, and the census board speak with satisfaction of the succcss. In
all these cases, the ignorance was a block in the way of casy work; but, it was not a
stllmbling-block in the way of succcss. The census did HOt ütll over it. 1'he difficulty
from inability of the families to read and write was in many ovcrcoIIle b.v tIte co-opera-
tion of friends and neighbors, who lcnt their aid to fill thc papera; amI if tbis was not
done, thc enumerator had tt liUlc trouble, amI accomplished his pnrpoRe as easily
as in the old systcm.


So it will be here. There are sorne ignorant families in all parts of this country, and
in sorne parts they are many. Hnt on the eontrary, we have a larger proportion of
intelligent familics, amI cspeeiallyat the North, than is fouud in any other nation.
On1' people are more ready to eo-operate with the governmellt, in all its plans, than
any other. They feel tllat the goveI'lllllcnt i8 thcirs, and its purposes are by thflir own
consent amI fOI" their own bcnctit. They obey the law from the love of it. ~While in
thc European nations the people feel that they belong to the goYeI'lllllent aIHlnot tIle
government to them, and thcy ouey the law from fear of it.


There arc in this eOllntry more mutual sympatlly and eo-operatiou; people arc more
ready to aid eaeh other, the 8t1'ong to snRtain the weak, amI the iutelligeut to help the
iguorant. 1'he ÜLIIIilics that calluot write aud fill their schedllles, wiII more readily
here than in other cOllutries nnd those who wil! help them t.o do this \York in aid
of the census.


Considering the b'Teat advautagc to aecuracy and certainty of ext\clltion by having
thils informatioll carcfully digcsted amI preparecl by the best intelligellce of thc falllily,
instead of any one wllom the enumerator may chance to find whcu he happens to call
at the door; con8ideriug the alIllost uni ycrsal intelligence aud readiness of co-operation
in Illost of thc Statcs, aml the large intelligence and willingnesR of the rest; eonsitler-
ing a180 that while the work 01' the ennmerator is greatly tliminishcd ane! thc illforma-
tion more reliable in the intelligent falllilie8, tllO labor iH uot i11crease(1 nor tite answers
less reliable in thc other familics, there scoms to be no donbt that the family schedule
systelll shollld be adopted in our future ennmerationR.


For this purpose 1 have prepal'l'll >lnd offcr a schedule which ",ill he easilynnderstood
and ans\Vcrccluy thc iumilicH, amI will obtaill all the inforl!latioll tlJat.iR dcsirable 01'
expedient to require.


OXE-IUY SY~TE~r.


'Ye h::we heeTl accustomell, in 0111' forllH'r eUlllíleratious, to ha ve te\\" and large dis-
tricts, few enumerators, i'adl of WllOIll haü ti vcry largo \York, mul for this a long time
was allowcd. In somo three lIlontlu;, au(l in ~Olne cases tt lll11ch long"r t.ime was
¡!;mnted.


In 1860 one Illonth only wa~ allowed. AH tIte eenSllS is intcndetl to ly\ taken in refer-
en ce to one and the sam" d:Ly tItrougllOllt tlte llation, inclnding all persolls helonging
to the family amI facts occurring on the 1st of J1llH', or other day appointed, the nearer
to this c1ay the inc¡uiry is made, tlle nea1'"r ",ill tlle answcrs be to tlle- exact trnth.
Within a quader, a month, a w~ek, there are changcs made; persons chang!) tlwir re si-
dence, and may fail of being counted, or mar be connt"fl more th:lll ouce, by those who
make the inc¡uiry at differeilt times in (liJi'tlrent plaees. Persolls in fttmilics of little
intelligence may forget, 01' may lmve uUllerstood tlle influir.v to ref"r to the day on
which it was made. In these amI in mally otl",r ways there i8 dauger of iuaccuracy,
1'01' any delay arter the Ilay in referenee to whidl the inquiry i8 ma,tlc. ThA saf('st way
ü! to make tlle inquiry OH the tlay in w1lich the tucts amI circumstanees ilHluired ahont
existo Hence the one-day system i8 heRt. This r"qnir~s more minute division of the
countryanrl people into many more distrietR, and a grcater lI11Illber of eUllmerators.
Tlle work of proparation i8 greater. It llecds a greater discipline amI encrgy in the
managers of tbe cellsus, to divide the tt'rritory in sllrh districts, to fillll 8uch a munber
(Jf ennmerators, amI to prepare them fc)r the work.


It will he necessarv to tlivi<le the whole eoulltrv into tlistricts so small that one man
in each can visit every family ulld examine the s"chedllle, correct sueh as are illcorrcet,
fill np snch as are not fille(l, in course of Olle <lay.


AU this is to be previonsly arrangetl at 'Yashillgtou, allll hy the aiü of t,ruRt,\Vorthy
snperintending agents in aU parts of tho conntry, antl ill tlw prohahly,l101"t veriot1
that can he allowe<l hy CongresR, in the CellS\lS nf 1870.




NINTH CENSUS. 119
This h[18 heen done in other mltiolls, with lesB territory, yet witll large populatioll.


The same intelligcnce, discipline, and energy, would havo dono the work with equal
succesa, if it had been extelllled over a larger country and included a larger population.


If, as is prolmhle, the law be lmssed by Congress in December, anu the census dopart-
ment be organizcd amI put into operation by the first of January, there will then be five
lllonths for the preparation, division of territory, printing and distI'ibuting schedule8,
finding and instrncting the ennmerators.


If, as 8eems now to be the best way, thc internal lievenuo asscssors be eulisted, tho
departmcnt will fiml a corp8 of intelligout auu üiscipliued men already in every part
of the field, who, kno\Ving tlw districts and peoplo, will he able to appoint sueh men
to do the work as cau 1>c relietl upon for faithfnluess amI alOlOuracy.


The llssessors amI their tleputies are fcw, lOompared with the uumbers required to
coHect thc faüts. They will therefore Hot be able, themselves, to visit antl eUUlllerate
the peoplf', uor will thoy come hl personal contact wiMl thelll. Tlle ellumemtors will
have no otlter offlee, no other official coullcction with the people than tlmt of lllaving
t he schednles, ~HHI of sBeillg that thcy are filled.


To remove the ohjections that somo, fearillg a j,ax, wouM be unwillillg to give the
inf(muation to unv ofticer known >lS assossor 01' collector. it lllUY !lo \VeH for the law to
authorize tlle assf,ssors to appoiuL the enumerators und slíperint,eIHI thc work, hut onlel'
that neithei' assc,sor nor co11ector shollld be eUllmcrutor.


,Yith thi8 eorps, the l'reJiminul'Y work of prel'aration :tuL! executioll may he <louc,
<,ven in thc short pprio!1 of five lllonths. .


It; IHnnlYcr, hl't\\'cen the orgunizatioll of tlw (,<'n sus (1epartlllcJolt ~md the time a1'-
puillted for the cllumeration, there be iIlHUfficicllt, time to divide the COlllltry into Hnlltll
districts, tlnd to tind alHl iustrud a" mUlly enumf'rators as may h!', lleeessary to takc
thA eenSllS on the Briti"h plan, in Olle (lay, or if for auy othcr reUSOll it be thOllght
[,est to allow a !llore exteurIed time for this ]lurposc, thi8 time ShOllld he madI' a~ short
as, possible.


In tlw elLrly ('('11811SI'8 three lIlontlts wer" allowP,tl by law, amI this pcriod was extended
in sorne lOases hy graco, amI very greatly in a few, by sufferallce.


The time allowecl was gradllall~' slLOrtclletl until, iH 1850 and 1860, olle JIlollth \"as
its limit, and in tlmt l'eriod the work was done ,,'itho11t lessening the fullness of the
1'cturll8, 01' increusillg' tILe number allu proportion oí' the tlelays beyonrl the allottcd
time. OH tILe eOlltrary, the shorter thc perioll allo,,'ed foI' this work the moro prompt
\Vere the t'nllmemting ofticers, the nll1rshals, in aecomplishillg their tasks within the
prescrihell time. Taking cOllllsel of this expericnce, it lllay be assnmed that the gov-
ernment can sufply take another ste]' iu the progress of promptness, and if tho \Vuy is
not clear tu tho fnll striue to the oue-tlay system, then, at least, thc law may require
that the I'llllmerators shall gathel' al! tlwir facts in ono week, which i8 the longest
perioü that 8hould be allowerl foI' this work. ,


In ai<1 oí' this promptnMsH, as \Vell us oí' accuraey, tho f:nnily seheüulcs will rendel'
essential HPrvice, unll should 1l0t be dispellsN[ with, whatever plan may be adoptl'd fol'
the colloctiuu of the fácts.


lllllTI!S, )UllltlAOES, AXIl DK\TflS, W!TU!X TITE YEAH KEXT 1'1H:CI';D!K!< TIIE DATE 01<'
CE:s'Sl'S.


:¡;'or tbis purpose, tlw f¡HUily se!wüule shoul<1 eontain fOl'lllH for the eutry of these
events, with such attellüing cirClllllstances as are Ilecessury to describe them, and 8ue11
as it will be eXJlcdient to illf[nir¡'. A sehL'dllle is tlH'l'eforc appendml, containing the
forms for-


Tho living,
The births,
The marriages,
The deuths.
AH of whieh the t;lmily will pasil:; JUI, uml ~iV8 a lIlneh lllore full alld reliable reporto
1 now appcnrl to this report several schedllles, which are to be left w'ith the hearls of


the respective privMe fmnilies, amI 01' tILe hotels aud hoanling-houses, anü also of fhe
several institlltions, almshonses, asylullIs, hospitals, parishes, &e., whcre any uwellers
or lodgers are to he fOlllld.


The scheünlcs are prepare<l with a colnmll for the cntry of the lla.me of eaeh pcr~on,
and of ull the fucts a.nd eiI'cumstances that have ueeu mentioue<l in this report, as neces-
sary to (le8cribe tht\ pt\r80n, uwl show his condition an<l vitality.


On Uw b~ck of each schedule therf\ are instrllctions uml explauatiol1s to gnide t,he
fUlllilies in their work in fillillg the pavero There are a180 con<lensed forms whiel! are
filled, to show the n\lllll1er of doillg i t.


Tbe schm1llles which willlle used by most families have lines 1'or the entry of fifteen
1,er80n8 01' numes, which will be generally snfticicut. Rut for larger families, another
schedule is prepare![ with liues for fifty u ames. If any fllmily shonlcl be fOl1nd with
morA than fifty rnembel/S, more schedllles will he len.




120 NINTH CENSUS.
Besides these Hchedules fol' private famílies, 1 have prepared and appenuecl othera


for itlmshouses, asylums, hospitals, prisong, in which, uesidos tlle columns for the ontry
offacts requil'ed in the lwivate families, are also other columns for the reconl of sorne
facta peculiar to their respective cOll(litions.


Lastly, I have prepared anu appendetl to this report a sIJecirnen of au ClIuillcrator's
memorandum book. lu this are iustrllctions as to his dllty and manner of perforrning
it, the definitions of house and of family. There are also taules in whieh the ellUlll-
erator win reeortl his work as he goes along, with column fol' the entry of tho street,
road 01' place, and tlle honse, its description, the number of families, and the schec1nles
which he leaves to be filled in each; and also, of those which he afterwanls collects,
and for the names of the ausent lllemUel'S of the familv.


One oí' these taulesis fillcd,to show the mauner of inaking his reconl.


o




41sT CONGRESS, }
2d &sliion.


HOUSE OF ImPHESENTATIVES.


MINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY.
[To accompany bill H. R. No. 253.]


JA.NUAUY 19, 18íO.-Orc1crec1 to be printeu.


{
HEPORT


No. 4.


lIi'.- E. !tI; \VILSON, from the Comrnittee on the Publie LUllIIs, made the.
followillg .


REPOHr.
TTw (Jon/mittee on the Publie Lands, to -w7wm was 1'eferred, on the 26th doy


of .Mareh, 1860, House bill No. 253, {living CO'/1str1lction fo existi'll[J latfs
grantillIJ lanüs to the State (~f" JIínncsota for a 8tate univen;ity, re,~peet·
fully roport:
Tllat a bill preeisely similar to t11e one ulIder cOllf\Íderation \Vas in·


trodueed in tIte Senate oí' tIte United Sta tes at the seeond session of t11e
fOl'tieth Uongl'css, reí'cl'red to tite Committee 011 Publie Lamls oí' said
l.t()(I~·~ amI repOlted by saitl. COllllllittee with l'peOHIIllPlltlatioll "tllllt it
pass.~' 'l'hnt it <lid puss t1le S('11ate, amI wns l'eferred u~' tIle HOlIse to tIlo
COIlllllitt('e OH tlle Publie LalJds tIH'l'eof', aI](l H'}JOl'ted lJy said COllllllittce
with reeOllllllendation of passage. That OWillg to tilo prCSsurl' oflmsiness
al, the <:!OKC or the fortieth Congress, the hill was 1I0t al'ted OH ill tIlO
Hom~e, bnt \ras llg:lin illtl'odm'l'(l by :;\11'. \Yilson, oí' J\lillllesota, at tite
ilI'"t se:;~ioll of tite forty-til'st Congrcl's, nnd rei't>ned to Uds eommittc('.


Tllnt \re llaye examine(l e<ll'efully tlw statutes l¡p<ll'illg upon this bill,
HlHl as tilo I'esult of slleh examinatioll \\"onl<1 present tho füllowing faets
aud eonclusiollS:


'l'llut Congress, hy an ad approyo(l Febrnar,V In, 1851, (!l Stat., p. 568,)
se:3tion two, ellaeted "that the S2cretaI'y of the Interior b3, ami he is
heI'eby, autllOl'izell and diI'eetclI 100 Sllt ap:u't alld l'eserve from sale, oat
ot' auy oí' tho puulie lands within tIte 1'erritory of .Miunesota to whidl
the Imlian title has been 01' ma,)" be extillgllished, aml not otherwisc ap·
propriatell, a C}lmntity oi' land Ilot exeeellillg' two eatire towIlships, fuI'
the.use and support of a uuiversit,,Y in s:tid Territory, aml fuI' no other
use or pllrpose wha.tsoever, to ue loeated hy legal subllivisions oí' llOt
less thun one eutiro. soetion."


Ullder this law the Seeretary of the Interior caused to be seleeted
amI reservcd from sale 37,077 acres of puulie lano. in the Terl'itory of
Miunesota, lists of wbich lands he approyed in the years 1834,1855, and
1856, wllile the territorial eondition contillued.


On the 26th Pebrnary, 1857, an act was passed by Congress, and ap·
proved, "to uuthorize the people oí' :Miunesota to í'orm a COJlstitutioll.
and State govel'IlUlent, preparatory to their admissioll into theUllion,
upon an eqllal footing with the original States," (11 Stat., 166,), secti,oJ.!.;
fiye oí' which, so far as relating to this suhjeet, is as iüllows:


SEc;5. Be itfllrther enacted, That the following propositions be; and the.ll3me or&
he.t.eby, offered to toojj¡¡id COllYlollltioll of the pcople 01' Minue&ota, fQl' theil'; fi:c4iI,.a«ccP:k




2 MINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY.
nncc or rejsction, which, if accepto¡l by the couveution, shall llB obligatory on the
Uuited States, amI upon tho said State of Minnesota, viz: lst. That, &e. * *
" * " " 2d. 'l'hat SOYcuty-two sectiolls of laml shall bo Bet aparli
and reserved for the use lIIHl support of a universit,V, to !Je selecteü b.y the govorno\' of
sahl Sta te, suhject to the apl'roval of the Commissioucr of t,he Geueral Land Otlice,
mul to he appropl'iatt'fl amI applierl in such maUller as tile legislature of saitl State may
prescriLJe, fol' the purpose aforesaid, !Jut fol' UD other purpose.


Thc admiRSiou of l\1iunesota iuto thc Union, Iluder this law of ~üth
Fel!rnary, 18,37, was dllly deelared by t11e act approved l\fay 11, 1858,
(11 Stat.., 285.)


011 the 2d Marcll, 1861, au a(lditioual act, in relation to uniyersity
lauds, was appro\'ed, (12 8tat., p. 208,) w11ich is quoted in full, as follows:
AN ACT donating to tlw Statcs of Mill\lC'sota llmI Oregon certain htnds rcserved hy


CongresR for tüe Tcrritories of 1I1illllc~ot>l and Ol'l'gon fol' Iluiversity purposes.
Be it enacleil, ,fe., Tbat the lamls rcscncd fol' tlw lIse oí a Iluiv .. rsit,y in tile Territo-


ries oí' Millueso(a ullII OregOll, llll{ler sectiulI secoud of HU tlct of Congrcss ]>ass{~tl Feb-
ruary ID, 1&~1, entitletl "An act to <lllthoriz!l tlw l"gislativu aSHulllLJlius of tito
Territories of Oregou mlll MinueHota to ta ko dUll'gO of tite selIool lalllb iu sai,l Teni-
tories, mili for other ]>urI'OSCS," !Jo hereby douated to the Status of >\lillucsot,a aud
Ol'egon for Uw USe of said lluiver~ity.


'[he go\'emor of tlle 8tate, in 111e memorial now under reyiew", c1aims
tllflt, CongreRs, by this net of 18Gl, donntl'd tlw rest'r\'atiolls of lalllb in
the Territory that had been llIade by diredioll alJ(l Hnt1l'r nnt1lorit,y 01
tite Seeretul',V of the IlIterior, acting' 1l1l(1I'}' the law of 1BJl, Lmt ditl not
thereby illlpail', 01' illteIHl to ill1l'ail', tIle riglit of the State to ha\'e tIte
sevent,y-two seetio!1s llI'omist'tl her \lpOll hel' :1l1111issioll iuto tIte Union
lindel' t]¡e luw oi' 18;37, n!.JO\'l1 quotel1.


The co:nmittee is oí' tllB Opillioll that thi" is tlle correct illterprdatioTl
of thCRC RC\'l'ral nr:ts oi' COIIg'l'eSS, whidl elllbrace all t}¡c lcgislatioll that
exists relati\'l~ to tlw slll\Ípct.


\Vith tite exeeptioll of Oltio, w1tieh oütainc(11hrpc towIIslIips fol' nni-
versitie", HlI(I Flol'Ífla, whielt ohtained fOIl!' to\\'nships, it, ha~ beell tIte
A"f\])el'al poliey of Uongl'e~s to gT<lat to now Sta te,:;, npOll clItering thc
Ullioll, tl\'O towllships, 01' ¡;tWüllty-t.\\'o HPet,iotls JI' I:tllll, cadl fol' the
use of a 8tate uni ver,.,ity; a1l11 in tel:)S~\ e:H8" in whieh laJl(1.., !t:ul Lwpn
l'pseI'\,{'(l 1'01' lllli\'ersity ImrposeH tlnl'ing tlte territorial eondition, the
pro]lositions 01' COllgres>! !Jaye lwca SI) wo)nled a,; to make gmllts of
slwh reseITed lmuls so as io give to eaeh of tlle States the rescrnltions
aJl(1 other tracts, which togetltcl' Illade tlle fJ. u:tlltity oI' Sll\'C1tt¿--two sec-
timls.


By I'eferenee to 1hc follm\'ing cm<eR: IllillOiR, aet April18, 1818, (3
8tat., 430, sf'ü1ioll G;) :Mieldgall, aet .Tulle 2:), Ui;1G, (f) 8tat., 51};) Imn),
net .Mareh 3, 184.;' ([) Sta t., 7tiU, :-eetioll ü,) amI \Vif\eollsin, ad Angllst G,
J84G, (!) 8tat., 3)', :-;ectio1l7,) it \\"ill he íiHlIld !llat lallllshatl Llf'ell !"('served
foI' u\lÍ\-er¡,;ity lHuvoRcs dlll"illg the territlJl'ial cOlldition, which, UpOll the
a(lll1is:-;ion ot' t11e Statcs, n'sppcti\'el,)', iuto tite Ullioll, were gt'auted to
the ¡.;:aill States with other hUHls to malee IIp 1,11e qualltity of seveuty-two
sectiolls.


111 thc caRes of Oregou an(l KnnRaR, the enahling acts provided (11
8tat., 384, and 12 Stat .. , 1~7,) "that ill case any oí' the lands herein
grallte(l the State of OI'PgOIl (Ka lisas) have heretofore oeeu cOllfirmed
to tlH'Territory 01' Otegoll, (Kansas,) t'Ílr the pmposeR specified therein,
amI the amoullt so contirllleu shall be dedueted í'rom the qualltity speci-
fied."
"". Ittlms- appcars that ifit, hadbeen the inttmtion of CongI'css to churgo
the 8tate oí' l\iinnesota with the lands reserved during t11e territorial
condition for a university in tha Territory, such iuwntion ought to have




!IINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY. 3
been exprMsed, as in the cases of these other States, either in the act '
oi' February 26, 1857, 01' the act of .M:arch 2, 1861; lmt no such inten-
tion is expressed in these or any other acts oi' Congress, as far as the
committee is able to ascertain. On the contrary, the stiplllation for
seventy-two sections, contained in tite act of FcllrlJary 26, 1857, appea1'S
to be entirely independent oi' the p1'evious legislation upon the subject,
and to have been free from any proviso 01' condition that would reuuce
the quantity mentioned.


In fact, this law of February 26, 1857, iR in the nature of a compact,
amI it, is not to be supposed that it ,yas the intelltion of COllgreRs by
subseqnellt legislation to modify it in the slightest degree, wituout tlle
expressed cOllsent of the State to sllcll modifieation. Hut nothing
8eems to have bcen done by eithcr party, looking to mutual assent ami
agrcement to a modification oi' tlle compact, as it is ree~orded in thc act
01' February 2(), 1857, amI foI' thiR l'eaSOIl the law of 1861 must be eOll-
strned as a separate and independent statnte.


Again, the aet oí' ]8,")7, in the paHsage hereinbefore quotm1, i8 a la"r
to be nx('('utcel aftcr its passage by t1l0 govcrnOl' of tlle State, aetillg
muler State authorit.y, aml w!len fully execnrod, hy ito; OW11 f01'ce and
virtue aIol1fl, H'HtS tIlO title to the gmnted lauds in tlle State.


lt is in itsplf Sllfficicnt to carry the whole qllantity of sevellt~'-two soo-
tions. Ul1llel' it, 111e 8t.ate wonhL 11I1\"e rpceiypd that qllantity, without
the ad 01' lUare!t ~,1861. 'l'his lattel' aet was passcd durillg" a disens-
Riol1 hetwcoll tite goyel'llor of the State amI the ()oltlmissioner oí" tite
GClleral Lalld Ofii(~p in n'sppet. to tlw C'ffed to he giyen by the latter to
tlle law oí" lHt.!1 l<'chrnary, 18;31, Hncl the aetioll umler it; all<l whatcvcr
pIse lIlay he ohsenre, it iH Yory plaÍn that tlw l"cprescntati \·os of tite 8tato
,vere at that tillle sct'l,ing tIlO l'lllargemcnt oí' tlle grant to lJC.r fol' llui-
Yersity purposeH; amI it is aIso true that thoy beliew'el, after the aet of
ISGI had ]Jasse(1, that tI]pir ol~icet liad lwell aecomplishec1, Hnc1 that the
coutroyersy ha<l tll('reb;y hren terminatcd fayorably to tllo State in the
rPlinqnisImwllt. hy tlw LJlliU~c1 States 01' all titlo to tIte traets tllat liad
bcen l'('selTed hy tlle Seereíary of' tile Interior during ¡he territorial con-
ditiOIl, Ieaying" the provisiollS 01' the net oí" 2(jth l<'ebl'uary, lS5í, to he exe-
(mte,l ilHlepell(lenUy and to the full f'xtcut.


lour cOllllllittee ('.oncnr in t1li:,; eOllcInsioll. Unlf'sR sue!t is the legal
efl'rd amI eOllsef¡uenee 0(' Raid act of :!<l :\lareh, ]8GI, \Te can ltRsigll to
it no use 01' sigllifieallce aH a statute, for the JlT'eviouR legislatioll OH tIte
subject was (all<l was reeog"llizetl by th('. General Lall<l Offire to haye
been) aIllply suffieient. to g-rant tlle qnantit.\" oí" seYenty-t\Yo seetiolls. To
den y to it any force amI t'ffeet \vhatevcl', wonld be cOlltl'al'y to all sonnd
principIe nlHl precetlent. in constrnillg statntes, all(l ii' the least. possible
ell'ect be giyen to it, it llIust he l'eeognize<l as relillquishillg al! right amI
title of the Ullited Btates to tlle lalHls mentiolletl in it; alld g'iYing it
that lllueh force and eff('ct, it operatf'R HR all enlargelllent oí" tho grant
to l\liunesota for lIuin'1'8ity Jlurposcs to the extent, oí' tite reHel'\'ations
that hae! been <tuly malle by the Seeretary of the Interiorullder tlle act
oi" 1f1th February, ÍSjl, priol' to tlle aehlliR~ioll of tIte State iuto the Utlioll.


Tlle Commissioncr oí' the OeJleral Lallc1 Oftiee amI Secretar,}" of the
Ink.rior, though they hesitatecl to giye thi¡.¡ eonstruetioll anel effeet to
the aet of .March 2, IS(j1, in cO!lsiclPI':ltioll oí" tlle laudable ol~jeet. to which
tite lalld is devoted. !lO\Y l'oeommen(l the claim to the fhvorable cOllsic1-
oration of the legislative branch oí" the govel'llment.


Wberefore your committec respeetfully recornmelld tlw passage of tho
bill.


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41sT CONGRESS,}
2d Session.


HOUSE Ol!' REPRESENTATIVES.


DWIGHT J. McCA~N,


{
REPORT


No. 5.


JAXt"ARY 21, 1870.-Laid on the tahle Rnd ordered to he printcd.


:M:r;W. B. WASHBURN, fi'om the Cornrnittee of Claims, made the túllowing


REPORT.
Tlw Cormnittee of Claims, to w710m was refen-erl the evidence in tlte clai-rn .


(if lJwight J. JJlcCann, make tlte foUowinf} report:


On tIle 23d of April, 1866, the Comrnissioner of lndian Affairs, on
behalf of the United States, entered into a written eontraet ",ith the
clairnant, who was to furnish land transportation from Ornaha, ~ebraska,
for the annnity g'oods and provisions of the Indian Bureau, as follows:
40 tons to be delivered at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, 01' such
other point in tIlat vicinity as tIte ogent muy direet, at the rate of pay
of $1 59 per 100 pounds túr caeIl 100 miles of t~'ansportation; 40 tons at
t.he vVinnebago ageney, 20 tons at the O'maha ageney, and 25 tons at
the Pawnee ag-ency, :tt the rate of $1 45 per 100 pounds per 100 miles,
to be transported in good, well-covered wagons to the points mentioned,
as the agent may directo l'he claimunt was to receive and transport
the goods immediatcly npon their arrival at Omaha, and to perform the
ser vice with all proper expedition. The agent of thc bureau who should
superintend the loadillg at Ornaha had a right to reject any wagon 01'
temn whieh he should eonsider unfit for the performance of the service.


The Cornrnissioner's advertisernent for proposals, dated January 27,
1866, stated that "tIte goods to be deliyered at Great Salt Lake City
and intermediate points rnust be transported hy mules, those delivered
elsewhere by oxen."This provü'¡on was llOt inserted in the contract,
nor is the advertisement, by speeial terms, made a part of tlJe contracto


On the 23d of May following the claimant received from the agent at
Omaha, and dispatched for :Fort I~aramie, 50,000 poullds of tItese goods
by mule teams, and presented a train of 230x wag'ons to eonyey the
balance. The superintelldent oQjecíed to this means of transportation,
for the reaSOll tItat Fort Laramie was considered an intermediate point
between Omaha and Great Salt Lake City, to be supplied by mule tearns
and not cattle transportation; that the goods and provisions were
required at the post by the 15th of June to meet the exigencies oí a
treaty to be proposed at tIlat tirne, amI bccanse the subsistence on
hand would then be exhansted, while bands of Indians, numbering from
1,500to 2,000, preselltwithout rations, would tend to dcfeat the prospects
of a treaty and invite actual danger to thc commissioners and officers of
the governrnent. To avert these evils mule teams were demanded
which would reach the post in twenty-two duys, while ox trains reqnired
thirty-five. The claimant replied that Fort Lararnie was not an "inter.




2 DWIGIIT J. M'CANN.
mediate point," and ülsisted t-hat the terms of his eontmet provideü foI'
ox teams. The snperintendent telegl'aphed to the Commissiollf'l' at
vYashillgton for insttuctiollS, and was answered, "send the goods the
quickest possible way."


l7 nder these circurnstances the balance oi' the transportation i'or Fort
Laramie was taken frorn the elaimunt, alld given to other parties at tIJf'
sUllle rate of pay, though the currellt priee hall then fallen to $1 per
hundrcd.


The claimant now chargf's the Ullitcd Sta tes with the violatiOll of tlH'
cOlltract as follows:
For the rate of payas per contract _~ ____________________ _
For detentioll oi' train, sixteen da.)"s, retul'lIing from Omaha


to ~ebraska City, at $G per day, per wagon ___________ _
For ferry charges over t11e Platte Hiver ________________ _


']'he elaimallt credits the cnrrellt rate amI :letnal cost of
transportation at that time . ____ . _________ .. ________ _


And asks an appropriation for the balallce ________ . ____ .
as the measure of dalnages to whiel! he is entitled.


$13,G4220
1,84000


30 00


15,51220


8,iJ80 00


This claim was brought before tIJe late Cornrnissioner of Indian Affain;,
and was considered fllYorablyon tIle basis here presented. It was referretl
by hirn to the late Seeretary 01' the Interior fol' a favorable decision, but
that officer held that it was not properly witllin that elass of aceollnts
to be audited by cxecutiye ofticers and paifl on their certificate, as
the measure of damagesdepeJl(lell wholly upon the eonsideration ofcf'r-
taill disputed questions oI tact l)(;hreen tlw gorerllment :wd tJw c1ailll-
3nt-questíons to he settled 0111y hy t11e lt'gü.,Iafiye 01' the judicial
authority. Of tllese questions, the principal oue is, whether 01' not Fort
Laramie was to be regarfled as an "intermediate point," 1()itltin tite meal1-
ing of the contmct, between Omaha aud Grcat Salt Lake Gity.


The COillmissioller w 110 made the contract, and the supprilltendellt
who directe<l its exeeution, were ofthe opinion that it was. 'rIle elaimallt
held otherwise; hut his assumptioll rests whony upon the explallatioll
to be dl'awn fi>orn the advertisement for proposals, amI not froill the
contract itsclf. Ong-ht the claimallt's interpretatioll to he received
aga.illst the understanding oí' those who act.ed 1'01' the govermnent r
Had it heen designed to exc1ucle Fort Laramie, the clairnaut had ample
opportunity, as wen as motive, to lHLYe stipulated expressly to tbat effed,
instead of ag-reeing, in these words, that "the right is reserved to the
agent, who shan superintend the loadillg at Omaha, to reject auy wagon
01' tearn whieh he Rhall consider nnllt for tIJe perfOl'mance oí' the serviee."
It seems clear that ox teams were unllt, heeause of the absolnte neces-
sity for quicker dispatch than an ox train was capable of making.


The claimant suhmits the statemcnts of Isaac Coe amI of A. Caldwcll,
of Colorado Territory, that Fort Laramie is noí an intermediate point,
as claimed. That is their opillion. '1'hey were "freighter8," engaged
in like business with the claimant, and lmying themselves nsed the
route of the South Fork of the Platte mver, th('y exclude, in their judg-
ment, the route on the North FOl'k, on whieh Fort Laramie i8 sitnate,
frolll an eonsideration. The gOYernmellt had exelnded lleither. Both
routes were used to go to SaH Lake City-the northern one for its
better roadway, amI its supply of water amI grazing iu the tIr)' scasons_




DWIGHT .T. l\i'CANN. 3
"rhe southel'll route, s1101'te1', though not quicke1', was becoming' more
general fi'om ih, pl'oxÍlnity to t11e Pacific HaiIl'oad. Fort Laramie, in
fact, was an 'Íntermediate point bet1cccn Omaha and Great Salt Lake City.
OIl the N mt11 .Fmk Qf the Platte Iüyer. .


The cIaimant snlll11its t,he further statement of Thomas :Murphy, a
superilltendent oi' ludian afJairs, explaining tIle contract as follows :


" In the fall of IRG!), 1 addressed a Ietter to t1le COIlllllissioner of ludian
Affairs on the subject of tnmsportation overland of lndian annuity
goods, in whieh 1 recommeuded that the goods for Salt Lake Cit.y and
intermediate pOillts (meanillg" Salt Lake and Fort Bridger) shonld be
sent by mule teams, on account of remotelless oí tIlese pOilltS 1'rom t11e
Missouri Hiver, and that t11e gooas for aH other points should be trans-
portcd by oxen."


The witness sta tes that t11e Conlluissioner adopted bis recommencla-
tion, alHl this te8tilllOlly is reIied upon to settle tIle COlltrOYCl'Sy in favor
of t11c cIaimallt. vVhile thi8 wituOS8 clai1ll8 to baye been tIle anthor of
the words "intermediate points," and that they were inteuded to iuclude
Fort Bl'i(Igl'r onIy, it i8 snbmitted tltat he eanTlot have such an arbítrary
and exclusive use of tlle lUl1guage. They were not t11e words to convey
11is avowc(l mcaning'. FOl't Bridger waR a poillt to be ('alled by it8 de8ig-
uatiou aud name, and BOt by the phrasc of "interml'diate poi1lts," to t11e
exclusion of evel'y other fort 01' point between 0maha aud Salt Lake
City. Tltis tC8timony !loes 1Iot lack the peculiar force of impeaehill~
itself. T11e reaSOl1 fol' recommending mnle teams "on acconllt 01' tlle
remoteness of t11e points from tlle Missouri Hiver," applies a180 to Fort
Laramie, and was tite eon8ült>rntion wllieh intlnenced tIle g'overl1111ent
agents in rejectiug t11e elaimunt's mean8 of transpol't.atioll.


Whether 01' not, then, tIte oOl1traet is eonstrned as the elaimant im,;ists,
it 8CClll8 to be more doubtfnl if it has beell violatec1 as claimed; amI if
tile claimallt has 1Iot got t11e law oi' the government in t11is trausadion,
he does 1\ot appear to lJayl' tIw eqnity.


The dellla1lds of the gOVCl'lllllent were reasonable, and its lleeessities
were urgent. Tite daillll1llt hall due notice. Sinee he liad takcll the
eontraet, his profits had iucreased frolll natural canses thirty-four per
cent. He could, therefore, wen airon1 to provide the tl'am;portation
reqnired, amllook to tIte gOH'rlllnent for sati8faetion if hi8 rigbts shouId


• be iIlYaded.
The cOllllllittee ask to be diseharged from the further eonsideratioll oi'


this c1aim, reeommending tIw following :
Resoh'ed, That the clairu of Dwight J. l\lcCauu be rejeded.


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41sT CONGRESS, }
2d Se.9sion.


HOGSE OF HEPRESE~TATIVES.


• TONAS W. NYE.


{ REPORT No. 6 .


JA-"ITARY 21, 1870.-L:.tifl on the table and ortlered to be prínted.


1\fr. W. R. 'YASHBURN? from thc Comlllittee ofClaims. made the fúllowing


REPOHT.
Tile Committee 01 Olllim.~, to u·J¡mn ~cet'e re!urelZ the papen; o/ Jonas nr •


Nye, having examined the same, make the following report :
TIte subject-lllatter referred to the COllllllittee embraces three pretelldetl


dailllS gl'O\Ying out of thl'ce separat,e eoutraets in three distinct transac-
tiolls with thc goverumont, aml is dÍ\Tüled iuto tlnee parts.


Part 1. The claim of J. 'V. ~'ye, as assignee of Bargy and Van
Alstine, ami 01' Stewart, WllO were (~olltractOl'S for paving separate see-
tions of Penu'lylvauia avenue, iu tlle city of"\Vashingtoll, in the year
1832, is for losscs sustailled l>.y "aid contractor", ari"illg, as is alleged,
from the refusal of t.lle Uommissiollerof Pnblic Ruihlings to sllspeud the
work on aceount of the cllOlera, wherel)y tlle cost of labor was in-
creased, and al so from the illterfercnce 01' hcalth oflicers with the labor
01' tho mon, lHlvising them to avoül cxposurc dnring the heat of tIle day,
uy which less lauor was perforrncd, and tIlo contractoril conseqnentl,r
su~jected to a correspondillg loss.


The cIaimallt was snb-contractor on the work as well as tlle judgment
creditor of Bargy. He bcrmue the assiguee of both eontl'acts, and
elaims an aUloullt due thereo!l. fl'OlIl the Uuiteü States.


He prcsclltc(l his petition for relicf to tIle 2.'ith Congress, stating the
whole expellllitures, umler tlle Barg'y and Van Alstine eOlltract, at tlle
¡mm of $12,81U 44, and tlle amount l'aid hy the gOYf~l'IIlllent, $7,17440;
and a uill (S. 125) t01' the differencc ($5,ü4.) 04) was reported and passed
in the Senate at the 2cl session of tlle 25th Congress. The bill pro-
videü 1'01' tlle paylllellt oi' the alleged losses sustained b'y the contrac-
tor, not oceasionecl by neglect OH his part, alld restrict.ed tIle pa,rment
ulltil the men employcd WÜl'e full.y paül, 01' tiU secllrity to tltat e±feet
sllould be giycn to the Sccretary oi' tlle Treasury.


In the Honse tbe bill ~ms referred to the UOllllllittee of Claillls, where
it was sul~joeted to a, thol'onglt illvestigation. 1t was dis(~overed, on
the sworn testimon,r of tIlo con tractor, Barg'y, himself, that the alllollut
expelldell was hut $11,255 7ti, instead 01' the alllonut stated uy claimallt,
amI that, upon thc Ycry principIe of the Senatc' hill allolYing tIlO full
amount of Iosses sustained, there was appropria.tcd $1 ,5G3 G8 more thall
required to make np the defieicncy.


The Honse committcc went fnrt,her and prodnccd evidence to show,
and so repoded, that the actualloss sustained by reason of illterfel'cnce
OH the part 01' health officel's amountell to no more than $546 25, and
tllat committce rejccted the principIe of indemnit.y for alleged losses on
account 01' the epidemic.


The bill was rcported back, witll an amendrnent appropriating $546 25




2 JONAS W. NYE.


only; went to a COIDmittee of the vYhole House, on the prívate cale~dar,
and was never thereafter l'eached in the pl'ogl'ess of legislation.


At the next Ression of the twenty-fifth Congl'ess anotber bill for the
same purpose (S. 81) was reported in the Senate and passed for the
origillal amount, $5,645 04; was sellt to the Hom.;e alld passe<1 on the laRt
day of Congl'ess and became a law. (See 6 U. S. Stat. at Large; p. 760.)


The claimant received this mOiley, all he asked, in 1839, and by the
same token the laborers on the work were paid.


At the 2<1 sessioll ot' t,he 27th Congress thc Committcc 011' Public Ruild-
ings and Grounds reported House bill No. 219, for the relief of Stewart,
appropriating $6,662 25 upon the Rame principIe of the appropriation in
favor of Bargy and Van Alstinc. This bill was passcd and becarnc a
In" on the 81st Augnst, 1842, without any direct evidellee now to be
found aR to the actual 10RRes RURtained und!'r that (~oIltraet.


Snbs!'qnently the elaim was revived in the House of Hepresentatives,
and urged for several years before the Comlllittee t'or the Distriet of
Columbia on the pretext that "a considerable amoullt of the expenses
of the work done in 1832 was HOt paiU until 1833, whieh faet was not
brought to the knowledge of the attorney \\'110 pl'epared tlJe claim." But
this pretext has weighed llothing against tbe well-foumled eonvietion
that thel'e has be en already paiel, under said acts of Congress, more than
was jnstly dne.


The principIe that contractors are to be imlemnificd fúr losses arising
from natnral causes, against whieh they may not have been able to pro-
yide, is one that tlle eOl1l111ittee call1lOt salletion, but whieh they utterIy
eOIHlemn. In the early history of the goyernment it was maintained in
Congress that the duty 01' the goyernment was to carry out the terms of
its eoutraet and 110 more. That inaslllllch as it conld not partieipate in
the eOlltraetor's p1'ofits, it was not to make gool! his losses. Neither
justiee nol' honor seeIllR to demaml this; allíl the yio]ation of this prin-
cipIe in some notable cases, like the presclIt ono, has had the efreet of
keepillg stale alld UllSaYOry claims for years before the standing com-
lllittees, ami (jf invitillg llUIIWl'OllS l'uineu contractol's to besiege the
halls of üongl'css in tbe expeetation of rcgaining from tite treasury
t11ei1' snpposed 108ses through proviclenee, 01' their own improvidence, by
the misfortnnes of business aflairs.


If great mt1ll8S can lelld autho1'ity to this just aul! economical rule, it
has lJeen enfol'eed as early as the fourth Cong1'ess, ancl has been hith-
erto by the 1'eports of Jolm Cotton Smith amI Ul'iah 'fraey, 01' Connec-
ticut, of Dwigbt Foster, of .:\Iassaehusetts, and Bartlett Yancey, of
NOl'th Carolina" who wcre unslll'passed as lawyel's aml reaehed the
highest mnk as legislators in their day. After these eminent men, the
rnle was maintailled by Elijah \Vhittlese,y, and J. n. J. Daniel, who
were fUI mall,y :ycars, respeeti vely, at the llencl of the COlIllIlittee of C1aims
of this honse. And it appears that the exceptionnl cases where the
rule lIns been relaxed or ovmthrown, l!¡¡,yc been reported from special
eOlllmittees, 01' haye not reeeived a thorough aml illlpartial examination
in COl1lmittee.


Part 2 is a e1aim fúr fnrnishing' 1101'ses and earryalls for the use
of the Honse of Representatiyes of tIle 28th Congress, 1lllder contract
with the Postmaster, ,January 15, 1844, approyed by the Committee
OI! Aeeonnts. At the second session, the offiee1' diseoIltinned the em-
Ilis losses of the property, alld tlle e1aimant petitioned fúr indemnity fol'
}JloJ<ment OH aeeount of ill-nsage amI abuse of tbe pl'operty, to the
alllOllut (Ji' $;),000.


The subjeet was referred to the COlIlmittee on Acconnts, who investi-




JONAS W. NYE. 3
gated it, settled with the claimant, made an allowance, and took his
rl'ceipt in ÍltIl. 011 the 3d of JHarch, 1845, tIle committee reported
adyersely :t8 to auy claim grmrillg out of tIle employment of that prop-
erty. This by tite committee who approvcd thc contract and overlooked
tIte service.


Subseqnently, in thc 29th Congress, the claim was brought before the
,Tudiciary Committee of tIle House, with an account of the claimant's
misfodunes aIHIlosseR, by sickness and by fire, wIlo reported that thcre
might be cquitably dne about $525, recommending a resolution for tbat
amount ia fuU satiRfaction oí' tIle claim, and 1'01' aU dumages to tIle
property while ÍJI the service of the House. TIle resolution was passed,
and tIle claimant finally accepted 01' the amount, which, in the opinion
of this cOlllmittee, ought to be reckoned a final settlement 01' the claim.


Part 3 i8 1'01' damages nnder alease 1'rom the President 01' the
"C"nited States of the public reservation known as the 130tallical Gal'-
dens, in \Vashiugton City.


Tlle lease was made in pUl'suance of an act, July 5, 1812, authorizing
the Presidellt to leas e any of the public grounds in said city, 1'01' a
period not exceeding ten yearR, on such terms as in his jndgment would
best eft'eot tIleil' imp1'overnent for pubIic purposes, and was to continue
for ten years 1'l'om thc 29th April, 1843, cOllditioned for the improve-
ment of the p1'ope1'ty, but tbat the lessee should be liable to remove
fences and stables, and give up the property whenever sooner required
by the government.


A1'tcr five years, the Commissioner 01' Public Bnildings took posses-
sion of thp lot for the govcrnment, amI the clailllant was removed. He
llresentecl bis claim to the thirty-fourth Congress, and stated nnder oath
the amount of Ilis damages at $i>,:mo. The House passed a joint resolu-
tion for his 1'elief for that amount, hut the Senate committee required
further evidence of the vaIne of the improvelllents.


Tile daimant bronght tIle testimony 01' ono witncss that the improve-
ments amounted to $7,982 44, and tIle resolution was reported and
passed ,rithout mnemlment, amI became a law ,Tanuary 20, 1847.


Thc claimallt was thus paid tIle fuU amoullt of bis own estimate of the
value of his improvement¡,. Sinee tilen he has 1'evised bis accoullts, and
now charges thc gOYCrnlllcnt with tho amonnt estimatcd by 11is witness,
87,982 84, c1'editing the appropriatioll of January 20, 1847, $3,200, and
cash from sale nf materials $210, alld the use of property one year, only
$1,140 40, $4,i')¡íO 40, making anothcr claim for thc balance of $3,432 44.


This claim has been be1'o1'e Congress for seyeral years, and received
the fr\,Yorable report of tlle Committce for the Distriet 01' Columbia of
the thirtJ'-sixth Congress.


This eOllnuittee regard it adversely, as tlte after-birth of an illegiti.
mate claim, and tIlerefore recommend that it be not paid.


In conclusion, the papers aIld cvidence 01' this el:ülllant bave been
thoroughly cxamilled and official sourees eons'ttlted to a full under-
standing of the claillls, and tIloy are fOllnd to be entirely witbout merit,
and, in the OpillioIl of the committee, desel'ye no furtIler eonsideration
in Congress.


The committee ask to be discharged.


o






41ST CONGRESS, }
2d Session.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.


FREDJ1JRICK BROSJ<JNNE.


f REPORT
I No. 7.


J.\NUARr 21, Hl70.-Laid ou tbc table and onlercdto be priuted.


Mr. W. B. W ASHBURN, frOlll the Committf>e of Olaims, mada the fol-
lowing


REPORT.
The Gommittee 01 Claims, to ~c7wm 1i'Cre rejen'ed tlle pape/'s 01 ~Predm'ic7c


Brosenne, 01 Baltimore, JJfaryland, rnake the 10lloUJing report :
The claimant alleges that in the summer of 1864, the~milit.ary com-


mand of Brigadier General E. B. TyIer, stationed at the Relay House,
cut down and removed from his premises, in lloward Oounty, lying ad-
jacent; three hundred and ninety trees, valned at $4,980, used as timber
túr block-honses at the Relay House and at Elysville.


While the pnblie interests snbmitted to the discretion of general offi-
cers in time of war, with power to deal with the property ilS woll as the
liberty of tho eitizen, is of great importanee and extent, it is equally
their duty to report to tho War Department the value and cirenmstance
of all private property taken fol' military purposes, which might, under
any circumstallces, be l'eqnil'ed to be paiel foro They are provideel with
staff officel'S fol' this purpose, who are gove1'lled by regulations having
the force of law.


In this case ihero is evidence showing that 110 ropo1't of the use of
such property "as ever made to the "Val' Department, and there is no
o,idence from General Tyler, or nny officer of his command, of the use
of said property for the purpose alleged, 01' of the value of it.


The committeo therefore report adversely, with recommendation that
the memorial and papers lie upon tIte tableo and tlwt the committee be
discharged therefrom.


o






41sT CONGRESS, }
2d Scssion.


HOUSE OF HEPUESENTATIVES.


J. G. LANE.


{
REPORT


No. 8.


JANUARY 21, 1870.-Laid on the table ana oraered to be printed.


~fr. W. B. W ASHBURN, from the Committeo of Claims, made the fol-
lowing


REPORT.
The Committee of Claims, to wllmn were referred tlle memorial and evidenoo


of ,r. G. Lane, of lowa, having considered tlle same, make the following
report:


The claimant in October, 1865, was engaged in transporting grocerics
and subsisten ce stores from Omaha, Nebraska, westward through that
Territory, for sale and profit, on his own account, along tIle route of th6
Pacific railroad, tIten being eonstrueted.


On the 29th of Oetober, at Alkili Station, Nebraska, near the Colo-
rado line, his teams and property, eonsisting of eight thousand pounds
of fiour, dried frnit and vegetables, of the value of $1,740, were cap-
tured by a band ofhostile Indians supposed to belong to Arapahoes, Chey-
ennes, 01' Sionx. The elaimant asks to be reimbursed for the value of
the goods taken. Tho Indialls eOlllmitting tIlis depredation were noto
partieularly identified as of tribes receiying annuities from the United
States. TIlO claimant was pursning this enterprise at his own risk,
selling to soldiers and Indialls as wol1 as emigrants, without beiug either
a sutler to the soldiers 01' a trader with Indians. The Indians on
the line of his trade had be en in avowed hostility to emigrants and
trains for seyeral months, and none coultl say that they were without
notice of the dallger to life alld pmperty from lndian attacks.


Pursuing this hazHl'llous cntcrpl'ise at llis own risk, the committee
reeommend that he be left to his own romody, and thorcfore report ad-
versely, and that the memorial alld evidence do lie upon the tableo


o






41sT CONGRESS, }
2d Session.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.


JA1\fES F. SHATTUCK.


{
REPORT
No. 9.


JAXUARY 21, 1870.-Laid on the table and ordorcd to be printed.


MI'. W. R. W ASHBURN, from the COilllllittee of Olaims,madethe followiBg


REPORT.
The Ommnittee of Olaims, to 1ch01n -were ?'ejerred the memoria~ and papers of


James F. Shattuek, late ji1'St rieutenant, cO'lllp((ny H, Seventy-seveuth
regimer.t Pen?v5ylvania volunteers, malee the folrowing report:
That said company was improperly orderea iuto the military sernee


with the muster-in of said regiment, far the reasonthat the regiment
was less tlmn the minimum strength required, and the llleli of Company
H were assigned to other compauies, while the officers- were 0Il de-
tached 01' recruiting service. The compally organization was preserved,
howeve1', of which the elaimant had commaud, and did service with tae
regiment in the field, in tIle army of the Ohio, until the 20th N ovemoor,
1862. On the 18th of .June, 18G2, the claimant was detailed as ordnaooc
oflicer ofthe second division of said army corps, and performedduty prop-
erly and satisfactorily nntil his company was discharged and he was
relieved, by order oí' Major General Rosecrans from authority of the
War Department, on account of tlle improper muster-in of said compuny.
The claimant was finally paid for his service frolll 1st February to 30th
November, 1862, inclusive, ($1,090 50,) by order of the War Depart·
ment-the full time that he pel'Ío1'med any duty. This decision and
payment was not made until 31st lVIarch, 1863, during which time the
claimant represents that he was anxions to be restored and was ready
and expecting to again ga Hpan duty, and now asks an appropriation fol"
his pay 1'01' those four months. .


This committee have almost ullifa1'mly recommended tlle payment of
claims for military service, however irregular the authority, whenever
the service was performed in good faith. This was undollbtedly the case
in this instunce, and the claimant has been paid for the actual serviee
performed. In the opinion of the committee the government ollght not
to make good to him any 101515 01' time aftol" his service was discontinued
in endeavoring to secure his pay 01' to be returned to his position, lost
only through the disregard 01' lleglect of plain authority.


AH military afficers ought to be helel responsible 1'01" an intelligent
ullderstanding of the law ana regulatiollS governing their own organi-
zation and duties, amI in the Opillioll of this committee the officers of
this regiment amI company alone were at fauIt.


It is therefore recomrnended that this olaim be r~jeeted, that the
memorial lie UpOll the tablc, ane! the oommittee be elischarged from the
fu1'the1' oonsideration thereof.


o






41sT CONGRESS, t HOU~E OF HEPHESENTATl VES.
2d Session. ,


RENHY I~ENHART.


í REPOR'l'
) No. 10.


J.L\T.\BY 21, lBiO.-Laid 011 the tal)le find ordercd to he printe,L


::\11'. W. B. -VV Asnnnm, fi.'om tIte COlllmittee oí Clai1ll8, made the followillg


REPORT.
The Committce of O7a/11I8, to trl/OllI 1('(18 referred tl/C memorIal and da/m of


Henry Lenlwrt, of ]>a(luca/¡, Kenf1wky, make thefollowing report;'
The claÍmant states that in Novelllbcr, 1801, J\Ilajol' .J. H. Kuhn, com-


manding detaclllllent of nillth IllillOis infautry, was in command at
Paclucah as ading' p1'ovost lllarshal, nnd tItat he took brick aud lum ber
1'01' military purposes, tIre property oí claimant, to thc HlUollnt oí $2,574,
fol' which tlle claimarl); now asks to be reimbnrsed.


This claim ltns hOl'etofol'e beeu examined by a cOllunissioll of tlle War
Depal'tment aud rejected fol' tlo want of sufficicnt eyidellee oí i1:s truth
Hndjustiee. For the same reaSOll the committee report adyersely, with
the followillg reeommemlation :
Re.~ollJdl, TIlat tIte claim of Renry Lellhart be rejeded.


e






41ST CONGRESS, }
2d Session.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.


MRS. CATHARINE JACKSON.


{
REPOR1.'
No.n.


JANUAHY 21, 1870,-Laid on the table and orclerecl to lle l'rinted,


.l\-I1'. ,Y. B. '\YASHBURN, from the Committee of Claims,' made the fol.
lowing


REPORT.
TI/(} Conunittce ol Cla'¡ms, to whom teas referret.l tite memorial ol Mrs.


Catltarine ,Tack80n, make tlte 'follolring report:
CIaimant alleges that in Angust, 18G4, she was a milliner at Owens-


boro, Kentncky, and desiring to remoye to Cincinnati, Ohio, she hoxed
np he1' millinery gOQ(ls, arnounting to $4,999 and dispatched the
same to the wharf-hoat, ready for shipping and'transportatioIl; that a
band of rehel marauders, nnder color of military authority, on the next
<lay entered Owenshoro, and lmrned the wharf-boat and a11 its consign-
rnents, inclnding her property. She asks to be reimbursed by the gOY-
ernment.


The committee report adve1'sely as tú this claim, for the reason that
the goyernment is not au iusurer; aud iu time of war, milliners amI aH
other traders amI citizcus must take their eqnal risk against the acts of
the pnblic euemy.


Tilo committco thcrefore recornrnend that the claimant:s memorial lie
upou the table,and that they be (lischarged from further consideration
thereof.


o






I




41sT CONGRESS,} HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
2d Session.


GREEN AND TRAINOR.


{
REPORT
No. 12.


.JANUARY 21, 1870.~Laid O'll the tablo and ordered to be printed.


llr. W. B. W ASHBURN, from thc Committee of Olaims, made the fol·
lowing


REPORT.
The Oommittee of Olaims, to whom was referred the memorial of Green and


Trainor, of Sacramento, California, 1nake tlte following report :
On the 1st of J annary, 1865, the claimants were contractors for fresh


beef to the United States troops at Fort Uníon, California, for eight
months following, at nine and a half cents per pound, in government
tmids. The contmctors executed a bond to the government, with Je-
rom e Davis as surety, in $15,000 for the fnlfillment of the contracto
Owing to a drought in California, the scarcity of beef cattle was snch
that the price mn up to sixteen cents per pound, in gold, and the con-
tractors fol' fresh beef generally failed on the Pacifie coast.


The surety for the claimants, in this emergency, tendered to tbe officer
making tbe contract, aneI to General Wright, the military commander,
$15,000, the penalty of their bond, and asked tbat tbey might be re-
lieved, which was refnsed.


The claimants fulfillecl their contract to the satisfaction of the gov-
emment, estimating their actual losses at $16,013 36, and now ask to
be reimbursed by Congress.


The+relief is asked on the grouncl of losses from circumstances beyond
the power of man to pl'event 01' foresee.


TIle committec have repol'ted, in similar cases, that, in their opinion,
sueh grounds were insufficient for relieving contractors in their uneler-
takings with the goYel'llment. While these e1aimants were men of
business, and men of integrity, their ofrer to pay the forfeiture did )lot
relieve them from the full obligations of their contracto It was the
supplies for which t1Je government contracted, and not the penalty of
the bond, to be due after forfeitnre. That was but one motive towards
the fulfillment of the contI:aet. The e1aimants ,)'ould be liable, beyond
that, for the actual cost of the supplies for the period of the contracto
Admitting tbat the goyernment was supplied at less than actual cost,
in the market:, which, as a rule, it cauJlot desire to be, at the expense of
tlJe citizen, yet the contract was merely reciprocal, and no more, and to
disturb it under these circumstances is an example too pernicious to
receive the sanctinn of this committee. Other claims would poiut to it
as a prccedellt, until finally every barrier would be broken down between
sufrering con tractor s and the treasnry.


The committee recommend that the memorial and papers lie upon the
table, and that they be discharged from the furthcr consideration
tbereof.


o






41sT CONGRESS,} HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
2d Session. {


REPORT
No. 13.


========


SIl\ION VAN ETTEN.


JAXG.\HY 21, 1870.-Laicl on the table aud onlcl'ed to be printecl,


MI'. W. B. 'W ASHRURN, ti'om the Committee of Claims, made the fol-
lowing


REPORT.
Tlte Committee ()f Claims, to 1t'1wm tras yeferred the memorial oi Binwn Van


Rtten, of Coming, New York, make the follOldng report:
The claimant was a depnty fol' BdwanI Dodd, esq., United States


marshal fol' the northern district of New YOTk, and as snch 1Ield a writ
oi' snhpama for J ohn Hnggins, Samuel He(~keIt" amI Samnel vYilliams,
colored witnesses, to appea!' amI testifyat the January terro, 1864, of
said comt at Albany, N l'W York, in the case of the United States against
Henry IJ. Edson, indicted for aiding amI ahettíng desertion froro the
army and resistance to tIte draft. Tlle witnesses themselves were
desel'bors from the draft, undel' arrest and impl'isonmellt at the depot
for drafted men, at Elmil'a, Xew York. The military commandel' at
that post, in furtherallce of the ends of the civil conl't, madI' a special
order for t11e c1aimant, as depnty mal'shal, tn take eharge of the prisonel's
and convey thelll to ana frolll Albany as witnesses, and that the assist-
ant quartermaster fnrnish tIte necessary transpol'tatioll.


Under these circmnstances the prisoners were taken to Albanyas
witnesses, the marshal was al10wcd his legal fees under the suhpcena,
buí. no witness fe es ,,"ere taxed, " 011 the ground," as stated by the judge,
" that they were descrters and sent to the court by the military anthor-
ities and in their enstodv."


The claimant asks $lG9 for his services, inclu(ling $9 fol' subsistence
for the pl'isoners and $60 fol' expeuses llot specified. To this account
there are no voucheI's.


The clailllant presellts a further aceount of $250 88 fol' his services
in accompanying a squad of rccl'uits frolll Col'ning, New York, to Wash-
ington, and thence to Camp Grifiin, in Virginia, in l:<'cbrual'Y, 1862, and
deliyering them to Colonel B. P. Bailey, eommanding the eighty-sixth
New York volunteer infantry. It is elaimed this service was by the
authority of tIte reeruiting officer, T,ientenant F. r. vYood, Company 1,
eighty-sixth New York yolnntecr infantrYi btlt, in the opillion of tlle
eommittee, it was the duty of tIle reerniting oflicer, and one which he
eould not delegate to a citizen. No vouchers are su bmitted for any parí.
of this account. lt is the opinion of tile committee that the claimant
volunteered che senices without eompensation, for which he now makes
a claim of $419 88, without evidence and without merit, and which
ought to be r~jected. The committee report the same adversely, and
ask to be dischal'ged from furthel' consideration thereof.


o






"


· 41ST CONGRESS,} HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. {REPORT
· 2d Session. 1'10. 14.


LAND CLAUIS nxmm 'rl~EATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO.


-.
[To :l('(,OIl1pnllr hill Xo. 740.J


.J.\Xl:.\l:Y \!i, 1"<70.-0n1e1',,<1 tI) h ... l'l'illted.


Mr. COOK, fl'Olll thl' (10111l1littee on tlw ,/¡l(lieiar,r, made tIte follo\Yillg'


Report of tite Committee uf the Judiciary upon the bill relatú:e to pl'Í1"ate
laml ffl'llnts mula the treaty of Guadalupe, Hidalgo.


By tite treat.r refcrrcd to, all l'ights of' propert,r of tilo inhabitant.s oí'
the territol'y of l\Iexieo, eeded to theCniteü States nnüer said treat.\',
were to Le illyiola hly maintailled alltl pl'oteetel1.


In tltat territory lItally g'l'<llltS of lantl 1'01' tIte pnl'pose of colonizatioll
had bl'PIl lll:ule iUIHlI'SwtllCe oí' tite laws of lUexieo.


Confirmation of tltei'il' g'l'anti'i by tIte Ulliü'd Statei'i, llaye been ltlade
in two modes :


1. ~lall:r g'rants haye lleen confirmctl hy aet of Congress UpOll dired
applicatioll of tlle daimitllt ",bere the e1aim has IlOt been snbmitted to
an.)' board of eOIlLlllissioners 01' conrt of tlle lJllitcd States.


2. Grallts Ilaye lwcu eOlll1nncfl hy tltc board of eOillmissionen; appoillt,
.. edunder tite pl'oyi~iOlI~ of tite ad. of ,} une 12, 18JO, and in sonw (~as(~~
by the e~mrtH of t1le Uuitetl States llpOlI appeal frOlll tIte d('eisioll of
said board of eOllllllis~iOlWl'S.


In somc instmwes whcn grallts haye beell made under the la W of
< • Mexieo. amI eOllfirmed byaet oi' .Collgrcss, tIte qnautity of lamI con,
!t, tained in tlle clailll was not specitim} in leagues 01' otller mcasnrements
~t,· or defined by lineal bOlllHlaries with COUl'ses alld distanees, lmt 1,lw
.... limits 01' tltc grallt were yery iudpfiuitL\, being desigllated by g'ellcral
;;boundal'ie~ hy natural 1'eatll1'eS of tIte eountry ollly. Undel' grants ~o
~>oonfirmed applicatiolls haye !leen aIHI are now llcillg' made fOl' patcl\t~


y?for large traets 01' lalltl in \'(-'l'y lIlall.)' illstanees exet~etliIlg eIcyen square
.····.Ieagues, alltl ill olle illstanee, at least, oi' a elairn confirmed by its Illllllhel',


(115,) by tlIe aet of 21~t ,J lIne, 18GO, ;::;tatlltes, '1'01. 12, page 71, tlIe pmtit's
insist upon their right to a S lllTCy , whieh \nmltl eover 450 sflwu'j,
leagues or oycr ~,OOO,OOO aen's.


Uuder theact oí' the lUexiean Congress of Angust 18, 18~J, systelllatit:
'regulatiolls fOl' eolollizatjoll ",ere ü:ame(l, beal'ing' date N oyembel' ~1,
1828, ítlHIlllHler tlIat, ad the gow'TnOl' had not ])O,"C1' to grallt 1ll0l'('
than eleyen Iengum; of Jantl to ~llly ])l'iyate person fol' tlle pnrpose oí' ('111-
tivating' amI inhahitillg' them. These grauts werc confirmed by tlll',
lIumuer of the grallt ",ithont SlW(:i(yillg in the aet the f[uantity of tIH'


)andconfil'lllCd to tlle elailllant. The Supremc Cond ofthe Uuited States
· llave repeate<ll.\- deeirled that, ll11tlPl' the law of lHexieo, the goyerno.r ha<l


no rig'llt to .grant IllOl'e than plt'Yl'1I leagues, (Ullited Sta tes V8. Larkill
et al, IR How., ¡¡¡¡i; Ullitl'(1 Stat('~ /'S. II Hl'twf'll, ~2 How., ~86,) whieh Sf'f'Ill~




2 LAND CLAIMS UNDER TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO.


to place the matÍ(~r lJeyond all further controversy. 'l']¡e cOlllll1ittee are
thcr"fóre of opillion, that no prívate grallt ot' tbe MexicHn gOyernOl' can
he' \alid rOl' ll101~e than eleven square leagues; and that uuder t11e treaty
tite Unite<l Sta tes are nnder no obligatioll to COnTIl'lll aJly ~mch pri,'ate
gmnt to a larger qlumtity of laTId. The comrnittee tll('1'('fo1'(, rec0lllllH'ud
thp passage 01' the till.




41s'1' CONGlm.cSS, }
2cl. Session.


HOUSE 01>' HBI'm~SE~~TATlVES. í HEPOR'l'
t No. 16.


JOHN COVODE VS. lIENRY D. FOSTER .
• J.\NUAHY 27, 187U,-Lnid 011 tlw table amI on1"1',,<1 to he prilltcd,


Mr. CmnWIlILL, from tite Committee of B1ectiolls, snbmittecl the fo1-
lowing'


REPORT.
Tite Oomrnittee of Bleetiolls, to 1c1wm1l't/s rcjárelZ the contestcrl eleetion case


from thc tlce¡¡t.Ij-Jir.~t cO/lgrcssional district o)' Pennsylwnia, to lchieh
Jo/m Corode amI Henn/ D. Posta are flw 7u(rties, ImbJ/tit tite foll;noing :
Bv tlte 1all'8 01' the State of l'ennsvIyania. it is malle the flutv of the


governol', 011 the l'ee('ipt hy tlle spcn;tar,Y of tlle COllllllOllwealtll 01' the _
retnrns oí' tlle e!ectioll nf ¡IlCllllwl's of thc Homw 01' Represclltath-es 01'
tlle U nited Stntes, to der;lal'e, by proclamatioll, t1le llameR oí' the persons
retnrned as eleetl'd in tlleil' ]'('Rppetin' di,.;tl'iets, On the 17th oí' Novcm-
ber, 1<')1;8, tllP govcl'llor j"slle(l his pmelall1atiou, g'iving' tite llames of the
persollR /'00 elt't'ÍC'd at tll(' electloll heltl in tita! State OIl the 13tlt of the
previOlls Oetobt'r, t'xeept ill tlw t.wPllt,Y-1il';.;t (listl'id of the State, com-
posed of the COlllltil's oí' Indiana, ,V rMlIlorelmirl, allrl Fayette; as to
wJ¡jelt (1i/'Otl'id tite prodalllatioll /'Otaü·tl that no sndl retnrlls oí' tIte
elcetioll l!lld bl'C'1l n·!: .. i\'p([ llY tllt' (iC'(TPhn'y of tlw (J0Tl1111011Wl'alth as
wouIll, nllder the ('lee!ioll la\\:-s of tll(' Statt;, authol'Íze him to prodaim
tbe llame oí' auy }WI'ROll a,.; ha ying' ll(~ell r('flll'llet! (lnly el('de(} a Illelll her
01' the HOllse 01' Hepre";Plltatin's of the UlIited Sta tes fol' tJlUt tlistrict.
The Clerl~ 01' t.lw Ilonsl', fl)llolYillg' tite pl'odamat ion oí' t]¡e gO\-el'IlOI', in
rnaldng n]l tIle roIl 01' Illelllb!~l'''; oi' t he fOl'ty-tirst UOllgl'ess, llallled no
perSOll as lllCl1lUer eted fl'olll th:ü distl'iet, au(} tlte whole C[nestion was
hel!1 open fOl' the netioll uf the HOl1!:ie 01' ltqJreselltatin',.;,


1'11(' BOIl .• Johll Co\'ode :l!ldl he UOll. HClll',Y D. Po,.;t!·}' ]ll'esl'llted tltem-
selH~s -to t1le Bonse, eneh ('laiming' to lU1\-e bPl'll dnly eloded 1.0 repre-
SPllt tha! distl'id, :lml the wllOle lllntter \ya", Oll tll(' ,.;('conü day of April,
lSU!!, referl'(~{l hy the Honse to tite Cllllllllittec of EleetiollS by tite ¡'oI-
lowing- resolntloll :


Resoll'ed, Tha1. tll!' !:ollteste!l pketiOll case fl'Olll the tWl'nty-tif'st eon·
~ressiollnI distriet oí' l'ellll,;yIYllllia be r(,(~oltllllitü~<1 to the COllllllittep oí'
Ele(:tiollS with illstl'lletiolls to rl'port. npoll tlt" llll'l'its of tlw ease, wlto
is mtitled to n']ll'(,";l'lIt ,.;;¡id (listl'iet in tllh IlImse, with nntllOl'it,Y to
make I'eg'nlntiolls to gon>\'ll t]¡e Illolle pf eOllll1l(~tillg tlJe COlÜ('st aud
takill!!: tt·"tilllOlIY.
TIH~ Hou>1e aftm'\yar(l, llll tlw t;t1l of A]ll'il, I8GD, H(lopte\l the followillg


reguJatioll"; 1'01' t11e eo' <lid of tlw eoutt·/'Ot, llil<!er wltielt the elaimants
pl'ocee<letl tn take testilllO;¡,V :
" R';.1'l.!ati~)¡i,'f lo)' (:J!t'l'cUIt., tlw C'),\¿~(i~ «( td h 1.;¿.'(.1 r( ;li¡n )n'j ilt th:.; C()'ltc:-:ferl f.'!eGtiOil case fro'm


t/w 11I"('1I1.'I:tir"1 e0I1!!rC88iOlwl di"trid of 1'''''I/.,!/11'IIIIi", fo II'lti,.!t ,Jo!tit Cu,'ode (1/1(/ H6II/'y D.
[<'osfe/' are IJI(: partirs,
"Eadl uf tlt" daílllltnls sI mIl ~~rve l\]Jlllllhe otlt,.;, a ll:ltiet) of t11,' gro:lllrls ou which


he claims tlw s"at, hefol'<l .Tulle 1, Id,U, auLl aH all~wer to tlw llOtiCtl 01' híB OppOlhnt,
et'OI'<l .Tmw :W, l,UJ_




2 COVODE VS. FOStER.
e Baid eo,orle sball take his testimolly betweeu tbe first alld fifteellth uays, inclu~ivo,


of .TlIl~', Augnst, and 8eptember, 1869, alld said Foster sball tako bi~ tl'stimony !H,tWt\1'1l
thfl sixtef'Ilth alHllast ,Iays, inclusive, of thc samo mouths.


"Tlw statntory provisions regnlatiug ordinary cases of I'ontest ~llnJl apply to this
caso so fuI' as tbe same are (\onsistent with these regnlatiolls.


"All testimoll>- shall bu trausmitted, lindel' seal, by the offiel'rs bdol'!' wlmm the san",
~hall be t,aken, tu tlle Clerk 01' tbe Honae, at \Vasbillgton, so as to be re"eivefl by said
Clel'k befilrC\ th" 15th da~- of Octoher, 1f'H9, llP1'orp wllieh (by tlw notiees, answers, evi-
olene,', aUlI exhilJits in tlw case shall be Jiled with said Clerk; and tlw elerk nf the
Committee of Electiolls shall i1ll1llediately then'after arrangt' tlw pa,p,'rs tin' thOl Publi"
Printer, 3n<l causl; the 8al1W to he prilltetl befo re the 1st (lay ()f Nov"lllher, 18H9.


" The printed argumcllt, 01' tbe clailllants shall be til"fl wif,h tllE' Colltlllittcr, of };Iel'-
tiOH OH the first (by of tlw 11":; t ,,'ssion nf Congr¡;ss. ,.


The¡'efore re.901l,ed, That the foregnlllg regul:ttiulls nf tite COllllIlit,tco 01' Eleet,i()ll~ 1'01"
iOOIulnetillg tlle contest an,1 taldu¡.( tlw testilllfllly in tlw cOIl(e,ted el"elioll case üom tlw
twenty-first congressional ,listriO'.! nf Pt'llllsylvallia hó', antl tlw S:llll" ho,rl'hy ar,'. ;l,{]o]lte(l
1>y tbis honse.


Attest:
EDW. McI'HERt-\Oi'í, C'lel'k.


l<Jaeh of t,he partics SetTe(! UpOll tllP otller Iloti(,p of tlH' grOltn(IK llpOll
\Vhich he elaüned the seat, iu acconlallce witlt the ahoye reg'ulations, <lnd
ca.eh nlso su'\'ell an anHWCl' dellyiug tlll~ eharges eOIl tailled in tll(' IlOtiCP
of the other, alld thereafter eadl pal'ty too k ü'Ktitrlfmy ill Kllpport of tlteir
several elaitnR, ,,~ltich, with tIa' ]lrillterl argumcnts of t11(\ ¡¡arties, have
been Sllllmitted to thp (~omIllitt('('. 'rhe noticeN ahoye referred too to
gether with the answcrs of tlw parti(·s, fl'OlIl t heir great length are Ilot
insertca in thiR report, hui will be fOllad in thl' papel' bOllk at pagcs
7-16 alld 278-2\)2.


From thc eel'titieateK uf tlw retum jlldges of tl}!' Ken'raL eumltieK
eomposing this distrid, (\rhidl will be fOlllld in tIte' papel' book at pag(\R
152 alld 153, and whicll me aeeepted h~' 1I0th elaimants as eorrl'etly
C:ltating the result oi" t he rcturns from the sewra1 VOtillg preeinets in eaeh
eounty,) it appears that 1~),S07 yotes \Yere retuI'lleíl as east fuI' HenI'y D.
Foster, aud 13,7ü() for .Jolm Coy()(le, Rhowing npoll the returns H mnjority
t'or the-Íormer oí" 41 votes.


The e\'idence ofl:'ererl by 1he Bon. Hclll'y D. I,'ostcl' seelllK to establish
thnt three persons, to wit: Ed warel ;\leAlister, of J~airtield TOWIIShip,
'VestlIloreland Couuty; amI SalllllP] Falkem;tei1l, 01' Gerlllall rl'o\\'lI~
ship, and Daniel Delalley~ of BrilIge]lort BOI'ongh, hotlt ot Faj-ettp
County, were legal Yott~r8, alld that their \'oteH \YeTe n:jected hy the se\'~
eral boards of eleetioll of thOKl' 1Llealiti('~, a!l(I tha t thl'y \\,(mIli, il:' pP]'~
mitted, lIaye yoted for lIenry D. FostcL' f'or COllgTess.


It also seems to t'stabliKh 1 hat tw(~nty l'erKolls ,yel'p impropl'd~- Pl'r
mitted t,o vote at that l'Ü'CtiOll, amI wll() di(1 \,(lte fol' .101t1l (~()Y()(lP fol'
CongTess, WhOHf' ll:l tllPR, rpside¡'wes, amI the reaSOll \\'hy tlteir \'ot('s
should h~lVe been re;jected, ,,,ill apppar t"rOlll tltl' f()llowillg' b¡},!e:


Namr.


~,'.\ \T,T1"E ('Ol'STY.


JHartin Lntz. __
.r :H~oh flallt1t'I'S. _ .....
~il'imF\ "Tdb._


r'Il:Ulltll\\ Ii 1~:lr~)llf.!h
('o!JUt,!i ..... dlL .
V:t,\-pllt> ('i1\-.


~nfll'ew llahl. !\(ll'tlt 1l1\llt:l)!..:.1oiJ
"aeob l\Iart7. .. _ ... _ PI'lln ]~4,nlll:"::']:'
.J. J\..L Ch~mellt~... 'Yai-ihingt')J¡'
Aarol1Jt'tt'rit'~o o o .. ~_. XOl'tllll11IlEIl;.;',jr¡'l
BPllllctt Yallliil'k. o •• ~ •••••• }{oHtra\·t'l'.
SpUl'kli Cooper.. . ..... do ....
\Vlllia.m Na\" ... ~.""" o _ •••••••••••• do ..
·"Villiam R. "Snydl..'l'. Holin;(" ... ,.


;,I ¡nol
. ... do ..
;';lln-r,'·~iil·nl


_: !/;-, ~~~j, :l"l", ;;'2:1, :l:~O
;~;2\ )
:1;\1)


XO:¡-I·I·:--illl~l!t ...... i
..... til) 'I).J, :~~;!, ~1,:) o)¡,) .• kd


;:71,·1:3":
'11ti
'¡~I,nl.,j:n


4:,21
4:~~


417, >144', -14;;


~ri!lOr
~ oll-rl':-ddt'll+~


... do
elo


};P"l'O
Yotf·t! t.Wii~




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 3


Name. I'lace of YOtillg. rUegality. Evidence.


--1 - ----!------
ISDIAXA CÜUNTY.


i
.Iohn Mullen. __ ... -..... _1 ~ahzlml'g' __ .. -_o- ____ o Minor __ _
~~I~YW~~~bffl:~~~::::: ~ ~ --~ ~ ~ _ ~~~~~~oM.~l~~~~~~.- ...... ~ .-. _____ . __ . ~i~~~a~·~'_t.~~ t.aA
GooJ'ge R. Bohler .. __ . _______ . CcntBr TOWllshi)1. _____________ . NOll-l'e~iidel1t. ___ _
George 'v. Kephnrt. _______ 1 C11PI'l'y Hill. ___________________ . Millor - -_
Calvin Hall ...... _ .... _." ___ .! Washington Township. _____ . __ . _____ .üo __ . _. __ _
.James McQuolln .. _._. _____ ~I ).,Torth ~{¡lhouillg ___ .____ _.do.
David Proctor. _ _ _ _ . __ .. 1 G:r(~E'rle .N egro. __ _
AdamBowe~s_ .. _____________ ! Bl'n~h Vallf'y ___ .. _ _ _ ~on-assC's.smeIlt. --1


383
4:l4,446
434 435
437: 438
4~B, 4~n
44U,441


441
442,443,447
44~


Adding the then llrst mentionctl yotes t,o tIloso retnrned for Henry D.
Poster, aJl(l suhtraetillg tlle twellty last mentioned from those returned
fol' JOl111 Covodo, wil! make tlle majority 01' the former sixty-fonr.


'1'0 overcome this majo1'ity it is claimed on tile part of ,;\11'. Oovode-
1. That the clltire poll oí' Dun har TOWllShip, in Fayott.e COUllty, should


be excluded.
2. That tll(~ eutire polI of Youngsto"'ll distl'iet, in \Vestmoreland


COl1nty, s!tonl(l 00 cxclndcd;
3. Tltat a l~ollsideI'able !lumbel' 01' paupel'S frolll the }loor-honses of


\Vestmorelantl al\(l Fa:l'ette Counties 'Yere ill1p1'opcrly perlllitted to vote
in tIte tOWIlS who1'c thosc poor-honses w('l'l~ situated, and wllere it is
e1aimell thev lmtl 110 residellCe ; and th¡¡t they votell fUI' ]VII'. Foster.


,1. Tbat n' largo lllllllhel' of aíimls, illlportecl men, nOll residonts of tlle
distriets wllel'c tlH'y yote(l, alll1 lnnatieo-1, \Yere ÍllIpl'Operly permitted to
votl" am1 <litl votp fOl' .JIt'. F()~ter, alld also that yotes ,vere improperly
eoulltf'd to 11im.


¡jo 'l'hat YOÜ'S olÜ'rpll hy qualitiefl YOV')'" fol' .lo1m Covode were im-
properly rejecte<1.


These claims will he comü(lercd in the Ol'llt~I' in ",IJich tlley are statcd.
1. \Vhile it is \Vell psfahlislted that mere neglect to pertOl'lll <lirectorJ~


reqniremellts oí' the law, 01' IWrfOl'lnallCe iJl a mistaken mallllor, wlH'l'o
there is HO haü failh and no harm has accrned, ,vill.instify tlle rejection
of au entire po]], it 18 eqnally wdl settled that. ,,-hore tIle proecel1ings are
so tarnished h.y fraudulellt, 01' lleg'ligent, 01' irnlll'Oller cO]]ll\1ct OH tho part
oí' tite officcl'S, as that tite '1'(>snlt oí' the electioll is rem1cred unreliable,
the cutire retul'lls will he rc:jede(l, arul tlw pal'ties left to makc such pl'oof
as tlle,\' may oi' yote¡l l('gally cast fol' tltcm.


In ~rann es. Oassí(ly, ] Brewster, Ponll. R., GO, Thompson, P. ,1., sa.ys:
"\Vhen t11e condnet oí' tlw eleetioll offieers is such as to destrov tlle in-
tegrity oí' tite ir l'etlll'ns, aIH1 to ayoill tite prima fiwie chal'acter which
they ought to bcar ao-1 C\'Í(lÜllCe, 11tH' aUl1 adequate proof mnst he de-
manded oí' eadl yote relied OH.· 'f!lis rule lIU1y opf~rate seyerel,r upon
an illllOCCllt candida,te; hnt lIot ltis l'ights alone, hut those oí' tItA whole
poople, are jeopal'ded by falsehoo(l:,; 01' il'l'!~¡.!;lllarities oI' a 'fiagrallt, char-
acter,' whcu we look in YHin fol' t1wt good faitll anll integl'it.y who:,;c pres-
en ce is potent to saye frolll lIlH1el'sigucd slips Ol' eyen grayo omissiolls."


The sallle doctrine \Yas aftennt.nls affil'llletl by tIte Ramo comt in tlle
case oi" Thompsoll I'S. E\Viug', 1 Brew~ter, (¡¡-by the eourt of COm111011
pIeas of Phila<lelpltia, in tito C~lse 01' \V eayer vs. Uiycn, 1 Bl'owster, 140-
hy the eOltlIuittPll oí' tile leg'Í;.,lntul'C of POllllsylv<Lllia, in tlle case of
TlIayer t'8. Grccnballk,l Brpwstcr, l:)!}-hytlle pl'escnt Honse oI' I~epre­
Rentatives aml tlle ]1l'eRcnt Committl'Ü of Eiediolls, in tlle case of .M.rers
/'8 • .:\Ioft'ett, in \l'ltidl tlw committce, in tlll'ir rC]1ort, say that "iu sncb
cases llot ollly State ronrts lmt h'gi:,;latul'l't' alld Congress ha.ye lIot hesi-




4 COYODE VS. FOSTER.


tated to declare tIJo ,,~hole po11 yoid amI of 110 effeet, except as tú Sllll11
vote8 a8 eitlu'I' pa!'t~~ eilOose8 to f\a YC', lJypl'oof of tlteil' legillity." 1 B1"eIYs-
ter, 24ü. 'rIJo ,,~hole groulHl has becll stiU more recolltl~- carefully
rede,w'd, alld this dodrine f\uf\taÍllPd b,\- tlw COlllt oi' COIIIIIO!l pIcas of
Philadelphia, ill the cOllteste(1 elt,ctioll case8 g'l'OWillg' out of tllP eleetion
fOl' eity ofticel'B in Philadelpl1ia, in lSG8.


In tlw eleetioll at DlIubal' 'l'OWllShip, tlw .in(1ge HJl{1 OliO im;pedor-a.
lllfljorit.r of the boanl-wel'c llclIlocl'atic. Unc ins]lcetor ,ras a l"cpnb1i~
call. Sorne di ffi cuIt y OCCUlTl'd in timling the ballot~boxe~, which hall
bet'll d"j)osite<1, it \Tfluld S(,(,lll, at all ll11mHUI] pllwü after lh\' pl'PtP(lillg
spring eleetion, amI the el('ction was 0P('II('11 abont llille o'doek iu tIte
lllol'llillg by l1siug a hat ma1 eigar box iu "lti!:h to reeeiyo UH' yot('S, in
the ah8l'nCe am1 ",itllOn! tite as"t'llt oí' tlw ]"elmbliean im;¡leetol', (pHge
26.) 'rhe hox and ltat \Yere opell, HlIÜ pIaced l1pOll the \Yilldo\V~sill, 01' a
sbelf hy tIle Willdo\\" tllroUg]¡ ,,"bidl tlle Yotl'S \n'I"P n'(~('in~d, ami ]lPl'SOllS
other than memhers oí' thc board \yere perlllitted ill the rOOlll \\"herí' tIte
votes were n'cpiyed, amL were upar tlw l!oxps, alHl \r('n~ pas;>iug" in alld
out at pleasure durillg the day, (18, 21, 2n, JOH.) Tlte!'e \Yas gwat lloise
and confnsion in the rooul, (lS.) ''''hiNky \\w, kept ill t!w room amI
l1('ar the lJallot-boxes, amI ü'epl,Y drallk hy all tlw lllellllH'l"s (Ir the board,
amI by tlte dcmocratic club, aml also by otltcr ]larties 'who ('aliJe illto tite
room, (18, 1U, 20, lOU.) l'crsons Hude!' tite illiÍlWlH:Ü o[ lIqno!' eame in
frolIl the ontsille, (2H7.) A uottle oí' w Itisk~' tel1 i"1"01ll the IH)('ket oí' oue
of the inspedon; of olectioll, amI \nlS bl'okl'll, amI a coutrilHitlOll was
taken up amollg tite oflie('1's of the ('IC'dioll alHl allot1l(~r pllj'('lwsed, (lS,
20.) A scuflie for tile posse~sioll oí' (lile hottle of ,,,hisk,Y too,k plaee in
the room "'llere yotes \\"('1'P ]'(>('cin'd, ami within a few f"C'et oi" tlw boxcs,
participaten in by a nnmber of ]JC'rsoIl8, (21.) The 1l1ll01lllt (ji' 1¡(Jlln!' lIad
there, one witness sayR, ,ras about haH a gallnu, (1 OD.) 'rlw <1el!l(wratic
inspector, :\IeCnlloug-h, ",110 reeeiH'(1 tite, Yot(':-; at tlw \yillÜO\Y thp g-l'eater
part of the time dlll'iílg thp Iby, (:.W,) an<1 \dlO",e yig'ilance ',Vltile so 1'0-
ceiying them was the pl'illtipa1lll'otl'l'tioll ag'aillst iutCl'Ü'n'llco with tlte
ba1l0ts whieh liad llec1l '\'ott'<1, c~peeilll1y dlll"illg" t1w fin-d tm) ltOUl"S in
whieh Yote8 continlled to be l'eeei\-cü ÍlI tho IIat amI cigal' hox, lwcllllle
ver,r much excite!l with li(}llOl', \\"a~ rnd\' ami boistel'ous, ('nrsiJl{2: anll
swearing, shonti1lg" to persow; olltsi(h> of tite "'iudo\y, aJl(l thl'llstillg his
hearl ann arm out oí' the \yindow, am1 8hontillg fol' the delllocratie ean~
didates. (18, 20, lOn.) \VlIile so sitllaü'(], he would seem to hayo beeu
equally unfitted, by his l'ositioll aml his cOll(1ition, fl'Olll eWrdt'lÍllg proper
care over tlw <:olltellt:> of tite lJoxps, espeeially frolll pel'SOUS 011 tite
iusido, where democratic tic1~('ts~ othl'l" tlIan tltose \\"lIidl lIad l)pen vote!!,
were deposited, and \Yel'e isslle!l to lwrsolls illilidr oí' tl1(', rOOlll, (~l.)
More tban one witnes8 jll'C8cut t('stlfies tlIat ballots eoulrl ha ye b('(,ll l)Ut
in 01' taken out of the l:at Hlld c-ig-nl' hox ,,,hile !lPillg- lISf'!! to I'eeei,-e
votes at that elpetioll, (21, 110.)


Challellg('s wC're (lisrC'ganlell. ,). H. J¡yel'~, 1\1 artill D. Pupe, l,V.illiam
.T. Martin, Thonuul P. vValkel', nllll orhel'R, t(,~itif,\" t,ltat tltp,Y dIalll'llg-ed
different persu!ls offerillg tI) Yote, amI tlleil' <:1tall!'llg'es \H're di:-:rC'g-ar(led,
and in 80me in.stauees laughed nt by tlte d,:>mlwratic illSpedol' I'P('cidllg
the vot"8; and tlle votes \H're n'epiy('(l. llOt,\\ithstn1Hlillg tllP ehallellgl',
and without tIlo parti('s heillg S\YOl'1l. Iu ¡':OllW ea s!':>, \\"IH'n~ olJjeetion
was made oa the gronnd of aliellag'¡~, a1l(l papel's \\'ere IJl'eSl'ltt('(l by i.\w
voter, the vote \Vas reeeive(l witltOllt tlw P~lJH'I'S hpill,!!: Opelll'!l, m1l1 \\"ith-
out any examinatioll by tite illspettOl' jo astPrt,aill PitlteI' tltpil' dmra('tBl'
01' their genuinCnes8, (:W, 21, 2;}, 2í, 28, lOD.)


Onl' Kplley. when ehallpllg-ell, }ln'''l'lltcd ;1 hott!p of \\"hisk.\. ;;;nylng"




COVODE VS. FOSTEi1. 5
that ",as his jmperE:;. He aftc]'w:ll'(t,; \ras bl'ought again Í\) the polls alllI
presented pretellded 1HltllraJizatio]) papp]'i'\, :l1ltl ¡lis yote ",ns l'eeeiveu,
(20, lOO.) lI(' \Yas ('Xalllillt'd, dlll'ing this iIn-estig'atioll~ :11Hl s"ore that
he ,ras lljlOIl a (hu]) kell i'\¡¡rpp :ü t he tilllG of tlli8 eketioll, amI hall no
IwO\rle<1g'e or rl'coIlediull "llfltevel' ofhaving' been pn'sellt at that elec-
tion; :111([ flU'thpl', tlmt lln had llPyer b('en llatul'alized, amI Jwd never
lw(] any llatnralizatloll pa]wrs, (;)S.) Othpl'i'\ yotpll llJWll papel' i'\11O"'1l to
llave lwell ü'alldulent, whie]¡ míS gl'p<ltl.,- fneilitated by t1le sligllt eXUlll-
inatioll, 01' entil'Ü Ilegll>(~toí' (>xalllill::tioll oi' pallPI's. \"hiel! SpelLli'\ to 1Ia,'e
c1wnwtel'ized t]¡e COlltlll<:f ni' t he bo:m1.


\\'J¡ilp tite Yolillg ill !lw hai aml ei¡.:::!r box ,,'[lS ~'et going OH, OlIO \Vil-
liam :\¡('[)owell lIlHl'c]¡e41 :l (:Oltl]llllly ot' thil'ty m' i(H't~- pPl'i'\OllR fl'Olllll'ish
TO\Yll, lIlostly stl'llng-el's, ill military orl1('1', to tjw pollf\, ,y]¡ere tlley oeeu-
pied the space in fl'Ollt. of tite wilHlo\\- "heL' yo tes \Yero l'ecei\'erl, al1d
held it. lllltil thc eOlllpally had yott'(1, ;1u(1 in SIH:ll a lWIIlllPt tllllt it "'as
\'er:, tlitlienlt to ehnlh'llg'u t]¡P!lJ; they \H'H', ]¡O\YCYCJ', fre{]uelltly chnl-
lenged, lmi, lhei'\'; ('ltallplIges \H'TP dii'\l'l'gai'(lpd, anrl llO atJelltiol! paid to
tIH'ID, (2(;, 28, ]~ID,) III tllis (,olllpan,\' \\'e1'(, qnite a 11l1mheT' nf persollS
",110 had lwell illlpol'trd frOlll l'itti'hlll'g, 011 Satllnlay, tlw ;;ü dayoí'
Ol'tober, tlle la:st dH~' Oll \rhieh tll{'Y eOldtl he H:ssessed to "ot(' at tilat
electioll, aIHl \\'110 h;u] lWl'll nssesf\ell impropl'l'l,r hy }[OSPf\ POlte1', tlle
nssf'Si'\Ol' of tlJe to\\'mihi]l~ Ü'0l1l :l. liKr, flll'lli~.;hp(1 hilll by ,JOhll H. SlIlitlJ
amI \YílIimn 81)('p1'K, ,,,110 liad ]W('ll COlH'('l'lle(1 in t!JcÍr Ímportation, witIl-
out t[¡pir lw1'sollal applieatioll in ltilll, alle! \\'ithout his eH,1' ha\'Íllg' scell
t]¡Pl1l, lllH], if SlIlirh ii'\ to hl' 1wlil'''('(], :lfh'l' hiK time to llIake assessments
ior the Oetoher t'leetioll had eXlli),t'I1, en, ;,,1, 7·1, tl:3, :!Utl.) Tlle presenec
01' thp~p illlll0l'tPlI Yott'l'S in t Iw t oWll.~.lJi II \Yas kllf)\\,ll to t he frip.uds of
.Mr. COYot1l', lmí: tl)('i]' lmrpose to pl'en'lIt the ."Hu'ess of tlle sclleme ,yal'
prewllted h . ..- themal1llero1.tll(.il.Yotill.!!. .• amI the disl'l'garü of e]¡al!Pllges
by tlw hwml, (7H.)


From ",bat llas b('eH Kairl, it ,yil! Bot he sm'pri"ing to leam, wltat is ÍlI
eyidPIWe ill 111f' ('ai'\t', t Iwt 110 !le II 10 ('l'ati(' y()t~, mis n:je(~tf,d hy tlln hoanl
that da,)', (110.)


A little arter p]e\'ell, amI artl'l' nlJont one IllllH]retl aHIl JUh- yoteR had
hpen polJt>(l, t]¡p regular hallot-hoxpi'\ \H'l'(~ ohtailll'(l, m)(l tht; yotes "ere
t.ransü'1'red to thp!U from fIJe ]¡at amI eigar hox hy the demoeratin inspec-
tor, (20.)


\Vilen tlw YOÜ'i'\ wme bt'illg 1:01111tl'(1 ill the e\'t'llillg, the llellloeratic
clerk was taken sick, alld \Yi]jiam Speers was asked to take his place,
and without being R\Yorn first as elpl'k, llutil t!w closp oí' tiw COllut, (25.)


Ou couuting, six hnllots ,n're {ou!I(1 in tIte hoxeK !llore tban tlle llames
of pPTsons baying ,'oLell 011 the tnll'y-lii'\ts oí' 111e clm'k, ",Ilidl agreed,
and ouly oue ¡lel'HOll is KIH)\\'1l to han' ,'otl'tl ",hoi'\p lIalllü iK I10t 011 t11e
Hst, (18,300, :\01.)


'1'he use of tlw hat antl eigm' hox, thp trallsfpl' of the ballot8 from them
;'0 the regular boxes wIJen reeeiyell, and the permitting SpC't'rs to act as
clcl'k withont heillg SWOl'lI, wai'\ eOlltl'fll'y tu tbe pn.\'ÍKiollH oí' tlw eledioll
1:1\\'s oí' PClIlIsyh';llIia, (EIl'dioll Laws, §§ ~~, :¿0, allll :38.)


To allo'" pe1'SOllS otl[('1' than ottiel'l'K oí' tbe t>leetioll to enter the room
:~n ",llieh fiJe,r wl'1'p perfol'lIIillg tllpir duíil's ii'\ hehl, in '1']¡OIllPSOT\ '1:8.
E",illg-, 1 nI e\Yster 1:1'p., 110, to be decitlt'lllyünprojwr; ",hile the not
¡'e{]uirillg- ]>l'oof 01' lInturali;m1Íoll, amI rÍ'fn:sillg toillyestigat(\ ehalleuges,
01' to cOlltlllet thp "ketioll ill sm:h a l)Jailllt'1' as to ]H'C\'ellt ehallplIges
ÍJeillg made :llHI passed 011, are de(',lared l>y Allison, P .• T., in gh'ing tiíe
,ilHI.!tlllPlIt of tllp (~(llll't ill tlln (~()jjteKtpdpketi()lI eai'\es oí' lMli7, (1 Brew8ter,




6 COVODE VS. FOSTER.


174,) to be not violative of directory requirements merely, but particu-
lars which are absolutely esselltial to a <lue elpction.


From alI the ovidonce, 1 think we must conclllde that tho roturns 01'
'8nch HU election are too unreliable to be received, and as neither party
has attempted to prove ",hut yotes were cast fOl' him' at that election,
that tbe whole polI of Dunbar Township must be rejected.


2. Tbe cOllsideration of the case oi' tIte YOllllgsto"n district, oí' Unity
Township, vVestmoreland COlluty, makcs it necessary that "O shonld
refer to the duties of assessors uuder the laws oí' Pellns,rlvania, in pre-
pal'ing lists of persons entitled to \'ote at eh~ctions in that State. By
those laws, it is made the dnty of the COUllty eommissioncrs, on or
before the first day of Angl1st in e:lch year, to cause to be deli '-ered to
the assessors oí' each \Vanl, towllship, boronglt, OJ' (listriet, in tIleir
counties, a certified list, alphabetically arranged, oi' aH the taxablo
persons retllrned at tIle last eOllut,r assessmeut, copies oí' whieh list it is
the duty of the assessor, 011 01' before the 20th day oi' Angust in each
year, to make and pnt np in at lrast 1.\\'o lluulie plaeps oí' tile district,
one of which mnst be tlte place oí' holding gelleral pleetiolls. It is th(~
further dllty of t110 assessol' to keep a copy 01' this list in hi:-; own pORses-
sion, subjeet at aU reasona ble tillles to illspeetioll without charge, and
also, "at any snch time ten days hefore the seeolHl Tnesday or Oetobm'
in each year, '¡¡pon the persoJ/al application (!t ally person,i. e., white
freeman, as afore:,¡aid, claúnill.lJ to be ({sscs.wx/ 'lcitllhi t/wi.1' proper n'arel,
township, m' district, 0'1' claimill[/ a J'i[jltt tOt'otc thercin, as bcín[/ belu'cen
the a!le uf tu'enty·ollc ((Jl(Z tlCClliytwo ycal's, ((¡ul J¡(win[/ rel!ided in tlw 8tafc
one year, to entcr thc lWIIICS (!t sl/eh PC¡'80JlS lIJlon t111~ said li,~t in tlteir
p08sess1:on."


'fhe assessol'S are fnl'thel' l't'(lllil'(~d to make out, dnplieate eopie:-; of
thcse lists-that is, of tIle originül li::;t certified to tltelll frolll tIte eonnty
commissiollers, with tlw additiollS 11uuIe hy thplllseh'es-allll, at least
eight days before the St~eOllÜ Tnes(!ay oi' Oetober in paeh year, to (~el'­
tify, sign, aml delÍ\~er one of theso dnplieates to the COllllty commis-
sionel's, who shall üIe the salllc in t!tpil' ofikp, amI tile other d llplicate
tlle assessors :11'e reqnircd "to lwld and to hmul orer, 1cit/wut altemtion
01' ac1dition, to one oí' tlle inspectOl's of election of their ]11'opf'r eJedion
distriet, on 01' before eight of tite ('Ioek itl tlle lIloming oí tite seeollll
Tues(lay of Octouer, in eaeh .rea1'." T1tat tlw additions to tIte list to he
made by the assessors are to be ollly of sllch as personally applied to
be assessed, appears 1I0t only ti'om t1le plain langnage of tho law, as
aboye quoted, hut also frolll tlle faet, tlmt tIte next seetion pl'o\'i<los
that the asseSRor sltall, OH \Yl'itillg tite llames oí' tlw lwrsons elaiming
to be assessecl, fortll1cith leyyaud assess OH sneh persolls, unless ue-
tweon the age oí' twpnty-olle ami tweut,ytwo yenl'R, sllch an HlllOUllt of
eounty tax as by law is levied nnd assossed OH taxahle illhahitants ol'
likc standing and oceupatioll, and gi n, a certifieate of su eh assüssment
to the pason 80 assesscd, whieh emtitieate iR tlle autltol'ity to t110 col-
lector to reeeiye the tax, and to giye a rl'ceipt the1'cfo1'. Tlle asse:-;:;or is
fmther required to attelld nt tlle plaee oí' holding eaeh genera 1, speeial,
and township deetioll, durillg' the \\'1101e time :-;aid eledioll is kept open,
fuI' tIte pnrposo of gi "ing, when cnlleü llpOll, to tlle illspeetors aHfl jIHlge,
any information he lll:ly possess itl l'l'latioll 1,0 the l'igltt 01' auy persotl
assessed by thClll to yote nt sneh electioll, exeept that whell tilo tO\\'ll-
ship is diyideü into more tban Ollfl eh·(·j,ioll dist,rid, he must attclHl in
tlle district of his residellce. (Eledioll Law;.; of Pa., l'ages 23-:25, ~ees.
11-1(;.) Uules:::: asse::::sed as aboye, no per,,;oll ha:::: a l'lght to yote in




COVODg VS. FOSTER, 7
Pellnsylvania, uuless npon IlÍs O\Yll oath to bis qualificatiolls, ami that
01' at least one other person, that he has rcsidcd t(,11 days in the district.
(Id., p. 33, seco 4~,)


These laws make a complete amI exceUent systelll of registration.
[n the carly part 01' the year, wheu no political excitementis likely to
be prevalent, alld for purposeH oi" taxatio11 a1011e, a li"t of aU the taxa-
hle persons in each towns1lip is p1'epared 01' eorrecte(l by t1lc assessor,
""nd filed with tlw eouuty commiilSiollf'rs. As the time fol' election
approaches, a copy of thi" list, aIphabetically arraugerl, is sent to the
aSHessors, copies of which must be by them, ut least as earIJ- as the
20th of AIlg'ust, ('oIl8pieuously posted in eaeh distriet, and one kept by
themseIn's aIso for pubIic im\peetioll; ami npon the personal applica-
tioll nf an.)" pe1'soll, thf'y are to en ter his name upon the list, and assess
bim as ahove stated. This pel'sonul applieation enables tite aRseRsor
to id('nti(v th(' perSOll making sueh elaim, to illquire into itR justice,
illld prepares him to giH' reliable informatioll on the dar of e1ection to
tllC inspectors aJl(I j1HIge, as to whethel' tlw per:-lOn prescnting himself
is tlle sanl(' lwrsoll \VIlO wa" by him assess('d, aHIl other matters perti-
'.lent, amI important to bp ill!] nil'f'd in!o, A frauduIent daimallt wnuld
rJesitat·(' tn present him:-;elf personally to the a;;;sps;;;ol' to make his
tl'autlulellt elaim rOl' ass¡';;sment, 01' to the eleetion board, when his
i\lailllS wonltl he lile"l,V to !JI' expll;;¡,tl (11] JJis heillg' 1'.I)]]ft'lmted with the
assessor. At t1le SnJllü till\p, tlw Iist pla('ed in tIJe halHIs oi' tIte commis-
,.,ioller ato 1east ('ig'ht dayH hpf'or" tIJe eleetioll, al\{l to which he cau make
:10 additions umll'l' seve1'í' plma1ties, (E1pction .LlLWH, 40, RPn. 7;),) makes it
,mposHible for t1w aHSl';;SOJ' tn add an,\' llames to tite list rcmaining in
:lis pOHSf'HHioll, after its completioll ten da~-f; hefore the e1eetion, without
the ep1'taint-y of detpf·tioll, Hhonl11 jnqnil',v he nlll(le allfl tlH> liHts com-
pared,


The township oí' lT nit.\ is t1ivitlcll iuto three eleetio!l distriets, oí' which
YouUgstOWIl is 011(', in whieIJ (listriet TJE'wis liJisamall, t11e assessor of the
~O\m, did not r('¡.;ide, Fl'olll his mvn tf';;tilllon~' (pages ~16-~18) it appears
t.Ilat he made ahont Ol1P 111111dn~r1 a11ll t,,"Plltv-tive additiolllll aSSPHSllH'uts
Lll tlle towIlship in] 808, oí' w]¡ieh nt least tltirty-nine were malle in YOUllgS-
(own üistrid, altltongh, frolll rile testimony 01' ,Jesse ChamberH, CWl,) it
wonld seelll t1la t II t lellst fi ft,Y ll(111i tiollal asset-'smellts we1'e marle i 1l Youngs-
tOWII. 01' tIJe t1lil'ty-11illE' mlrlitioll:ll u,;,;eiismellts t.estified to by hirnself,
~o ,,,ir. thiJ'ty at tllP IIII)J)as!pl'\ 0[' Ñt. \~illeelll HllllllÍLW al t]¡e eOllvent
urar hy, t\H~lItY-l'ig-IIt, I'l'l't:lill\\, of t1lOsl' asspss,,(I fl'OIll tIle monastcry-
aud prolJUhly tlt(' wIwlp IlllIll h('I', amI :1 part al so 01' t11O:>-:(> frúlll the eOll-
n~I1t-,,'pl'(~ aH:-:,I's~('11 ",it]¡Ollt :llIy PPl'SOIl,!l Hpplil'atiOlI, alltl "'ithont any
lmowleL1gl' OH j¡itl part of tlll' 1)f'l'tlUllS ;;n aSS('S5l'tl, 01' ilH]lliry as to their
~'ight to he aSS<lsspt! nI' rD ,ot<>, 'fiJat 1w nll¡](,J',~to()ll that tlw la,\' rnrlllÍl'f\d
a personal llpplicat.iulI to llilll k·tÚl'l· S111·h 1I1111itiOllal ,IS';PS'II1Cllt conld be
:nade by hilll, apppal's fl'OI!L tlle fado ns t{':-::tiíi('(l to by J ollll StCYCWWIl,
i, 107,) Hlul llot eOlltl';lllidl'd, tlwt ]¡p l't'ÚlS,'Ü to a";8(',..,'; 1 YO (,l'ippled sol-
diers withont theil' 1 ll'l'SOll<i 1 apP('~ll'Hll('I', s;lyili!-!, tllar h(~ e0l1lll11ot a:'lsess
tliclIl ulIIess t1w'y ap]JI'aret! pel'';OllHlly,


1'111' tpstilllony o!' tltis lI~";j'';SOI' ftll'tl](·l' slw,,"s tlwt lH· üillllot Ileliver
tll tlH' ('Ollllty (,'OllllUis,:ioH(']':-; a ('('rtiTié'll, 01' HIl,Y, ('opy of the asscssment
¡¡st, illl'lllllillg- tlll'sP <!ll<litiollal :I";"P";SIIII·11t" 1tl:Hh· by h1m, eight days
l)et'oI'P tJl(' s('('oIll1 l'nps¡lay oí' Odohpl', ,(s l'f'ljllil'eü h.l' la \Y, 1101' at, aU
u2¡til aftcr th(' f'1l'etioll, 1t further apjlPill's tItat }I(' üid uot fnrnish 01'
hand OYel' to tlw illíi]lf'dOl's oí' pIp(·tioll iB Younglitowll district any eopy
of t,his Iist 011 the llIoruing 01' tlH~ da,y of ('ketion DI' at any other time.




8 COVOllE VS. FOSTER. ~~ (
1t wunld seelll íÍ'01l1 tIJe testimony of Eismnan, uud nIso of Joseph C~ \


vVest, (;35G,) t1lnt more thall ten (layR before the e1eetioIl the former pnt 1:
up in th(~ tayern of the Iatter, at whiclt general eIedions were helrl in
that district, a papel' purporting to be a list of atlditional aSReRsmellts;
and, sume oí' the JlallWS ueill¡::' founu to ue spelled wrong, he afterwHl'ds
gave 'West a corred cOP,V. This Iast, 11OíH'ver, was more than ten days
uefore th(~ eIeeti ,11, for \Vest sweal'S tllat tlle last llame \mR put OH it by
t11e assessor on the eYelling uf thc e1cn'nt1l day lJetiwe tll(': ele<:tion. This
paper, together with a copy of t11e originallist t'rol1l the COUllt,Y eommissioll'
ers, ",hieh liad been posted at this taveru lllOl'e than thirty da,)'s bef'ol'e the
election~ waR taken frOlll the bar·room "all OH tIte 1l10rIling oí' t,11e day of
electioll by \Vest alllll\IeAtee and tnken illto tlle eleetioll room, mlll, af¡
uppcars frolU the testimony oi' lllellÜlCl'S uf tite buunl, was lH-,eü <Iuri ug
the day as tIle legal assessment list of the üi~triet, and was tite ollIy listo
in tlle hnlHls oí' 1,11e hoard that day.


Strallgely ellongh, this list, whiell, if a legal paper, "Itonld by law hayc
be en presel'ved to be nsed nt the No\'embel' eleetioll, (Electioll La",s, p:
33, seco ,1)1,) disappear", with tIw do~e ot'the eleetion alHllJas 1lC\'cr hren
seen sinee, (348;) a11(l, ef]na])~' strnllgel~', ufter tlle electioll was'on'r ami
his authorit~, in tlle lIlatter WUR :lt HU cud, this as~essor was ag-ain at the
monastery, as apllears frolll tue testiltlOl:y of its ahhot, (~18,) to obtaill
anew the list of additional assPSS!ll('llts, alld nt tite X ovem ber e1eetion
the board W:lR in possessioll oí' a, lif-it \y]¡ieh 1Ill1Rt lmnl beE'1l prepared
ufter tJ¡e October eleetioll allÜ \\'itllOllt :l11thority ot' la\\'. 'rhe eOlltellts
of this papel' Hi-ied ai tlle OctolJt'r p!l'dioll as a Úst 01' additional assess·
ments Tlowltere appenr,;; Imt it l1o('s allPpar tltat it \Vas (~()lIlplailled ot' a¡;¡
not being' full, (347.)


'ro reeapitulatp: rrIte aSi-iessol' a¡.;se,.;sr<l llPl'S()!li:-\ wllo ma(le !lO prr~ollal
application tn Itilll. tOlltraly tD th(~ la\\'j thc llames uf tite pcrsolls ~o
assesscd 1)(' <lid 1I0!: ente' npOll tl\(, li~,t ill ¡lis !loSSCS,;iOll, as l'eqnirc(l by
law, hut UllOIl a fiPpal'ate picte oí' JI,!] H'l', ,,,llidl \\'a", uot a legal asst'ss·
mentí nor did 11(' fnrlli,.;h nlly eopy ot' this to tite cO!luty (~Ollllnis~üoll·
ers at ally time hef'ore tlle electjo]], llOl' to tlte illspector" of electioll 011
01' befol'e 8 o'e1oek in titE' forelloOll uf ilw (lay oí' dedioll, as req uired hy
law. AH these pl'oyisiolls ot' la\\' nn: uot flil'cetory lllcJl'ly, ¡mt lll:tll,
datar,)', aud ent'oreed by SPYcn' pPll:dtiE'i'. (Elpetioll La m" p. 4:?, see.
85.)


But whether tIle HRseS"llHmt mnde by Ei"mnall \Ya~ a legal assessment
01' uot, (an<1 \Ve thiuk !lO leg'al ai:-\SPSi:-\llH'llt \Yas ¡,;!tOWIl to llaye beeulllnde,)
the failnre oí' Eisaman to flll'll¡slt to thE' ills]ll'etori:-\ a ('opy of tite ¡ist hall
the sume t'ffect, so 1'ilr as tltat p!petloll was clJIleel'ue(l, as tllOng'll no
asse8sment ,,11ate\,pr hall lWi'Il11UHk.


The law 01' PeuBsylvania is exp:idL tlI;¡t \\'1U'll the llame of the pel'son
eoming to ,'ote is llot t'oUJl(l 011 tlw li,.;t flll'llislH'tl hy the tOlllllli~si()llel'S
orassessor the hoanl must examiJle him lJIHlel' oatil as to his (lua.lilica·
tions, aud he lIlu~t prove by at le:l,,~ O:LC witlll'~';, who ItlLlSt be a. fJlmli.
Í"led elector, that he has 1'(',.,itlc(l in thn (listl'iet at lpast U'1l da,)'s llext.
il1l111ediately prcceding' tlle <'leetíon. (E,ledioll Iúl \\'S, ;¡;{, Sl'e. ,1~, ~ pa1'.)
553, 580-:-1.) That law t'nl't!tpl' p1'O\'i<l<,,, tlwt ii' all,\' ins¡lPetol' 01' jmlge
shall reccive thc llame oí' any pl'l'Stlll \Y lJO"l~ 1l:lIlW sllall IlOt he retnrlled
on tite list fUl'llished by tite cOllllwissiollás (jI' 1188CSSO/', witltout Ül'st l'eqnirillg'
the e,idence direeted hythead, tite pL'I'SOIl olTt'.I}(lillg' "hall ollcO\1\'ictioll
be fined not le88 tllan íifty 1101' more thau t",'o lnmr1l'ed duliaJ'~. (Elcdioll
Ija\\'s, 41, seco 81.)


The as"essor lmving failetl to fLlmí"lL tlle ills[l('(·tors ",itll any eopy of




COVODE V& FOSTE~ 9
the list of taxables, tlle lJoanl eonld legally reeeive no vote at that elee-
tion, exeept by reqlliring him to be examillecl as to his qualifieatiolls
umler oatlt, amI to f'llrnÍ;sh tlHl further evi(lenee l'eql1ired by the aet.
Nothing of tllis kill(l was (lone, but, iustead, the votes of persons were
rejected lwcause their llames were not fOlllHI OH this papel' taken from
the tavern wall, alld tlwy were permitted to vote becauso their names
were íound thereon. This alone IYe think sllf!ieient to ÍllYalidate tile
election i11 tItat dü,tl'iet.


Bnt tlle (~olldnd of tlte eleetion board \Vas oqna11y blarnewortlty with
that oí the m,sessor. Prom the report which had gone out that an unu-
sually largo numbcl' hai! lwen assessed at the lllolHtstery, and í'rom the
gatIlering of "trallgel's there, it was helievml that impropor Yote8 would
be attempted to be Jlollod, aud a pnrpose seenm to have been íormed to
prevent these votes heing rceeiveü, exeppt UpOll proper examinatioll.
Hut frolll the eOllllnelleement of t11e elcction lllltil aLont eleven o'elock,
durillg wltieh tiltlo the grcater part oí' tIlese votos ,yere polled, chal-
lenges \Yere elltí1'ely disl'oganlt·(l.


,Tc8se Chamber8 "woar8(202) that he eha11enged a 1111111he1' of persolls
froIll tILe monaster.r in tlte t'o1'PlIOOJl, wholll he thought 1l0t qualified, and
that uo aUeutioJl \Vas paiü to 1Ii8 ehallcllge, all(l that he "as told by one
of tIle inspectors of tlle eleetioll to mind llis OWlI busine8s-that they
were attem1iug to that eOlleem. Shallllon Nicel;y (20n) swears that he
8aw eight 01' ten eha11enged, nono of whom wero 8\YOl'lI, aud aH ()r w110m
were penuitte<l to voto; that 0110 persOll from tIle cOllvent, whell ehal-
lenged, took SOllle paper,,; fl'OlIl his pocket anll helel them on the wiudow-
sill with one haml aIHl hi:,; ticket. in tho othel', m](l t.ltat the imlpeetor
took his ticket without HUy examinatioll oí' hi8 papel's. J ohu Stonffer
testifies (2;\0) that he dmllellgeü Olle lllall at the rc(}ucst oí' ,Tesse Cham-
her8, a strangor ",hom he had seen arrh~e at tlle mona8tery the evonillg
before, carpct-bag in halld, (202,) lJllt he was allowed to yote without any
qllestionillg at all. He ehallcllg'ed :,;oon aftn t\Yo lIlüll as noto lming 1'es-·
idents of tIte district, and was ol'dered hy t1l0 inspectors away frolll t.he
windo\\', t.hey sayillg that tlwy wel'e goillg to lnt pe01'le vote there that
da;y as they pleased. He fnrther testifit,s that he !'law frolll fifíy to sixty
challenged dnring the day, most of whom were oí foreign hirth, lmt
who were a110wed to vote ,vithont. 8ltowing auy paperH; that, in the
íorenoon, 011 holding np a bundle of paper8 in an ellvelopt1 they \\'ere'
allowed to vote, and that ",hen ti\(' challenge was on tIle ground of nOl1-
residence 110 evülence at a11 was rm[1til'ed.


A. A. Johm;on p(a) amI 1>. L. Chambel's (1111) al so testify tIlat chal-
lenges wero made amI elltil'Ply tlii'll'egal'ded by the board.


No democrat aPlwars to llave lwün l't;jeeted hy the board that day,
while llearly aU tite aboye witllesses testit:r to tlle llnfail' alld pal't,ial dis-
erimination of t.lle board against their politieal opponents.


From this use of a papér as an asses!'lll1ent. li8t whieIl had no elaim to
such authority, amI the lJlysterious elisappearallce ()f whieh makeH it im-
pos8ible no\\' to determine it8 eharaetel' ()l' Yallle; the partialit;y of a
board which, because an Llemocratic, agaill8t tolle i'lpirit of the law oí'
PenllR.)lv:mia, should have been 1he more careflll oí the rig'hts of the
oppositioll; alld the c1isroganl of ehallenge8, which, with the singular
disregard of his duties shown by 111e aS!'lessor, wa8 the ollly safeguard
oJ:,th.o pm:ity.ot' that oloetiOl~-WP eOll.dude tha~ .t~e entiro pon of that
electíOll dlstnct should be reJected. As the m3¡jol'lty oí llenry D. Fos-
ter at Dun bar TOWIlShip was one hUlldred alld nillety-eight, alld at the


H. Rop. 15--2




10 COVODE VS.FOSTER.
YOUllgstown distriet one hundred and seventy, the fl\icetion of either of
these diRtriets will give a eousideraule majority to ,Tohn Covode.


3. rrile tef'timony of John J. Morris (n4) sho\ys that he \Vas steward of
the ,Fayctte Uounty poor-house, in Sonth Union Township, in 18G8, and
that of the iumates of that poOr-hOUf.1P, Hobert Hose, vVílliam ChOpSOIl,
Houert l\leCarnes, ,Tohn Dinsll1ol'e, lsaiah Uultllllings, ::md Edward
Stewart, who were SPllt to tlle pool'-house fl'om othcl' townshipR than
South Union, vote u in Sonth Ullioll, at the Oetober eleetion, 1868, and
fol' Helll'yD. Foster. -


T11c testimOlly of HarriRon '\Vilson (189) also sIlows that he was stew-
arel of the vVestmorelanu County pool'-house in Hempfield in 18G8, and
that George Haney, IIenry Stoll, .James Cook, Hcul''y Sullenberger,
,T ames .Iolmstoll, Ed ward Laghey, Peter Pattoll, Alexander Cumlllings,
and Diekson Stewal't, WllO were Rellt to the poor-house frolll other town-
ships, yoted at that election in Hompfiold, amI with otIler testimony,
that they yotcd the dernocratic ticket and fol' )11'. Foster.


The testimony further Hllo",s (7;umIell, Hl1) that none of these persons
were assessed upon personal applieation, and also that nOlle of thern
paid the tax npol1 whieh they were pel'lllitted to vote, (1!J2, 27::1,) but
that theil' llames were halldcd to tlle assessol' amI their taxes paid by
an offieial who understood that they would vote, and fol' tIw pnrpose of
enabling them to vote a pal'tieulal' ticket; bot11 assessrneut anü pay-
ment oí' tax being illegal as against the exprcss letter of fhe eleotion laws
of PennsyIvania. (lDleetioll Laws, 24, seo. 13; 40, seo. 75.) But did these
penlOIls aoquire a residenee in tIJe eleetion district where the county-
honRe was situated, within the meaning of tIle law of Peullsylvania,
whioh requin~8 tlmt the yoter sllall llave residecl at least ten lhtys imllle-
diatel.r preoeding the electioll in the di:,;triot whcrc he 011'ers to yote?
We think noto Their reRidellce at this plaoe was not thcir OWIl volun-
tal'yaet, but the act of tho pnulie authorities, who, for reasons of eoon-
Oluyand eonyenienee, sent them he re that they Jnight he supported at
tIte publie expense.


The oomt, in Mmmy 1'8. MeCarty, 2 )111ll., ::107, says, that to divest a
pel'son 01' the charaeter of oitizell oí" a particnlar plaee, "there must be
a remo val with an intention to {ay axíJe tlwt characfcr, alld he must actll
ally join himselj to somo othel' comnmnity." TIte italies are those of the
originall'eport.


So Burrill (Law Dio., tito Hesidence) defilleH residenoe as " tue place
whieh one has made his seat, abode, 01' dwelling." The del'ivation, as weU
as tho ordinary aeepptatioll 01' tlw tel'llJ, denotes the place where the
party has 8eated himsolj, and 11is OWIl choice 01' free will in the matter is
assumed. vVe t.hink this the legal as weH as tIte onlinary meaning' of
the term, and that aeoordillgly tIte soldiel' wIto ocoupies a plaoe at tlle
oommallll of his lllilitary sl1periors, the eriminal who does the same
thing while in oustody in thp handR of the erimillal anthoritieR, and the
pauper who is plaeed amI snpportetl in thp county poo1'-honse at the
publio expense, gains no residellce ill the town by his enforoed stay.
We think therefol'e that thf'se fifteen \'otps should be deduoted fl'OIll the
vote fúr :J-Ir. Foster.


4. Thel'e arp also a Iarge numher of votes cast fol' ~lr. Foster in differ-
ent parts of the distl'ict, the legality of wItiell has beell attaoked in the
evidenoe, on the grounds of aliellage, lunaey, non-residenee, minority,
and non-payment of tax. As to IUllaoy, it was held by the oomt in
Thompson vs. Ewing, 1 Bl'ewstel' l~ep., 104, that it was pl'oper to show
in a oontested election oase that a voter was non compos mentís, and
that without a finding in lunacy. The following is a list of thos~ votes




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 11


the illegality of which, for oue 01' other of the above reasons, seems to
have been established :


Harne. 11'Iace of voting. '1 Gronnd of iIIega]it,y. Evit1ence.
~----- i J&Illes T. Martin . I Dunual'.. ".' ... i ~tinor..................... '1 2í. 301, 310
Patrick cOOley ..... ¡ 110 ____ o _____ 1 Alicll _ _ _ '_1 25,6,7,and2B
f~'; \v~:l'::: ~~ ........ . ... :: I'K¿~~~~;il~;'1;~;'d iú~g~i';~~~~~~~~d 29, 31, 392~O~1:3~~,f1~~
r=w~f¡~~~¡er::I::J~·:·:·:·:·:·:: :::::: : :J~: :::: :::::: :::::::::: :::: :::::::¡ 33, 34, ~~: ~¡; ~d~: ~t: ~~
5;~~r~~r: :1'" :j~::.:::.': : ... ' .. : j~.::.:::::::::::: :.::.::::::.:.:.:i 33~:~~~~~~:~~~\i~
George T. Dawson. _ BrowllRvillp .. _ .. _. NOlL-rpsitleu1, .. _ ...... _ .... __ ... __ .. _! 40,41,43) 319
Connolly Walcott... Faycttc Oity ...... Minor .............................. 1 44
Reason Dean. __ . _ .. ltLellaUcn 'l'owll~hip ", _ .do ... _ .. _ ... ___ ....... _ .. _ .. _ .. ___ 1 47,51, :126
~ha!l1'lil~l~~::::: .~n~~a~ ........ ::::::: . ~l.i(¡~ ............. :::::::::::.:::::::::: :20,21, 24, 2~, 52, 5~\~\g~
Al:fred Lauglwy. _.. Conncllsvillc ____ .. Minor _ _ _ . ___ I 55,67, 6t1;


. John Turner ........... do ....... ...... Alien ...... __ .... ......... .. ........ 55,56, laWH of 1'a. 32
Bobert Thompsoll. Unionborough _ Not six months rcturncd to Stato. 57,58
~geColeman_._. Luzerne_ ... '--.......... do...................... 89
Peter Small ........ Perry...... Lnnatir. .. ......... ........ 92
- llranthaven ....... do ............. , Kon·resident ...... __ ...... .......... n
8&mnel Oglo.-...... Wharton ' Minor...... 95
Charles Lewi ....... SpI'ÍnghilL ....... , .... do... ............ .. 96-97
JolmIWble ........... do ...... ' Alien................. 9í
W. S. Johllson... Uniontown.. ::\olinor................. 59-97
.Urlah Yauger ...... Nort,h Unioll. ~on·rl'sillpnt .. _. 8.1,97-R
JobnS.Ryan ........ Lnionuorol1gh ........ flo. ."... 98


r!!:sc~,~i~m~~J: :~!~ ~ ~:3~ ~:: .. ~ -. ~~~~ ~~ : ~ -:~{~~ ~:~ ~~: ~~ ~ ~~: .~: .. :: ~ ~ ::::. ::::~ g~
Israel Painter """1 Houth IInnt illgdon NOll·rf'sidl~llt........................ 102
Jacob Glunt.. ...... :Franklin .............. do............... ...... ... ....... 104-6
Samuel Patterson ...... do ................. cIo .............................. '. 104-6
Patrick I~Jlneh. __ . . Duubar. . . . . . . .. AliC':u, alld cballcngcd, and not sworn. 21, 25, 109
John Lyons ..... .. .do .... .- ............ do .............. __ ......... 24,23,109,110
George W. Kelley. Salom Alien. ............. . . .. 113
JoaephNa.leigh ..... PPllIl Township .. Lullatic ....... _ .................... 1 11~,16J,274
Jac~b WeIt.",,!...... AlIeghan~ .. N on.payment of tax ... ........ 120,135
DanIel Auheny . . Dougal. ......... "1 N OH resident ... ..... .. . ..... ... 123, 124
David FOIAyth .. East Hnníingdon Minor ......... __ . ~ ........... ... I 171
Daniel:Bowers ...... ¡ NOlth rrIl11tlIl~doll .. do . . ........ ~ ........ . 171,185,11:6
JohnSteiri'. _.... Greengburg' .. Non·rc-sidpnt . ..... ..... 112


,C. M. Robjnson ..... l North Huntillg.dolll. ... do... . ............... ~.. ,..~751~}~9 180
JohnP.I~llJ\k¡c .. I .... do....... . ... rlo. ........ .............. 1,~, ,89,180
Henry Lenhart. .¡ .••. do...... Lunatic. " .. ' 166, 1i5, 176, 1íil--181
Isaac Robim'iOn. . .. (]o... . ... do... ............... .............. 166,175,176,178-181
Daniel Bradley ......... do ...... . . Alíen amI fraudnlent papers. 180-182


......... do. ...... ...... do............ ............... 1~0-182
............ do ................ do . . . 180-182


Yonngstown ~on·r~Ridelü ................. '... 209
.. ¡ :Mount Pleasant. ...... rlo... .............. 221


QU""",,,,:,,:¡;:": ".1'. ;]:L •••••• I ~ ;¡r:~+",i} •••• ·· ."'. m
Cnslo ...... i Alleghanv ........ 1 Non.payment of ta~_............... 242,243


· __ s:[::;I:::::II::: :~~.:::': :.':::::: ·AÚ~~·.·.··.:·.· ................. ::::::::::. 242, ~!~
Thomas MeG;~irt,y.. De~I'ry............. Not ~ix .111011(118 in the State .~ 25~9


'. James S. Has,mger. Fmrflelrl.......... N oll·resHlent..... . ...... ...... ..... 2:19, 260
George WilhOUl< ... 1 Ligolliel"...... .... JHinor. ............... _ ...... - 262-4
Jonas Ricinger ..... Sto Olair .......... NOH·residcnt.... ... ................ 266


· FrankHeiKer ....... 1 Hayne ............ Ali,,11...... ............. I 270
PeterAdams ....... 1 Ulllty ......... , ... ¡ Minor..... ..... ............... 272-3
Charles Wilson ..... RostÍ·am .......... ' .... '[0...... .... 275


· Leamler Oorbctt l .... do .. do ............................. 275
George R. Chalfant'l Uniontown ........ f\ou·resident........................ 57,58;323
George Long. __ .... Rostram .. _'" .... Alíen amI non·resident.............. 172, 274,426
Edward Devlin ......... do ................. do .. '................ . ..... ...... 172,274,426
William F. James .. Sewickly ......... ~on·resi<lent ",,,[ imported voter.... 231,276,234,122,127
John Bo};le ....... "'l'" .do .. : .............. do....... .................. ....... 231,276,234,122,127
Walf;er f,,}{!ehacL .... do ................ do...... ......................... ~~g~~, ~~n~N~
Patnck Haskws ........ do ................. do................................ ""
David Robinson ........ do ................. do..... ........................... 231,276,234,122,127


To these shonld be added one vote for Foster for Congress fonnd in
the State box in Sewicklv Township and counted to him. althou!.!h




12 COVODE VS. FO·STER.


tlwreby the nnmber -of votes for Cougress was made oue greater than
tlle number of names on th8 list, (377.)


Also, one vote fo1' Fo:,;ter in the SOlltlt Huntingdoll Towllsllip found
upon t1le fioor at the close of the connting, a considerable crowd stand-
ing Hr011l1l1, amI counted to Foste1', aItllOugIt tlle1'eby tIte IlUlllber of
votes 1'01' Congress was made (1)e more than the numlJer of llames on
tlle list of voters. These votes, amollllting altogether to seYenty-sevell,
we conclude 8houl<1 lJe deducted frOIll tlte vote fol' Henry D. Fostel', for
the reasons aboye assigned.


5. The eyidellCe also -shows that.Tollll Hal'dy, ofDunbar, (28, ;30,72,73,)
Samnel C. 1\{ycl's, of Penn TOWIlShip, (183, 180,) Daniel Byers, of Hcmp-
fleId, (187-18D,) ancl John M. :JIartin and Audrew B. Onsler, of Latrobe,
(226, 227, 227-H, 282,) amI Salllnel Ke1le1', ofSouth Hlllltingt01I, (102,184,)
qualified voters in tllose towllships, offe1'ed to vote for JoIm Coyode for
Congress, alld that their yotes were impropr1'ly n¡jected, 01', in the case
oí' Sall1uel KellPr, preycntec1 by tltreats of yiolellCe made iu the presence
of the board, and agaillst which it was their dur,y to protect Itim, and
which thpy dill uot !lo.


The resiilt of ou1' examillation and conclnsions is as follows :
The certificates of tbe retul'll judges show 13,807 yotes cast 1'01' Henry


D. Fosim-, aIHI1:3,70fi fol' .Tollll Uoyode, giying the forme1' a majority 01'
41 yotes.


A<lding to the fOl'lller tite three yotes oirpred rOl' Helll'y D. Poster and
illlpropel'ly n~je('Íl'(I, amI to the 1atter t11(' six yotes offered fol' John
Coyode alal impropcrly l'ejected, amI tlle majOl'ity for Henry D. Foster
wOllld he thil'ty-eight.


The yo te at DllnlJar TOWllShip, for member of COllgress, at t11e Octo-
her e]ecüoll, 18ü8, was, (13(j)-
FOl' Helll'y D. Foste]' ____________________________________ 37;; votes
Por John Coyode . __ . ________ . ________ . ___ .. _____ . _ . _ . _ _ 177 "


'rIle votl' at YOllllgstmYll district, at the same eIeetioll, \ras, (145)-
For He1ll'y D. Foster ______________ . _______ .. _________ . _. 280 votes.
11'01' J ohu UOyot!P . __ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 110 "


Suhtractillg' frolll the yote tor JOhll Coyode the twelltyYotes shown
to ha\'e beell improperly cast tor llim, wouId make 1,he lllajority of Henry
D . . Fostel' fifty-(>ight.


But if the yote of DUllbal' TOWllSbip a10ne is rejeeíed, }\[r. Covode is
e1ected hy a lllajority of Ol1e IlUlldl'ed aud fOl'ty votes.


Tf the yo te of YOllngstO\Yll district alone is rejected, he is elected by
a majority of one Itulldred aud twelye Yotes.


lf lIeithl'1' is rqjectcd, hut the panpel' amI other votes rcferred to under
dÍ\'isions three alld folll' are rejectcd, he is elccted by a lllajority of
thil'b--four votes.


If 'the pauper votes are Ilot exelnde(l, lmt only the yotes ullder divi·
sion fimr, he is e1ectecl hy a majo1'it,Y oí' nilleteell Yotes.


If all tü'ose yotes are n;jede(l, as tite cOllllllittee think they shonld be,
tlien John Cm'orle is electecl hy a majority of four hUlldrell amI two Yotes.


"Ve thereforc recollllllelld to tlw UOllse tlte adoptioll of tlte following
l'esolutions:


Resol1:ed, Tbat IIenry D. Fostel' is not entitled to a seat in tltis llOuse
as representati\'e fl'oll1 the twcllty-flrst cOllgressional dü;triet oí' Penn-
sylvílnia.


Resolvecl, That John Covode was duly elected representativo in C01I-
gress from tlte tweuty-fll'st eOllg-ressioual distl'ict of Pelllls.Ylvauia at the
e1ection held the1'eiu ou the 13th day of October, 1868, and that he is
entitled to a seat in this hou&e as such representative.


O




41sT OONGRESS, )
2d Session. J


HOUSg OF REPRESENTATIVES.


• JOIIX COVODB VS. lIEXHY D. FQSTER


{
l1RT'ORT
15, Pt. 2 .


JAlW.l!tY;)7, ] S70.-0nlcrctl to lic OH tlw k.hln ;)Ha he printml.


Mr. RANDALL, fl'Olil tIte C0Il1111ittec ofElections, sllbmittetl t!w follo",ing,
as t1:o


VIE\VB OF THE MINOIUTY.
Mr. HalldalI, on behalf of llimself and ~Iessrs. Barr ami Dox, from


the Committeo oí' Eleotiolls, preselJto.l tilo follo\Ving as tho vicws uf tilo
minorit" el' tlle said eOlllltlittee in tile aboyo caso:


The ¡ln¡]crsigncu, a Illinority of the COllllllittelJ of E1EctiollS, lmve Ilot
Leen able to COIlelll' \\"it11 tilo lllajOl'it,)' of said eomlllittcc in thcir conelu-
siom\ aml rel!OlIllllcrHLttions in tlle coate,;teü elaim COI' a seat in tllis
Rouse hy 1\1eS81's. Henry D. Füster and JOltll Oov(j(h', frolll tlw twenty-
first cOII~TessiOllHl disti'id oí' l)PlIllsylv<Lllia.


Tlw l'l:~t;{Ons for snoh disscnt am ¡;el'oinaftcr gi,'en.
Tite lllajol'ity, in their 1'l:'pu1't, hayo takon oecasioll to gi,'c a fnll 1Iis-


tor,)' of thn prillw facie ense, whielt \Vas (letermined and dispo~ed 01' by
tlw !JOll"O of Hcpl'esl'lItatiw's 011 tlle ~d day of April, l~(m. As suelt
prima Jilti!! titlp' to a seat is Hot llOW undel' l'eyjpw it is llOt deollH'd
neecss<tl'y to follow sueh statl'IllPnt as to s<lid right, t'xelljlt to recog'lIize
tite fad tltat tito mgllllll'llt 01' tite majolity coueetles that tlle prima facie
right to the sellt \Vas \'ested in l1PlII''y D. Foste1'.


'fhe Oommittee oí' Eleetiolltl wa",. by I'l'S~)llltit)ll oí' tite HOltRC, passed
April ~, ISü!), dil'ected to inqnirc illto tlle lIlerits 01' thi" case, amI !lot.er-
mine .\Vllo i~ ellt.itlp!l to l'l'pl'eSt\llt tlw said twenty-l1rst di"tl'Íct in this
l]()l!se. Tite resoiutioll is in the following te1'lllS:


Rc.\Oll'ccl, That thl\ cont.este(¡ el"ctioll ('ase fl'Olll t]w tweuty-first. cougTessionul f1ist.ric1t
of l'euIlH\'lv>tllia !.Ill rCCOlIllllitte¡[ to tlle COllltllitk0 of EbctiollS wir.lI iuscrlleti"ll' to
re[lort ¡¡IIO]] t1111 mel'its of tlw case, wlw is clItitlc,1 to repr"s;~lIt sai.l tlistrict in thi:i
llOllse, with anthority to llmke reglllatiolls to glJveI'Il tite ulOtle of comlndillg tite con-
t.·st, :ttlll takillg tcstilllOlly.


'fhc Honse afterwanl, on tite 5th of April, 18üD, adopted tlle fol1ow-
ing l'egulations for tho COllduct oí' tilo cOlltest, under whieh the daim.
auts llroeceded to takc testillloll,)' :
Re!11~latioll~ fOI" oJnrlllctin] t]lg c,~llte~t a!!rl ta',in.1 fe3tiln9n.y in the oo¡ücHfeil eleolion ca3cfrom


the twellt!J:fiI'Ht cun!Jrcssiunal disldet of l'euII8!Jlvuuiu, to lchic/¡ Jo/m C(JCOdll and Heul'!J V.
FORtCI' are the particH.
Bacll of t.ho claimants shall serve UpOll tllB ot,lwr a notice of tlt3 grounlls on .whilh


he dailllH the seat bet'ol'ü JUllO 1, ldj), >tntl >tu allJWJT to tite llotice of nis 0Pl'.llItlht
u"fo1''' JUIl" %0, ltlci:J.


D:titl (COVt do 31mll ü,lw bis testimony between tlw first ami fifteenth days, inclusive,
(jf .Jldy, Au;..u,', uwl ceptember, 1 :)jJ, allll s,LiLl Fu."J!' s:J.Lil t,,;,J nis GJsti..ll.my llJtlVdJlI
the sixte¡~lI[,h alld ]a::;t d;.t.yH, iueltL'iive, of t.lttl tla;llt~ nlontd~.


Tlw HLltntury pru,-iWII1S l'tlgllbtillg onliu>tl'y 0:1',:8 ot' con test 8:j,1I1 a¿ply to tbis
c~e ~o i~lr a~ tllO tlauu are C{)¡I~l::;teut \vith the~e re "u .. ÜÍOllS.


Alll"stilllOlI)' 8h:l1l 1m tm:lslIlittc-d, U:JLI0¡' Hea], by tilO utlLc:·s lI"fol''' WllOlll t1w slIme
shall b~', ta;~(';I, f.o tIJO el":!'K of tlle 1-tOil~W, at \\'asl!illgtoll):SU <1,.., to lJe re(~t3ived uy.sa,itl
C]etlc bcioj'(' ;J¡" lf,tJ¡ d.,y uf OClül;cr, lbJJ, l)(lt:Jl\J w¡lIdl (.by tll" llo¿ice", all~Wdl'~, "vi-




2 COVODE VI'. FUSTER.
dence, antl exhilJits in the case shall be filml with said Clcrk; flud tlw cl,'rk of the
Committt'i\ of Electiolls shall illllllcdiatcly HJCreafter armllg-e the papers for tlw Pllblio
Pl'inter, and canse the sallle to be printerl befo]'('. tite lst ,by nf NOV01111wT, ltlG9.


The l'rintecl argnl1lents of the claimants shall be filed with tlllJ COllllllittce oi' Elec-
tions 011 tIlA flrst tby of thc ncxt scssioll oi' Congresa.


1'1Ien10re m~olred, That the foregomg reg-nIatiollS of tlH\ Commitke of Elediolls for
condncting the contest amI takillg tl}() testimon)' in tlw eOlltestcd eledioll case fl'OIll tha
twellty-l1rst cOllgressiollal district of Peunsylvallifl be, amI tlte samc herehy are, adopted
by t Ilis l1011se.


Attest:
EDW. ~IcPTIEI{SON, mer/.:.


The testimony taken is voluminous, and full upon 1ll0¡;t oí' tIlo points
in controyersy.


T11e twenty-first congressional distri.ct of Pennsylvania, iR composed
of the counties oí' vVestmoreland, Fayette, am1 Indiana. By the re-
turns of the election held fol' member of Congress, in Oetobe1', 1868, in
saiu distl'iet and State, tIle following result is sllOwn-uoth parties to
tIlis contest agree as to tho correctness oí' said retura by the retura
judges of saiu district, 01' a mfljoritJ' of them.
Yote~.


Rem'y D. Foster had, in vVestmorelanu County, (seo
exhibits, page 145 and page I5~) __ . ___ ... _ ... __ ..... G, 722


Renry D. Foster haO., in Fayettc Uounty, (seo Exhibit Q,
page 153) .... _ ....... _ . ____ .. _ ........ __ ........ _. 4, 70G


Reury D. Foster had, in Indiana County, (see l1}xhibit
0, page 152) _ ...... _______ : ___________ . _________ .. 2, 379


lHakillg a total of, (see Exhibit W, page 1(2) . . . . 13,807
Ami that-


John Covodo had, in \Yestmoreland County ___ . __ .... 5, Hl2
JoIln Covode had, in Fa,rctto County _ .. _ ... ___ . _ . _ .. __ :1,8I!)
John Covode had, in Indiana County __ .. _ ... _ . _ ... _ ... 4,755


Making a total of. ..... __ . _ . _ .. _ . _ ........ _ . . . . 13, 766


Thus giving 1\1r. Foster a majority oC ......... _ .. _ .. _ _ 41


We enter now upon an examination oí' the testimollyall(l tite nrgu-
ment of the majority tbereoll; aIHl, in doillg so, will follow as closoly as
is possible the order as laid down in their reporto .


First. l\fr. Covode asks that 1.11e en tire polI of Dunbar Township, in
the county of FaJ'ette, be excludou, llpon tho lllleged groullds of irregu-
larities by the eleetioll ofticers, alld tbe admission by them of illegal
votes cast for 1\11'. Foster at said polI.


The majori1.y state in substance, in their ropod, that where election
offieers neglect to perform directory requirements of tho law, 01' perform
them in a mistaken manner, provided there is no bad faith OH their part,
amI no harm aecrues, that such neglcot 01' mistako does not warrant the
exclnsion of an en tire polI, unleRs the frauu is to an extent to make the
polI u.ureliable; and that in ¡-mch case the parties should be "10ft to
make sueh proof as tiley may of votes legally cast for tItCIll."


We do not conenr in tMs eonclusion, believing that in 8nc1l case it
should be made the duty of caeh party tú 11 con test, respedi \'t~l.v, to prove
the iIlegal votes cast at sueh po11, alld for whom such i\legal votes were
given. Those not proved to be illegal shonhI stand; that i8 to say, that
sneh poIl be purged of its illegal votes only; t.hoso left to be duIy
connted. The merits oi' a contested election depeIlll U1l011 tlw findillg
out which of the candidatos received tIte greatest uumber 01' legal votes.




COVOD}J VS. FOSTER. 3


The only way to arrive at this is to sbow of the yotes east for each can-
didate those that were illegal. It is at 110 time jllstifiable to tllrow ont
an eutire poll, amI in this way disfranchise the wbole Yotillg popula·
tion of a distl'ict, if it can be pnrged oí' its illegal portion. In this case
tbe testimony is fnll as to DUllbar TOWIIShip, and the ülcgal yotes, by
said testimoll.)', can be readily and conclnsiyely fletermillcd. 'l'his is a
PennsyIvania cas(', amI t11c courts 01' tlwt :::ltatc ha\-c, in aH contestcd
electiolls, held thatimposwibilüy of asccrtailling the trne state of the pon
is the, only grollml for n:iceting it. .To sllow that tIle majority them-
selves are in donht as to tIlc jU8tneRR oí' l'l'jectillg thi8 elltirc poli, they
presellt to thc cOllsidcratioll oí' rhc Honse tlle cOlHlition of tlle poll atter
they have pnrged it oi' al! thc Wcgal yotes al!egcd and proveíl to have
beellcast. ThÍi, lattf'r coursc shoultl comll1Cllcl itselfto yonrjnclgment,
and while being in st1'ict acconlancc with law alld pl'CCCdellt, is, at tIw
same t.ime, a protpetion to file ltollest yoter,; in ever.)' polI.


In this yie\Y we are not without lll:lny saJe prececlent,s. Tlle follow-
ing are sorne of the eitations frolll tIlc rnlings whieh goyern sueh cases
in Pf'llTlRylvania, aml Illany nutborities in eOlltcsted eleetiolls in tlle Con-
gress of tIJc Ullited States.


In Skerrett's case, (3 Pa1'sons, p. r¡OD,) it \Vas decided tltat " for mere
irregularitics and \Vant of cOllfol'llIity to the pl'OVÜÜOllS oY the electioll
law, that are merely direetory, the court, 1'01' t,lmt reason, wiII llOt set
aside tIJe eIection."


In l\fannt's. Cassirly, (Brewster's Heports, p. 3~:) "The entire vote
of a precillet 811OUIduot he njceted Wbel'l' it is possihle to ascertain the
frauclulellt votes."


In Thompson t18. Ewillg, (samc 1'c])o1'ts, p. 107:) ";VIere negleet to
perform directory l'f~qnirclllcllts of the eledioll Iaw, 01' the performance
in a mistakcn manller, where therc is no bad 1aitll, allcl DO harm lws
accrued, ought not to de[i'at thc will of the peopIe of an entire distl'ict."


In \Yp:lVf'.r 1.'8. Oin>n, (same rt'ports, pp. 144,145:) ., Carelcss, igno-
rant, amI even willtnI lIt'gIpct oi' tite direetol'y l'eqnirements oi.' tIle elcc-
tiOIl law call1lot OIwrate to llullify an eIeetioJl."


'l'lte f()llowin~ are somo oí' tlte congressional decisions bearillg UpOIl
tbe same point:


In GOggCll 'l'S. Gilmer, (Contested :Election Cases in CongTCss, 1834
to 1865, p. 70~ twenty-eightll UOllgress, first session:) "Tlte acts of
proper ofticers, acting withín the spbere oi' their duties, must be pre-
sumed to be correct, llnless ShOWll to be otherwise."


In }jittell t'8. UoblJillS, (same, p. ]38, thirty-first OOllgress, first session:)
"The legal presumptioll is always ag-ainst tlle existence of fraud.
NotIling but tlle most ulleqllivocal evidence eall dcstroy the credit of
official returns." Tite report in this case was made by the Hon. vYilliam
Stroug, of Pennsylvania, late of the supreme court of that State, amI a.
gentleman likely to he lIarned by President Grant as an associate jndge
of tlte Supreme Court of the- Ullited States.


In Whyte t's. llarris, (¡;ame, p. 263:) "InspectoI's of an eleetion are
judgcs of tbe qualifications oí' electors, allll ir they eri' without wrong
intellt, tIle general resuIt shall IlOt be aftected." (lUinority Report,
whicIl the Rouse adopted.) .


In Flanders V8. Rahn, (same, p. -:) "That a disregard of :1 mere
direetory provision of the Iaw cannot annnl au eIection carried on with
all tbe essentiaIs of an electioIl, amI with perfect filirness."


In Bruce 'vs. Loan, (same, p. 504:) ., That no one should be vested
with the ¡ight to determine who are and who are not qualified voters




4, COVODE VS. FOSTER.


saye those wllo are by law clothed with, and by law made responsible
for, the proper performance oí' tlmt fluty." .


In l\feIIellrY V8. Yeaman, (same, p. [),jO:) "That occasional irreglllarities
8110n1d llOt, "itiate :m eleetion."


HaYing taken t1lis general vicw, we procepd to pnumerate t110
spreific allegations and complaints made against the Dunuar Town-
ship polI.' ,


\Yilliam Speers was bronght in as un offiepr during tite countillg' of
tIte yotes, aftpr tlH3 ¡lolls were closrd, to take thc ]llace of ]\:fr. Hurst,
t11(' democratic e!prk, who was takell ill. MI'. Speers was not sworn.
Hnrst suusequently Rigned tlle retn1'lls. \Ve do 110t e011Ridpl' that tlle
temporary introdnction 01' lUr. Speers sbouJll hnpair tite yaEdít} of tlle
poJI. He did IlOt fi)f(;e JlÍmsplf in, nor \ras lle ol~ipetecl to hy all,}'. He
pcrí'ormel1 his dut.v ,;-ilh faimess aJl(} proper deeornm; and, wllen
throngh eounting, his tally of votrs eOITCRJlollded ,,,íth the tally kept,
by 1\11'. Collins, the l'('pubIican clerk, ",ho in his tcstimOlly sta tes :


Q. 'Yas anytbing sairl hy nn~-nl('lllher of tlH~ hoar!1 nhont, tlw illl]lOHHihility of his <1is-
<.ohnrging t,hose rlnties withont )('ing s"'orn ~-A. Kot ihat 1 n'lIll'ml>er oí'.


Q. 'Va~ any oh.iedioll lllac10 io 1\11'. 8peers acting as clPrk hy :llly 1ll~lllh"r ()f thll
lJo"rd f-A. 1 don't thillk th~re was.


In Blair V·~. Barrett, (Colltpstc(l Elcetion Cases in COllgI'PS", p. 311-
MI'. Da wes making" tllp rC'port :lrloptec1 by the Honsp:) "Tlle honest
electors sl!olllll I10t he disfrllndliio1p(l an 1l thrir yoiee stifled from a mere
oll1issioll of the officC'rs of Plpction to tíllw the oath oí' offiec.'1


In l\1illikell V8. Fllller, (san1(', p. 176:) "Eleetion offieprs i1Tpgnhlr1.r
cllOsen. As no fl'alHl was al1eg-c(1, the plpdi(ll\ wm; reg-arrlp¡} as yali(1."


In the case of Alderman Boilean in PhilalklpllÍa, (~ Parsolls, p. ;;0:3:)
"It \Vas distinct1y decided by prpsülpl1t jndge, Killg-, tlwt the omi~"ioll
01' a clerk, calIed in ui111cr the eirellmstancps, to qna1if\', is llot "nch an
irl'eg'ularity as should induce tlle eonrt to ~et aSÍfle th(' plp(·.tiolJ."


\Ve thillk '\Ve have 11isposp¡l of this I~OlllplaiTlt RlwI~essflllly.
In the ahsellce of the proller hallot boxe~, it is pron'll that a lwt amI a


eig-al' box wpre nsed to depmlit the yotps in np to el(>\'PI1 o'e1oek a. m.,
"Ilen the ballot hoxrs "'ele brollglH hy tllP llla g-i"tr:lt e, who sllonl(1 Ilaye
bad thcm at hand at the oprlling of the poli, :JI)(l thcn tlle tid:ets were
Ü'ausf'tmed froHl the lJat and eigar box to Ihe propel' hox(ls. n llowhere
:IPIlL'nrs that :In,\' wrollg' was dOUH in thi~ trmmfer. lt \Vas 1101le by tho
tilO illspeetors in tlle presenee of an tho officel's. (p. 17.) The cvi-
dCllce 01' lUr .• Josep11 R Cramer, republican, (p. ;)11,) goes to show
tllat t11e1'(\ was a conspiraey OH tbe part of certain rppnhlitans t,o krpp
these uallot hoxps away, alld thus make it au illega] eleetioll, beeanse of
the use of the hat amI (~igar box. The plaee. 01' eoncealrnellt W:lR knowll
to tllose persons. If tbe fact of the deposit of tiekets in a hat is to he
takeu as a cause fol' rejecting' an entire polJ, then tite same obieetion
wonld app]y against tlle poll in \V1mrton TO\YIlShip, wherp .MI'. Coyode
ha.d a large In;ljority. It does not apprar that any ehange wns mado
dnring' the day fmm hat to ballot box in this townsbip. (See ~fcCart­
nO."'8 testimon,r, p. 813.)


lt is ol~il~cte<l tliat per"olls othCT tIlan the officcrs were allo\\p(l in the
room rlnring' tlteday. Tllis indieates 110 apprarallce 01' attrmpt. af. frand.
If snch was r1osigJl('(l, all })eI'SOllS , ... oI1Jll haw~ heen stlldiolH-ily kppt out.
Byery aet oi' tlHi Oi!l('('l'S ,,,as 0yerlooked dnrillg the entire day hy rnen
{)f huth parties. In í',lI:t, OIlO persoll \l'as presrnt during' the entire day,
'10 J epresent raell ]larty, in t,llt' ea,p:tcity, as it w('re, of watehers. 'fhe
testillloIlyoí' 1\11'. Pope, relln1Jliean ill,;peetnr, amI MI'. Collins, re]mbliean
elerk, estalllisllCs that 110 tllreats >Yero made by any offieer against pero




COVODE VS. FOSTEH. 5
sons ofteriug to vote; tllilt 110 irregu1nritics cxistcd in tlle receptioll of
votes; that lIO yotes were takpIl oí" persons who tlid Ilot uPlwar OH the
list of tuxabIes; that llO pel'80nS \VeTe allowed near tbe ballot boxes
except the otlicers, anfl tllat thpy (1\1e8srs. Pope and CoUins) were not
absent durillg t11e day, exeept tor ~1 mllll1te OI' t",o to utteml to the
duties oí' ll<ttnre. lt jo-; proyell that 1\11'. Ullthrie, who seems to have
been the rppublicall watc]¡pr, was Ol'(lf'n~d out oi' Lhe'room becuuse of
insuIting lallg'nage usetl ugaillst, one of the in~pectors, lmt his plaee was
immediateIy :snpplil'(l hy 1'111'. Hier,;, another lllember of the same polí-
tical sitIe.


Six more tiekets appparell in the box than tllere were llamps on the
list of voterR. Statelllellt ()r tlliH faet \Vas made on the return papers ;
no attempt at eOllcealtnellt. It is 1l0t possib1e to :,;ay for WllOIll ronr of
them yoted; tllf'y (~allllot, thel'efore, be cOLluted as against either. It
has be en Ullifol'lllly hcld hy ('Ol1I'ÜI of Pellllsylnmia that, llnless s]¡own
fol' whOln sndl yotes \,;ere given, it call1lot operate agaillst either
party ill comt. 1'his (lis(Tt'l'Hney can be casilyexpIained. In a larga
distl'ict like Dunbar, pollillg :,;everal hnmlred YOÜ'S, it is Ilot'ullllsual for
tbe del'k:-; to itlaüvprtcnt[y omit the llames 01' some WIIO llluJ-' have.
yoted.


1'hcRe Yoteil \H're eOllIlLed in the V1'esence of the whole hoard, aud
tIle elerks, Olle a repnlllican all<l (Hle a democrat, agreed in t11eir tallies.
It i8 fnrther alleged that a botly of men, say thil'ty in Ilumber, marelted
to the gl'OlltHl W1]('1'8 the elec.tioll ,,,as held. If they did, it is nowhere
ShOWll tltat they were ¡Ilegal voten3. \Vitnessm; for 1\11'. 1<'oste1' provc
thut tltey halted SOllle distallce Ü'01ll tlle pon l!.]](1 went singIy to vote.
1'here is 110t tIte RIightest evitlellee o[ any disorder, threats, 01' menaces
on their part. 1'hese men certainly lmd a right to cOllle there in a peacc·
able allu ol'der1y way. lt is no umumal occurrellce in coulltl'y distriets
for voters to come to tIte pon togetlwr in lurge numbers. Teams íl¿lld
wagons are Gou8bmtIy used to carry voters, exceeding in number that
proved in this ca~e.


lt is assertel1 that lllUC}¡ \\'hiskywas eOllsumed dming the day, which
produeetl 110ise all(} eoufllsioll. This lis 1l0t strauge. It is the custOlll
for otlieers oí' electiollS to !taye food and drillk sellt in the polI-room to
th.em, their party friellds demanding their constant presence to see that
no llnfail'ness is donc. 'l']¡e whi:,;ky seerns to htwe 1>een common prop-
erty, for all eOlltl'ibnted to its purchasc. MI'. l\IeCnllough iR saitl to
haye ueell somflw]¡at afü~cted by whisky at times clnrillg tite day.


In 'l'ltompsoll 1'8. Bwing, 1 Bl'e.wster, p. l~O: ,\ 'l'he mere illtoxicatioll
of au oftict'l' is uot a snftieiell1: reason for rejecting l1 po[1."


Olle hy olle we have (li:,;posell of tIte eompIaillts aud irregularities.
made against this (Dul1bar) tO\Yl1ship pollo Snrely if they canuot stand
singly, tlwy ¡.;houl{l !lO! Iw made (1) }ll'Op each other amI thus have force
eombillcd.


YOUNGSl'OW='< DI8TRWT, WESl':lIORELAND COUNTY.


TIw l't'aSOIlS assiglH~ü hy tlw llwjOi'ity -oí' the comlllittce for the wjec-
tion of tIte YOllllg'stowri poll are llot ~mch. as arE' :,;u~taillcrl by the law
01' judieial decisiollS. To disfrallclIi~e tlle dt.izcns 01' an entire distriet.
becau8e aH a:,;ses:,;or <lid llot llerfol'm all tite dnties illcumbellt upon hilll r
SE'ems to us lO stretch oI' powcr that at any time lWly disfranehise the
people oi' a congressional distriet, 01' abolish E'leetiollS in a State alto-
gclh~ .


The dnty of the assessol' \Vas tú take the 1ist of the taxable inhab-




6 COVODE VS. FOSTER.


itantti of his disti'ict, lllako at Ieast t,,-o copies thereof, antl put ull flaid
lists in two publie pbH~es in tIto distl'iet, OliO of wllieh IIlnst he in t1l('
place of hol(ling tlle general clectioll. rt is adlllitte<1 that thiti was done.
Fm'tller, 1t is made his duty to keep a list of the taxables in his pORses-
SiOll, ¡·nhjed to Íllspoetiou at a11 reasollable times witllOnt dJarg-p. It is
aclmitted that this ,,-as done. Fnrther, Ito is to atteud at what is knowll
m; aH extra W:lSeSRI1H'nt, to be held betwccll tlw 20th <la y oí' Ang-lltit, amI
prior to tea (lays hefOI'e the seeo]}(I Tneselay in Odober, tlle ela:\' of tl[('
eleetioll, amI at such time fHld tIte llames of tllOse qualitietl ,,-110 applied
to he placed 011 tlle list of taxables 01' ,-oter8. lt ¡ti adlllittcd tl1at il1i"
,yas dOlle. He iR tllen l'eqnil'ed to adel tlle llames of all that wel'O extra
assessed to tIte lists that he put np in tlIo two IHllllie places in the diR-
triet. It is admitted tllat thi¡, was <leme. But, tlle Iast l'l'el1lÍl'mIlPllt, ,j. c.,
to makc out dU]llicutcs of t11ese lists, aud file one in tlle county eommis-
sioller's oflice, amI huml tlle otiler to OlW 01' Uw insp('.etors 01' the dec-
tion hefore 8 o'e1oek 011 the lllot'llillg of said eleetioll, ,,;as neglccteel to
be done by t1le assessor. Alld becanse oi" the lIegled oi" thiti olle, all<l
not t11e 1ll0St material rer¡ni1'eIlll'lIt, haying f'llltillc(l 8\'t'1'y otlwr llllty
incnmbent on him, und in so doillg aeting umll'r t110 snlletity of lJis ofli-
cial oat1l, the IlHljority asle 1l0W to r(>jeet this cntire polI.
lf íl1ere hall hecll no oftieial aeí wlmte\"cr perfol'lIwcl 1l,Y tlw aS~(,H¡,or,


neeessar'y to t11e pro})l'!' eomlnct of this eleetion, t111'1I t11e eOll1lllittcp
migltt, \Yitlt some propriety, ask 1'01' tlle l'(~ieetion of tllis pollo In per-
fonning nono oi' his dnties, tho oflicers of the election wonlcllmye bf'ell
compelled to close tlle polls, 01' to llaye proeeede<1 witItont oflieiul knowl-
odgo aH to w1l0 \Yere tIle taxablcs amI ,-ote1'S ot' t11e <liRtriet; e\'('ll thell
we hold tlIat it wonld haye been competent for the oflicers of the elt\(:-
tion to lIa\'e reeein~d tho y01es 01' al! persolls offering to "ote, WllO, npOll
eXHminatioll nnder oath, ,yen' fOllud to luwe tllC COlltititntiollal elllali1iea-
tiOll8 of voten,. Bul; t,}wy w('re plaer<1 in )JO 8n('1I ]l(lRitioll by tlle llegleet
of this assessor. 'l'hey Wl'1'e Ilot witllOnt a l)1'O}IC¡' fJuide 1'01' 11H' ('OIlÜllc1
oí' t11e elcctioll. The assessOl' 11:\11 done eYl'l'~-tJ¡illg th:lt wa:-; m~(;eH~Úl'""
for tIte eOlldnd. 01' llw poll, ('.'{(;('1'1 11t(' Ilulkillg" of thl' t\Hl copÍl-'ti oí' thl'
\"ote1'S allnclrd to; awl w]¡en tllt' l'lt,(:tioll oftiel'l'H i\llllltl tlte''y \\,('1'l' ,,-it]¡-
out their cOP,,", t!H'Y took thl' ori!Jiua! li,.:t, \rith tlw :!(l<litiOlwl llame_o; 01'
t1l0 extra aSS(':-;":Illl'lIt ¡¡elell'(l tlll'l'l'to, fl'OIll tlw l'OOlll uf the ]lllhli!: llOllSl'
,dlere t11e Yoting' ,,-as d011e, Hllel ,rJwl'l', in :H'('o)'(1<1]\('(' \rillt law, the
:tRSCi'iSOl' lllld ¡tInel'el iL :lll(l 1I';('1[ it Ú)l' thl'il' gllÍ<lalll:o r1lll'ing' tIJe l'ketie)ll.
\Vas 1l0t this as J¡ig'h :llltilol'ity as tl)('. ('()py ,yonle1 llan' ]1('Pll 1 ,Val' it
llot highel' antltol'it,Y! Tllp (lile ,;-a~ t11(' or((fillal plllwr, :1ll,,1 tl1e o/ha
t110 mere copy, snl\jeet to al] tl](' (']¡alH'PS oí' ('1'1'01' Ía 1l'allSe1'ihillg-.


That tlle eOllllllitt\,(; ;.;ltouM a~;k rOl' the n:ieetioll oí' tllis poli, Iwcanse
a particular, thollgh R('('Ollelm-y liHt wa~ 110L p1'o<1need 1'01' the l1[-;e oí' thC'
eleetioll of'fiecrs, luok" likc a pretl'xt 1'0\' eloing 1J,Y ül<[il'pdioll w}¡at tlw~'
could uot <lo ¡¡in'ctl), In~1l'ad of l'cpl'ollatillg' tlw t01H1nd of tll(' elee
ti011 offieers in tllis )'ega)'(l, the lll:tjo1'ity 01' tile eOltllllittec Hlloulel COlll-
illeIlu them for t he vroln'ü~ty of theil' eonr¡.:ü in sl'pkillg 1'Ol" alHl llsillg' in
t11e ahsl'llce of' tllü eopy tht' mit_ónal list, frolll \yhicJl the eopy ol1¡.dlt to
!rave lleen mude. In doillg' so they sayee1 tIte Yotel'R oC 1hnt distriet fl'oHl
disfranehiselflellt, alld added to the general retul'll oi' thiti eOllgrPHsional
distriet a towllsbip retlll'll, as ,-aliel and fr('e from unj' intentioll of haua
as tho retura would bUH' l)pen hael it beell llased npon a CO]J.I/ o[ t11e listo
\V l' eOIlsider this ÍlTl'gnlal'ity giyes tlw HouHe "no Ilaíl"s hrcarltlt of' foot-
lIold" to stalld UpOIl to \Yarrallt tl18 rc:ieetioll of this clltire pollo


Bnt, say the lllajority, llearly tltirL,Y-nine llames ",ere addecl to t1le
extra assessment of this dist1'iet \\"110 dicl Ilot pPI'ROllally apply to be




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 7


placedoIl tIle list, and that tllPy voj(,¡l at theelection. Snpposothey did so
vote, (anl1 there is 110 e()lteln~i\-p pl'()()f of this,) there is !lO certainty, as
far as t11e evi<lcllee ~ho\Vs, fo1' whom tltcy yoted. '1'he testimolly further
exhibits that thosl~ ,rIto \\'ere so assessed amI voted, ostablished their
righttovote hy showingthp,Y possessed thr constitntional requisites in the
case of unassesscII n)Ler,~. This was aU that was necessa,ry, whether on
01' off' the list, H(~jcet t,]¡p yotns ofthese pcrsons becausc tltey \Vel'e added
by tho assessor withont theil' personal applieatiol1, but as S0011 as this
is done yon will he COltlllplled to acImit them as the votes of l)e1'sons wIlo
had filled nIl tllp ('on:;;titutional ]'('(l'lirements in {he case of nnassessed
voters.


We hold, therefore, that t1li,., assessment list, mUlle undel' oath, and
derisivelcv tCl'lIlc<l by tIte mnjority repOl't as "this papel' takell frolll a
tayern wall,~' \ya:;; pl'opcl'l,r US(~<l in tho ahsellc(~ oi' tIte copy; that tho
electiotl officers woul(l hayp l!PPll fmbject to censure foI' omitting to use
iti and it~ ll~r ga \Te to tho polI, as an exprpssion o[ tIle popular wi11, tIte
same legal effp(:t, as tlw copy conld haye dOlle, It was au irregularity
that wm; oven'olllo h;\T sl1ustitl1tillg' in tho place of the copy tIle papel'
from whieh tIIf\ eop.\' \Vas tú haye bO{'n lIIade.


Al! tlle citations of la\\' llmI pl'peedellce made in rofcrCTlce to DUllbal'
Towm;hip in this n'pol't llave tite same üm:e a)ld applicability to this,
the Younp;:;;to"'ll üistl'iet, and go to sl10w the i11eg'ality of l'ejecting the
entire poli oi' either.


TIlO force of tll<' stntemeJlt 1hat t]w oftieers of tite electio!l at the
Youngstown <listriet \Yel'O all d:'lllocrats, and that 110 domoel'ats w-ere
chaU!'lngod tIlUt lla,v, is ul'okon W!tPIl tlw fnrther fact is shown tItat at
this poli, as at Dnlllnr Towllship, repnblicaJl watehers were present dur-
ing the cntiro day, and thpü' p]'(~S(,ll(~('. thcl'e was hy thc l'eqnest of the
tlell1oeT'nti(~ eled ion (lftieers. Do(',; this iTlflieale any frmululont purpose
in the eonduet of that p1('(:t iOIl "! Conld an.ythin¡r he ülil'er"?
Ol~jf~r:tion js m:l(lH hy '\11'. UOY4)(In tn thH rcccption of tlle votes at tIle


lIempü{'lrl tli,;tl'i(,t, in \\T('stlllOl'el:llHl County, and South Union Town-
sIlip, in Faydtl' Conllt,\-, (':Ic:t, by 1I('r,,011S ,,-110 wero imtlates of tlw
})oor-ll()11t-le 01' 1IOllC:P (JI' ('lllployment t'Ol' f<:1id n"f<pectiH\ counties. On
wlmt ü'mthle gTol1lHl tllic: o].jpdion i" ma<le \ve al'O llllahle io determine.
'1'lws(, 1IIf'1l ,wew at tlw till1:~ of tllf\ elN:tioll, amI fol' ;n'urs befOl'p, actual
residems of HI,ltlpn('ld :111([ SoutlJ lTllio!l (lic:tl'id", and hall no otho1'
l'esid('JI(~é. Tlw'y \H'n' l't'g-nlarly assos"ed iJl the distl'id:;; in w1lieh their
respotti\t\ ]¡OllSP:"; m'(' loe;lt{'(l, i!eeonlillg to law, anü paid theil' taxt~s, in
pUl'~nnJl('e of tlw :lS,';('''"mellt, to t1le prope'1' oitiepl'. 11' the'ir right to
votei:;; ieste<1·b,\' t11(' eom;ti t.lItion:ü provision amI tlw ads nf assembly,
the.v are relin\'{'{I of ('H'l''v ]1ossib1e objeetioll.


'rIle eOllstitntioll 1.l'ovides as t'nllows:
AH'!', IIJ" SEC, 1. In ,,1,'di(¡llS h,v O", dtizens, ('\-("1'.1' wltit .. f¡-et:llul,ll 01' the ago of


twellty-OlHl Y":1r" h:lyiu,!2: \'('si,l"ü in tllis statn one ,-ear, :Lll<1 in tlw el,'ntioIl district
wlu:l'c he ofkr,; (o ,'ote' tell ,1:"-,, illllll:'lliat,d,v pl'c('~,lilli!: f;lleh t'ledioll, alL,1 wiLhin two
ycan-l paia a RtJ:lÍB 01' Cllllllt,Y tax, ,vhieh "hall havo ht~~ll :1S;;;p.s:-:,üel aL least ten days l)e-
tD!'e tI", 4'1"d.iou, "hall l'l'j "," t he !'ig']¡ ts of all r:kctol'; (JIl L a ei llzen of t he U ui tCfI States
who h:ul l'l'ev¡ollsl,Y b,','u " 'l"alifi'l<l votel' o[ tltis 8tat", amI rm1HlVed therefrolll, and
rdnnw,], and \\'10 "hall h:"-Ill'esi,]",l ¡IL the deDti'l:l ,liRtl'iet antl p:ú,l taxe" as aforosahl,
shall hn entitle4! to vote "flor residiug iu tilO stttt" six lIlouths.


Tite aet of assl'Ulhly of :!d J nl~~, 183fJ, follow'l the con~titntional pro-
vision OH Llw snl~jéet, amI ln lIeither is tltere any pl'opel'ty q llalifieation
roqnired.


In the ea se of this e1ass nf yoters the ohjeetioll is not snstained, we
fin(l, hy any law oí' Pennsylnmia, 1101' is it sustnincd hy the action of
tho IIOllSC of IÜ'presl'lltativos in tbe coiltl'sted electioll case of Koontz




8 COVODI~ VS. FOSTER.


t'8. Coffrotll, thirtictb Congress, first session, (report No. n~, yol. 1, of
Hm!sfl Heports, 18(;5-'66.) In themujority l'eport, wltich wasadopted, amI
ouste<l tile sitting memher, it was held that this kiml of yote coulll "not
be deductcd from the count of the sitting member. Eadl State frames
itH OWIl la \Vil rOl' the Illaintenance a!l(I eare of its pOOl', 1'1w laws pro-
vide protection for the poor, who, 'by rcason oí' age, disense, infirmity 01'
otIler disability,' bccolHe llllahle to \\'Ol'k. \Vith reganl to tite eleetke
f'rane!üse by ¡,;ud!, the laws oí' PcnIlsylVH¡lia are s¡¡cnt, As they are IIot
expressJy depl'ive<l oí' the right, wo canllot soe ,,,hy the nnfortullate,
provided for by the pulllie, nwy not HIte as ir pl'ovületl 1'01' L,)' a parent
01' a son; eertaiuly 110t" \1ntil thc authoritil's of Penllsyl vallia shall have
decided for thelllselves tbe law, fol' whidl Owy have had frerplülltoppOr.-
tunitics. Thel'cfore ,re hcrc lllakp 110 tleduetioll fl'OlIl tlw (:Ollllt oí' the
sitting mPllIuer."


As to the lllnacy votc-four in numbrr-we desire jo say tllat the
cOllstitutiollalreqllirements do 110t set np auy prohibitiOll as agaillst
simple-minded Illen nor lunatics. 'rhe extellt 01' tlw mental im llecility
would seem, iherefol'(', to llave bee!l left to the otlieers of tlw eleetioll to
determine; al\(l upon sneh cxü'nt of \Veak inteIleet H(lmit 01' n:jeet the
vote wheo oftered. As to olle 01' the fotll' yo tes, ie is Jlot S]¡OWIl at an
for wbom he (Slllall) \'ote(1. Tt shonlll, in our jnrlgmellt, thaefoI'P, 110t
be eharged al:' agaillst either the cOlltel:'tant· 01' tllc contestee.


vVith refereuce to tIle individual vote:.; alleged to h;1\'o lleon east foI'
:MI'. Foster UpOll the <1ift'erellt groullds oí' alicnag'e, lunaey, llOn-l'esidence,
minority, amI lIon·paylllent oí' tax, and of whieh a list is fnrnishml u,y
the majority in their report, we ]ll'OpOSC to enter i!lto an examinaüon of
each individual ease so reportcd. '


1st. James T. ~Iartin, oí' Dunuar Township, it is alleged, was a minoro
The testimony oí' Martin himself (see p. 310) shows that 'he \Vas in-
forllled by bis grandülther, who raised him, and who waH prescnt at tho
election and before the board, that he liad eyery l'eaSO!l to llelieve,
both nt the time of the election auu ",hile tbis investig-atioll ",as g-oiug'
on, that he was oyer twenty-olle years oí' age on tho 13th day of Onto-
ber, 1"'6"'; alld furtheI', that his fat.1ter died whon Jle was \"(~ry ,Y0ung,
and his Illother haying remarried, then amI 110W lived in tho State of
Indiana. This yote cIcarlv should be eounletl fo1' 1\11'. Foster.


2d. As to Andrew ,Vórk, a l'Cft'l'ellee to tIte testilllolly of Beatty
(p. 302) wil! show that VV o1'k voted in that township 1'01' forty yeal's,
owned land there, and (loes now, and was assf'ssed amI raid taxes in
that township. His wife \Vas tIead, and he resided with !tis son in Dun-
bar Township at the time oí' the electioll, alld for a considerallle timo prior
thereto.


3d. George F. Dawsoll, of BrOWllSyille, (see p. 310,) t<'stifi(~s that
he returned to l'elllls'ylnUlia in July or August, 1",(;7, aIHIllCyer again
left the State with the intention oí' acquil'ing a rt'sir1t'I!(:(~ elsewhere;
llas remained in Brownsville cyer since, alHl thcrefore Itis yo te should
be counted for l\Ir. Foster.


4th. Connelly ,Vestcott, (see testimoll'y of \Vi11iam Camphell, p.
335,) was born in April, 18±7, aud he was, therefore, uetween tho age
of h'enty-onc amI twellty-two yea!'s in Octoller, 1868. 'rhis faet i8
shown hy tho statelllt'nt of tIle father alld mothcr of tlle yoter to the
witness.


5th. Reason ncall was llorn OH t11e 15th day of Fehrnal'Y, 1847, (see
tcstimony of Gt'orge Dean, the fatber of l{eason, p. 32n,) and llJlOll tlle
testimony of a stranger, it i8 pl'Oposed to l'f'jeet thiR vote agaillst tIlO
testimoIl'y of hi8 father.




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 9
6th. W. S. ,Johm;ton, it is shown by the tt:>stimony of Dr. F. O. Robin-


son, (p. 59,) alld G. vV. K. Minor, (p. 97,) OH the day of the election,
and while being cxamilled by the eleetioll board, repeatedly stated that
"hü;¡ mother liad tolú him he was old cllough to. vote at that olee-
tion." \Vhat better pyidence olle eould have oí' his age, exeept what he
migbt derive from his mother, is ¡IOt kno"'ll by tlle mernbers of the com-
mittee who sign this repol't. \Ve have already rt:>jeeted thp yote of
Samuel Oglp, even UpOIl tlle statement oí' a \vitness írho heard the
mother of the voter state the (late oi' !lis birth to haye been at a time
wheu he could 1I0t !laye been a voter nt the time of tbat election.


7th. Uriah Yeager . .ir., it is sho",n by tlle testimony oí' A. A Boyer,
esq., a witncss í'or 1\11'. COH,tle, (see p. 85,) was a resitlent of tlw dis-
triet of Nortlt Unioll 'rowllship; tllat fL fnll examination was made by
the board as to his right to \'ote thel'e amI at that election, before his
vote was recein'd; it is n Iso in cvÍdellce that t1le SfLm8 witness was in-
formed tlmt he \Vas a repllblican, so tlwt if his yote 'lOas iIlega1, it snrely
shoultlnot be chal'ged against 1Tr. Foster.


8th ami Utll. As to the yotes 01' \Villiam Searigllt aIHl ,James S('arigllt,
botll these g'elltlemen \vere elerks in (Iepartnwuts in the city of \Vash-
inngtoll, antl retul'IIed home, as is done uy en'ry elerk in every depart-
ment here, and their votes shollld llOt hf~ eharget1 by lIfr. Covode Ol' his
counsel against MI'. l<oster, espeeialIy when the fact is, as ,HJ are in-
i'otmed, that tlle S<l1l1(' traill of can; wlúeh carried olle of tIlese gelltle-
men hOIlle also uore A. S. Fullel', es!}., ,,,-ho resides in \Vasl1iugton, und
]\1r. Covode's coullsel in this case, to the same place for the purpose of
voting for lVlr. Covo(le. Tlle Scnl'ightg \vere bol'll ill Unioll Borough,
amlnever voted in aHy othe1' place, alld ir will 1l0t üo to say that their
votes shonld be r~jeetc(l.


10th. Israel Paiuter, .ir., it is testifie(l by O. P. Faltoll, (see p.102,) was
engagcd in \York in VewUlg'o Connty, PennsyIvania, in t11e oil regions,
and for this reasoll the majority ha\Te declucted this vote from 1\11'. Foster,
forgetting that there is no evi<lenco whatever as to how he voted, be-
yonel tbe faet that his nnclc was a demoerat, 01' that he had acquired
a new l'esidence, anrl the~T aIso OIuitte(l to detlnct frolll 1fr. CoyOÜe tbe
votes of A. Q. Oliver anü l\Iorgan B. Oliyer, W!lO were precisely itl the
same couditioll, (see testimoll'y of Severn: pp. 3()0, 3(H,) but wbidl we
do uot w;ject m, agaiusl MI'. Uoyode.


11th alld l~th. Jacoh Clunt and Samnell'atterson are showll by the
tcstimolly oí' ,leremiah lIIertz, (p. 407,) to have reside<l in Fl'anklin
TO\\'IlShip, wherc they wOl'ked f()l' llI<mths 1Iefore tilo elcction; they,yere
single men and meehallics, who wOl'ked wherovcr tlley eonld llud \York;
that they n.ever clnillled auy otlWl' pl:L(~e as tlwir l'csidence, and that ono
of them, in fact, owueü ]ll'opel't.Y in that district assessed against him,
and that both of them \Yere borll ami raised in that towlIship.


1:1th. Jacob \V ciL7.el's vote is l'PjPett'(} UpOll tho testimony of S. P.
FauIk, (pp. l~(), 121,) wllo tcstifies that his vote ,vas abouL beillg cbal-
lenged at t11e presideutial eleetioll for llou-pllympnt of' taxes, w]¡en the
eollector came to the wimIo\\' aJl(I YOll(~ll('d 1'01' the pa~-ment of taxes that
day. It iR IlOt to be pl'esumed frolll snch testimolly tllat tllÍs voter had
not paúl :L tax within two years as required by la\\'. Keither is it to be
presumed tlmt he voted fol' 1\11'. Foster frolll tlle outside appearance of
the ticket. 1t also appear:'> f1'om the same testillloll'y that he has voted
in tItat district for five 01' six yeal's, alld that his vote ,ya s 1l0t challenged
at that eleetioIl.


14th. Daniel Bowers, it is tesLilled by his mother, Bal'bara Bowers,
(p. 185,) OH tlle 14th of .Tuly, 18G9, was twenty-two years of age the




10 COVODE Vi;. FOSTER.
preceding montb, which wonld malee I1im betweell tbe age of twen(v-one
an<l t\Vcnty-two years at the time of tite eIeetion in Ot·tobc¡·, 18G8.
Joseph S!reeley (p_ 372) aIsú testifies that frolll conversatiOll ",ith his
mother, and fi'om an examillutlon 01' a tombstone, Daniel Bowers WUf;'
of age at the time of that election, amI that hp m;sessclI ltim fol' tax
amI eollectell tax from hilll for that war: .


15th .• J01lJ1 Stiers, it is prm"ecl b~, his OWIl tpstilllOIl,)', (p. 172,) alH]
he \Vas called by MI'. Covode himseIf, was a I'csille¡lt of tlle llistriet of
Greensbnrg; then~ in pnrsmtnce 01' his lawflll calling, intp¡Hling to be-
come a resicIellt, ana aetnally such, and 0111,)' prenmled f'l'O!ll Rtill rc·
lmtiuing a resident by tIle faet l11at he eonhl llut procure sllch houso as
suited him.


16th. C. 1\[ Robinsoll is <'1 Ringle man, engagell in lfwl'C'lIandising
ab~)Ut a mile amI a ha11' frolll the residenee of his fathel'. lEs fa,ther
resides in NOl'th Hnntingdoll TOWIlShip, \Ve"ttllol'rla!H1 COlltlty, l'mlll-
sylvallia, where the Yotel', whose yole is ol\iceted to, cast his voto, lmt
his "tore is in Alleghany COllnt-y. He waR bol'll in that township, aud
made his hOllle at his father's 110m"" amI hml IlÍs washing done t.lwro,
aml there is no evidcllee to "how that he ('Yel' yoted in any othel' di,,·
trict tlmll that in whiclt his vote was cast at Ulis eleetioll.


17th. John P. Knnkle, (see his O\VII t.estimouy, p. 4Li, and the teg'ti-
mony of vVillialll Hawk, p. 414,) It iR S110W11 hr liad a l'ight to "ote in
Nortb Huntillgdoll 'l'ow11ship. HiR re:ülIPlwe ,,'H:'; with his lIlothel' in
that tO\Vllship. He \Vas au apprmltiee to leal'll a trade, amI as S0011 as
that apllrenticeship eIllled he retnrned to lüs llomc with hiR monw!', 110t
less tllan fonrweeks tefol'e hjH eledilm. Hawk, in his testimony, is ,-ery
olear and decided UpOIl the pOlnt of l'e"idonce, anclllo pos sitIe objection
can he lll'getl agaiIlst this ,"oto.


18th. Danielllralllf'Y's Yott' is n:iectcd by tIle lIInjority in their repol't
011 tbe gl'OlllHl that he non'!' ","as n citizpu. A l'f'h'l'l'IWP to pagf~ ;~8;~ will
8110w an admission by .1\11'. CO\'l)(1e, t!J,lt the ,"otcr ,vas lIatnralÍí~c(1 Oll
the 28th of J tll,)', 1850, ÍlI tite conrt, oí' eOllllllon pIcas, of B1air CUHnt,""
Pem¡Hyhalli;l, amI tllat Dmliel Bnulley hillls(;{j' <ll'PP;¡¡'pcl all!! 1'l'o¡Jucerl
his certifieate 01' natnrnlizatioll, aJ)!l it WllN ngT(,l'¡l tll{'ll tllat so ti,]' as
the testimolly 01' the lllllll 1\Tllllell, pp. ISO, l.'t!, amI fa];:!']) at Il'yilll',
befOl'e Notar,\" Holü', ,,'onM ]l'<id! o ,le diff(~],{,!lt illj'('!,(~II('(', i8}/Ot to bf
considc/'cd.


19tb ami ::Oth .• Josiah Phmt nlld .Jolm ::UClJtt,\T(', are a1,;0 l'p.iPdpd by
the majol'ity npon tlle gronnd Ulat llH'Y \H']'(~ llOt eitizPlIs, a 1\(1 t.heRe two
votes are deduetell t'I'Olll }f]'. Fostt'l'. "'Ve (U'(' illfol'lncrl, and lIaye cvery
reaSOIl to hl'lien', tbat au adlllissiOlI like that· in tlu) ea se oí' Bradky \VilA
made by J\1r. Co\'ode's eOllllsrl, aJl(1 l'ntel'l'cl hy tlle llotary hefore w]¡OlTl
the testilllouy was taken as totlll'i;e two \"oLes, hut UpOH l'eferrillg to tlle
testímony, we do 110t filld it elllhral~rd ill tlH' repol't. Tlwl'e is Ilot ltow-
ever uny evidence (P\'f'1l llssnmillg that t1le teRtilllony 01' the man Mullell,
pp. 180,182, sllOnhl hayo its full weighL) tlwt either 01' tilese lllell
illegally yoted 01' \Yas llot Prolwrly (llwlitil'l1 liS a \'otel'.


21st. Charles Pelll'ose, it sm'l11s, yotefl in the YOllUgstO\\'llllistl'ict, nnd
it iH urged that his ,"o te shonh1 be deduete!l fl'OllI MI'. Foster. lf hpar-
say evidence is to avail in this cast', then this ,"ote shonhl he rl'jectell ;
but surely, no tribnnal goyerned by any law, willlistrn 1'01' a 1Il0mellt to
the testimoIly of any Ollt' ,rho testines onJy to \Yltat "lome one elsc has
said to him. Cel'taillly this is ouly hearsay tORtimolly, and no COlll't in
chri"tpndolTl will I'eeeive snch testilllony as f:I.'ille¡wc. Seo coutested elec·
tion casps f1'ol11 1834 to 180;); vVhite t:s, Hani", p. 264; Inge.rsolll!S.
Kaylor, p. 34; Blair 1'8. Rarrett, p. ;UG; New Jpl'Rey case, p.24.) IJewis




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 11


Simpson, it is aIleged lJy tile majority repúrt, iR :l. !legro and IlOt tLere-
fore entitled to a YOü>, a!Hl it i8 aIso alleged tlü1t he yoü·d for ::'Irr. Foster.
The evidente sho",s such tú be the faet, :mel, um]er the 1a\\, this vote
cannot be countcrl.


22d. Villcellt NidlOh.:, it i8 testified by Brillker, (p. :?:m,) ,yas a ear-
pet-bagger, :111<1 decIared tlwt he lta<l yoted 1'01' JUl'. Foster. There is no
evidence ",here 01' in what pl'eeillct, he yoted, aJl(I \le apprelwnd tltat it
is not to be assllllwtl that he yoted in Ú!le elistl'iet, \\hen he might Lave
voted in :1ll0t1ler.


23d. rrallcis UnsIo's yote is l'ejeded hy tlL(\ llUljOl'it,r Oll tIte grollmlof
non-paylllent of tax within t\\O ,yem's ])1'ior to thc eleetion hol<1 in Oc-
tober, 18G8; lJut there is not tlw sliglttest eyidencc tltat snch is the
fact. It ,yaS in (,,-iclt>nco (see Fanlk, pp. 242) tlwt he hael paid taxes at
the time of t1l0 Oetober eleetio!l 18GG, amI nolJody \j~retellds to state
that he was 110t regnlal'ly assesse<l after that date, neither is it ShO\VlL
by any oue that .:\11'. Cm;]o did Bot pa.y taxos snhseqllellt to that time,
and ill tIte ahseuce of proof nf tlwt faet 11is yoto shonl<1 110t he deducted
from 1\11'. Foster. OH tlle eOlltrary, Slini),ier, tlw colledor oi' taxes, says
he did pay t'IXOS. (Seepage 380.)


24th. As to .} OltustOll Spronl, the evidelle(~ of l,'aulk (p. 243) does
not estahlish tlte faet tllllt Spronl waf\ (/ypr t\H>llt,r-two ;rears of age at
the OctolJnr e]eetion nf 18G8. He therefore hall u right to yote withont
the lIa~-tllellt oí' fax, and it does 110t follow that, lwcan¡;;e he lmiel taxes
at tlle NOYf'mber p1ection, that ]w lmll IlOt aUaillcd the age oí' twenty-
two ypars hetweell the time of tlw Octoher alld November election.
This IlOt, lJeillg pron,n t1l0 eleeision oftlw hoard if\ (~ollelusin', in tIte ah-
sence oí' allJ' pl'oof of fraud.


25th. Prank JIeiser is ol~je('tecl to OIl tIle gronntl that he did not pro-
duce hi" naturalir.atioll pa¡wrs beforn the e1edioll board. Tf tIlO clccla-
rations of t1l(' yoh'r are to lJf~ r('('C'iYl'd in cyiclence, it will lJe fonnd, lJy
refprenee to tlle Í(>Stilllolly of Thompson, (p. 10G,) that]Je yoted fol' 1\'11'.
-Coyode; antl if ]¡is yote is an ill('~'al yote, it shonld he dedncted frolll
1.11'. Uo,'o(lo ,llld abo aclllptl tn ]\fr. FosÍl'l'.


2Gth. l'elp1' AclalllO:: is oh,iedf'(l io ll~ ;1, millor. Xeither Tt:aae George
(p.272) ]lOl' Hil'alll A. HooJis, (p. 27:3:) ",110 are relied mi in tlús case,
!lroye eOllelntiiYf'l,i" tIte <lg'e oi' tIte \'ote1', ami, in the ah;';(,1Ic;(, of s11e1l
prooC, it ¡ti noí 10 he prNmllle<l t !mt this yote ,ya" illpga1.


27th. Cha1'les ,YilsOll, il, i:,\ Hl!emll hy his motlw!', lUn'. PIcas. \Vilsoll,
(p. 420,) \Yati hol'll OH thl> 10th (1a~' 01' Odolwl', 18±7; mul tIti" (~leetioll
hayillg IIl'PIl hc]cl 011 tlle 1:3tll da,Y of Odollel', lR(j8, no ol:ieetion can
oe lIl:ule to his yol ('.


28th. 1,P:1]lCl<'l' Uorlwtt, it i,; alkg'pd. is a minor, and that faet is at-
telllpted tn be "llOWll by ]¡(>ar";:lY (>,:i<1e{we. }1ou,.;eÍnan so s,,-ear¡;,; hut
sureI,r that ,,,hü:h i" Ilot within ltis knO\\h'eIgf', lmí is oHl,r ¡"tated as
hearsay, is 1l0t tn bc' l'egnnled as (~\'i(lt>m'e; anll tlle cyÍ(lence ofHonse-
lllall (p. 275) shows that ]¡is \'ote ,ras reteiyed without ohjf'dioll.


2Uth. Gl'o1'ge Ch:Jlfallt's yote is att,1!'kecl npOll tIte grollllel th:lt he is
a llotl-residellL Ilis tetit imouy (p. ;~2~~) ('sta lJlishes the faet that he
was a 1'esident oi' Uniellltown; that whilf' he telllllOntl'ily l'(~sid(~d in
Greea UOllllty, he llPyer was assf'sspd in that eOll11t,r; that he was be·
tween the ages of twenty-ollo amI twenty-two years, and all tIle time
when a\Ya~' frOlll Uniolltown he rf'g'arded tbat plaee as 11is 11ome, aUlI so
speuks oi' it in IliR testimonr. He :l1so says that he resides with his
1I10ther in l-:-niontmvll.


30th. George T,ong, it is said, was llot a resüIent of tlle district in
which 11is vote was east, allcl liad never heen naturalized. His testimony




12 COVODE YS. FOSTlm.
(pp. 426, 427) estaulishes that his i'ather was naturalized while he wm;
yet a child-which would also resnlt in his naturalization; aud t!wt he
\Vas a residcllt long prior to tho electioll. Cromuie (p. 172-17:{) testilles
that Long was in thut distriet in September, 1868. .


31st. B(hvarcl Devlin is attaekecl upon lile ground tJmt he i~ an aliell
amI nOll-lU,i(lent; but his right to vote is showll by tlw te8timoll'y of
Long, (pp. 426, 427,) ,ylüeh proves him to te a native-horn CitiZf'll, ami
by Crombie (pp. 172, 173) also as to his re8idellce.


32d, 33d, 34th, ¡)5th,and 36th. \V. F. J olles, .Jolm Hoyle, \Valt!']' :\1<:-
lvliehael, Patrick Hal'killS, and David l{obinson are ollicctl'd to (,:¡<p
Kemp, p. 231) as illegal votcrs;. but in the absenee oi' proof as to the
illegality of tllese voters, and the distl'ict wIterein slwh votes we1'(' cast,
ancl tlle party for whom they were l'eceived, certaillly tlle,)" wonld not he
deducted from 311'. Foster; aml it is shown very deal'l,Y hythe testi1l101l~­
oi' \V. C. Quffey (p. 4UI) that tIte facts asserted by Kemp are llot
true. By the testimony oi' Pelltlel' (p. :m2) it appeal's ihat Kemp had
at one time becn an in11late oí" the pellitentiarlJ, as a aiminflZ. \Vith this
character of witnesses the comlllittee hall better lutye littIe to do.


In addition to tbis it is clclLl'ly ShOWll by tlw tpstilllolJ,V oi' A. B.
McGrew, thc assessor (and a republiean) 01' Sewiekly TowmülÍp, (sce
p. 235,) "that he asscssed 110 lUall unless he SftW hilll 01' had suftieicnt
evidence that he was in thc township," alld by tho testimony of J Ollll
Noreross, the judge, and Caleb Greenawalt, the inspector, both l'Ppubli-
eans, "that ihere were no 'Dotes takell at tlle Sewickly polI from any one
who had not fully complied with the ]aw," (see p. :n6,) amI fnrther,
the testimolly of John 8tam, tbe ot11er inspector, establishcs also tlle
fact that there were no illegal votes polled at that district.


37th. John 'fnrller i8 not sllown to have voted illegally. All t1l0 evi-
dence goes to show that he was a citizell, and whocver attaeks a vote
must prove it to be illegal. He votcd without ehalleng"e, Ulld to require
}fr. Foster to show that TUl'uel' was llaturalizcd, espeeially w11en he is
no longcr a residellt-morc than ayear having gone by since that clce-
tion, and he having removed from the dist1'iet-wollltl he to l'f~qllire sueh
labor as might well il1l1u(~e him to abandon this con test.


38th. Gcorge Colell1un's yote is 1'e,jected beeause he toId Uriah Hig-
genbottom (p. 80) that he hall Hot bccn in tite 8tate fi)!' a llPl'iod oí'
six mOllths prior tu tlmt tIeetioll. If the deelaratiolls of a voter lllade
after the election is oyer are to be rccei\~ed-onl'y, however, in this case
it is hearsay-to defeat au electioll alld overeome a yote, the sooner snch
is declared to he tlJe law the sooner we will know that aH previonsly
aeeepteLl rules of evülcnee are ended.


W C COIleUl' in tile report of thc majority as to tile votes offcl'c<l tu !lit"-
ferent election boards to he cast fuI' the respedive canüidates, but
which \\'ere rejeeted, t11us allowing to ]\11'. Fostl,l' tltree voteR, alld to
MI'. Covode six votes, that \verc refl1sed tn be l'eeeivcd by offieerR oí'
the election.


As to the votes of Patriek Cooley, ::\Iichael Cooloy, John White, Cal~
vin Halfpcnny, Jolm \Vilson, John Cnmlllings, .Jallles CUmll1ingR, Patriek
Lynch, and John LyoJls, of Dunbar TOWllShip, it is scal'eely lleeE'SSury to
speak beyond sa,Ying, that if JOllll n. Smith "is to be belie\'ctl," (as it is
rather naivellJ put by the ll1ajority in their I'eport,) these men were in
that towlIship, as we haye already stated, lawfnlly-in Il11l'suance oi'
thcir lawful calling, and residents thcrein. lf it be lIot improper, it TIlay
not be amiss to state 11c1'e, (sinee MI'. Smith is rdied UpOll to provc a
great many tIlings,) that "i1' Smith is to believed," we must eone1ude
frorn the testimony of MI'. C ollin s, (sec p. 448,) a~ also that 01' SlIlith




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 13
hiruself, (see p. -,) tbat Mr. Smitlt is not to be I'eliecl upon as a wit-
ness. If be proves anything, he proycs that he clid uds whieh were UIl-
lawful; and, to use a mild phrase, that he is a raseal ; aml, such boing the
fact; be is not eredible. ,


Although "\le have not, 1'01' the pmpose of fincling out tlw true l'esults
in tbis case, dedueted eitller of these eight yotes, it is said b:v t1l0 major-
ity that olle vote was fonnd in tite State ballot-box, in Sewiekly 'rown-
ship, tipon which was tIte Ilallle oi' }I1'. Voster; and this ticket, t}¡ey say,


• was in exeess of tite Ilnmbel' of yotes upon the list, nud thnt thereforc
this vote sllOultl he de¡]udpll Ü'Olll }Tl'. Foster. UO\\' SlH'lt eonelusion
can be reaelwd pa¡.;s('s on1' eomprehension. If any on(' e:m (]t'h'rInille
tbat tile vote in exee~s may 1l0t haye just as likely bren east fur 1\11'.
Coyodo as for ~Ir. Fmltf'l', he will }¡an~ sllcceeded bettel' titan can he de-
termined by thosc \y}¡o sip:n this 1'epo1't. So, aIso, ,ritlt ]'('p::ml to Olle
vote in South lIuntingdoll Tmvllship, w11ie11 was fOlmd OH the tloor, allcl
conntel1 for .!VIl'. F()stl~l'.


The folIowillg' statcllH'nt ,,.i1l t'xhibit the llames of tIle YOÜ'l'8 whieh, in
the jlldgmellt oí' the llIinOl'ity, \H'l'P ilIpgall,r cm;t fol' lUl'. Uovodo, the
reaSOllS assigm'll í'or thcir illc,\!:,dity, a refereneo to tlle WitJlt'sses who
t~stify in reganl to rneh, a1ll1 j llP nage UpOll whidl t 11eír !ctitimony is to
be fouud.


First. Isaac Jollllsnll, it is :llkg'ed llpOll tlle part (jf MI'. Fo;;ter, votell
for .MI'. Coyodo, in \\'llal'toll 'l\I\\lIship, oí' whieh IlP \\'as llOt then a 1'e5i-
dellt. He wml a malTi('ll 111:111, :md hj;;; wife, ,,"ith ",110m lit' \Vas then
residing, lived in N O1'tll UnÍon 'l'()\,:llship, amI althong"h he O\Vlled a fal'm
in "'harton, aJl(I O(~casionall'y yjsÍtr([ tlH'rp, his residence luis never
been in that. tO\nlship "inec hi~; lllarriagp, mal his Yute, tlleJ'ufol'f', sltonld
be <ledl1ctcd frolll Mr. Coyode.See testimoll'y of l\IcCartllcy, p. ~n;l; Van
Brt'l/if'n, pp. :)11, :31~,::J:I.)


:';¡] •• James Chornillg-. it ü; ckarly sho\\'n, yotcd :~t tlle elpütioll .in
vVhartoll TO\nl;;llip, al](l ItH' JUl'. Coyodp, amI that. 1w \yas Ilot then a
residl'llt,of tll<it tO\Yllshi]l. Sce t('"tilllOn~" oi' J\íeCartncy, pp. :\1:1-314;
Vatl Bre !lW 11 , pp. :lll-:H::; 1\IcCulloug-h, p. 311. Thü, ,"ote sho111d be
tkdnetc<l fl'olll .Jlr; CoY()(h~,


:Id. Azarialt Hlla\\" is sho\nl by tlle testi1l1ony of J\Id)~)\Yel1 (n. 33)
and- Boyil (p. 331) to lwyo Yotf'!l illega]]y, aud i'ol' 1\11'. Uoyodf'. 11(\ was
tbell a l'psidellt allll hall a falllily l'f'siding in Ohio; "-:lti iu lJnionboro'
olll,\" LllHlt~l' metlical treatmellt, alld had not aequil'ed any resüIpllee in tItis
Sta k


'l'his yote, tIlf'refOl'p, shon1d be l1ednctell from MI'. Coyode.
4th. James Kean was a l'esidt>ilt of Venango COl1nty, Pennsylyania,


and was not entitlf'1l to yote in 'l',rrone TOWIlShip, aJl(I his yote cast in
tbat towllship \Yas tllPref'ore ilIegal. He came ollly to get married at
the timo oi' tlle eleetion and yoted 1'01' M1'. Coyodp, and len tIle day aHer
tlle eleetioll. W'llPll here he eyidelltly <lid Ilot intelld to remain, as is
SllO\V1l by thc testimony of Kean, (p. '309,) wherein he statf's that his
son James had a man in his place while lw was absent i'rolll Vernango
County. This vote, tltf'I'cforl', shoultl 1.Ie dcdnetcd fl'om tlle eount i'or MI'.
(Jovoüe.


ñth. ,To11ll ]\'1:. I,ilrimer, \y]¡o yoted fol' MI', CoY()(le in Sewickly TOWIl-
ship, it is IH'OV(~d hy tlle t('stimOll~" of Colonel :\IeFarlalll', (pp. :373-~)74,)
au Illl¡:](\ oí' the yo ter, resided in thn ('ity of Pittsburg amI llever liad a
rf'sidellCe allywhere in ilmt. tOllgrps"ional di~tl'i(',t.


6th. JolJll 1\'1. Ha;vmak('r moyed to "\Vest VirgillÍfl, was there electe<l a
jnstice of t11e peaee am1 nppointt'¡l postmat'tf'l', amI acted as such af1l\r
beiug duly COllllllissioIleu, aml <lid llOt again return to PennsJ'lyania




14 COYODE VS. FOSl'ER.
until in Junc, 1868, whieh would be only four mOllths prior to tfJe Octo-
ber electioll in that year. 1 t is in evidellce that he votcd 1'01" 1\fr. Coyode
in October; tlJat in Novclllber he oiTered to yote, and his yote was
rejected upon the g'l'ollml that he hadnot, at that tillle, aCf]uil'rd a l'ight
to vote. (Seo testimolly 01' Clark, p.378; Harvcy, p. ~¡7~l.) Of courSQ
tlJis vote :,;llOUld be deducted fmm 1\I1'. Covode.


7th. Frank Rciscr, it appears, yoted for MI'. (joyolle wit]¡out }ll'e-
senting his llatul'alization certificate to the boan1. (See Tholllpson,
p. 10G.) This vote ,is errolleonsly eharged against }Ir. Fostcl' in the
lllqjority rcport, amI has heen dednctt:'¡l fl'ollt hilll. TIHl í'aet shO\\I'; ihat
it should just be rt'Yersed.


8th mHl 9th. vVilliam Hal'tt'Ol'd, alias Fletdlcr, ami .J. D. J)a,-is \'oted
fo!' MI'. Coyode in Knhn':'\lli:'\trict, in UnHy TOWllShi p. Nt'it]¡pl' of tlte:.;e,
Illen were 1'esiclents o[ ilmt distriet, ancl their votes í'honld be <1educted
from MI'. Covoüe. T]¡ey ,yol'l~ mere sqjonruers tILen', on a, Yisit, llot
properly qualified to yote in tlla1, district, uot kllO\m to tho a88cs80r;
hnt olle of thelll \ras assessed lllldel' au aSRulIled lIaIlle; and both 101't
that district tlle Friday after t11e elcction 1'01' the State oí" OlJio. (See
test.imony 01' Bal'lldollar, p. 308.)


10th .. Tacob J ustice. lt is SllOWll by tite ovidence of M. S. Ove1'llOlt,
(see p. 223,) a \Vitucs8 UpOll thc pa1't of 1\11'. Covode, tha1, Jnstice \Vas
in 1,lle wood alld \Villow \Vare business with, HO\ve, Enstou & Co., iu
Philadelpllia, l:'eullsylvania, and had heen ihero llrobably eighteeu
months 01' two years; he was BOt cllgagcd in any husiness in l\lount
Pleasant, was t11cre only occasionalI.yon a visi1" aml yoted in Mount
Pleasant Rorongh at tho Octoher elcction of 1808 for .Tohn Covode fin'
COllgress. T11at he had a legal residen ce in Pbiladelphia, amI \Va:.; a <¡nllli-
fiecl voter there, call1lOt he questioned, alld this vote, the1'efo1'e, s]¡ould
be cleducted from Coyodc.


11th. Lyrnall 13. Shenick also voted in MOUllt Pleasaut Borough 1'01'
M1'. Covode, while it is showll hy tite tt'stirnoIl"; oí' .:\1. S. O\'erholt (p. 22:3)
that he was t11en ellgaged in doillg bw'lÍlless In PhillHlelphia, l:'(~nIlKyl­
vania, with Adamsoll & Fette1's, in tho llotioll busiues:'\, amI had
been so engagcd for, perhap~; ayear lH'e\'Íolls to tltat eleetiou; that he
dicl not own auy property iu J\fOUllt Pleasant; that he \Vas a lwu'l'ir.d
man, and had takl"'l1 up hOllsekeepillg in Philaclelphia. This vote ;,;hould
be deducted from MI'. Coyode.


12th. Judsoll Newmye1' also yoteü fol' 1\11'. Covode in 1\fonnt Pleasant
Borough, although, as is SllOWll by tlw testimony ol'.IVI. S. Ove1'1101t, (p.
223,) 11e was engaged in doing business for Jcsse Lippincott,of Pitts-
bW'g, in the g1'ocery business, aud certaillly he was Ilot a resillent 01'
:Monnt Pleasant Borough. This vote, t11e1'e1'ol'e, slJould he deducted fl'olll
Mr. Covocle.


13th. Dayid K. Faulk, in Alleghl111Y TOWIlShip, yotecl fúr l\fr. Covode,
and, it appears frolll tlle testimony of his b1'other, (pp. 243, 244,) that
fol' four years almost he hall been in Oil City, in VCllHllgO COUllty,
:Pennsylvania, and only came into the district in whieh he yoteü tu:o 01'
three days before the eleetioll. This vote should he deduded 1'rom MI'.
Covode.


14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, alld 21st. John C. Panl, Samuel
lfcCune, \Villiam J . .lVlcCune, Nelson Heury, Melton Bal'tle.y, John
Decker, David Ransom, Ephra.im 'faylor, voted fol' M1'. Covode in Blairs-
ville. It is shown by the testimoll'y of Boyers, (p. 247,) tlle republi-
can c1erk, that he lIever saw Panl before 01' since the election,aml tllat
he left the town 011 the UOOIl train (see p. 248) t1le day upon which
the election was held. :Paul, it is in evidence, is mail agent 011 tite




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 15
Pennsylvania railroad. Samn01 l\{eCllne (see Byers, p. 247) lived at
Lewistown 01' Colll1uoia 01' Port Deposit, and was in an engiueer- corps
there then, amI,)'ot. He eame to Blairsville, it also appears, at 110011 of
eith~r the day oí' the nlectioTl, 01' the day hefore, and went away as soon
as the electioll was o\'er. 'Yilliam J. MeCnne (see Byers, p. 247) is a
brakcmall on a pas;;engel' train lwtweell Pittshnrg añd Altoona, and
eame to Blail'sville cither OH SatnnIay 01' }[onday eycning, previous to
the electioll. He mm allmvcd to yote (soe 13,)'o1's, p. 246) 011 his 0\\'11
oath, and witltont ally other pl'oof oí' l'ct-;itlellce heing reqnired by tlle
bwml, antl Irft BlairsvilIc OH the tlay of tlle electioll. ::VliltOll Bartley
came to Blal'syil1e. (Rt'(l 13,\'e1's, p. 247)" seVPi'al tlays hefore the elee-
tion," alld a1thollgh tlle ~YitJlPss has heell a 1'eíSident of BlairsyilIe ,sinee
1861, he tloes not rpeollect of seeing the ,"ote!' t11ere at any. time exeept
at tIlO eleetioll. NelHOll Henry (see Byel's, p. 248) was mail agellt on
the vYest PCllm;ylvania l'ailroad, ate lJreakfast amI. snpper, amI. had his
loc1gillg's in AlleghallY City, but took lns diuuer in IHain;yillp. He
voted for ]\[1'. Covode, withont Ihe slmdow of l'ight, amI his yote
SllOUld be exelude<l Ú'01ll tlJe eonnt.


Bphmim 'l'a,)'lor (t-;ee Bryers, p . .2,18,) \Vas an engillCel' U]lOIl the
\Yest PellllsylvHnia nlilroml, amI the faets in lliíS case are precisel,\' the
same as in tlle tnse of Henry. "Ye deduet his ,"ote frolll ~1r. COYOlle.


John Decker (see Bl'yers, p. 248,) was time-keepel' at the soda
works in AlIeghany COHnty; "he llHd heen tllCre two years 01' more,
mal ollly reached Blairsville either Satnrclay 01' }lo11day preyious to
the election." Re voted Oll his own oat11, as to his l'esitIenee aul! all, for
MI'. Covode, alld \Ve dl~dnet his vote.


David Hansolll (see Bryers, p. 248,) eame to BlairsvilIe OH the
evening of the eleetioll; he ~\'aS workillg in the railroatl compuny's
shopt-;; harl been ahsellt for a couple of year8. He voted fol' }lr. Co-
vode amI \Ve dednd his vote.


'Ye eannot fail to eOllclude, from tIle evÍflellce pl'esented, that tIlese
pf'l'ROnR \VerlO improperl'y introdueetl into that district for the purpose of
aiding in the election of }lr. Covode.


Other votes are re;jectetl in the same precinet, bnt the foregoing are
the ouly oIles that \Ve feel ealled upon to exclude frolll the eount.


22d. James Boyd, \VIlO votetl fol' MI'. Covode, in Irwinboro, was
not a residellt, as appeal'S by thc testimony of Cort, (p. 387,) \Vho is
very elear that Boyd had BOt livecl in Irwin fúr three 01' four years prior
to that eIection. l\TcQuaüle (pp. ;{S5, 386) testifies that he is ruulling
on the railroad, ancl lies over in Pittshurg, w11crc his residen ce is, ancl
is positive that he had no residen ce in Irwin for at least one year before
the October e1eetio11 of 1868. l:~o'yd hinll,elf (p. 271) says he elaimed
Irwin as a resitlenee, beeanse he had relat-ivcs living there, and had hill1-
self at S0111e prior time lived there; sillee thell had passed through the
borough 011 his train rnnning from Pittshllrg, in Alleghall'y Connty to
Conemaugh, in Cambl'ia COlluty. This vote shoultl be dedueted fi'om the
eount of MI'. Covode.


23d .• John Worthington, who voted for MI'. Covode in German Town-
ship, from the testimony oí' 'rhomas A. McKean, (pp. 2:32,332,342) was
not a residellt in that township. HÜI vote onght, therefore, to he de-
ducted fl'om .i\fr. Covode.


24th. The testimony of .1\11' . .l\1eKean also pro ves that John ConnelIy
votetl fol' MI'. Covode, in Germall 'l'owllship, he Bot having sueh resi-
denee as entitled him to vote in that distriet, 01' any other in the State
of Pennsylvallia. This vote should also be deduded fmm .MI'. Covode.


25th. John Swall proves (p. 3(1) that Rev. W. C. Kaufman's family




16 GOVODE VS. FOSTl~n.
resides in Cham bel'shul'g, rennsyl,ania, whcl'c he ,rould havo heoll
legally cntitIerl to yote; it' so, his Yot(~ was impI'OpeI'ly recciycd in
\Vest Newtoll, \Vcstmor( 1aml Connty. He cou1d BOt llaYC llad snc11
a residellcc in two dilJerent distriots at the samo time as wou1d pntitle
1Iim to yote in either. He yotecl fol' (Joyode, aml shon1d he (lcd lletea
from hi8 polI.


26th. Hev. \Villialll B,ving yoted for Coyode in Frallklin 'l'o\Vllship.
Rifo; right to voto in that COllllty W)lS objeett'll to 011 two gl'olllHIs. lo
That he had 110t 8nch re:,;ülence t11ere as clltitl!:'ll him to vote. 2. That
he hall noto paid a tax as reqnired by law to olltitle ltim to a yoLe. Tite
eyidence of S. J. 1\1illcr (p. ~)~;I) leayc8 t1le qm'8tioll of re:,;itlcllec doubt·
fuI, hut it i8 clear that t11erc was no penlonal tax a:,os('s~c<l on 11im
,vithin two yea1'8, nol' ha<l he paid snelt mx. Oll thi~ gl'Olllld, his yot;p
should be deduetel] frolll ]\fr. Coyorle.


27th. William ,YiIliams, who yoted 1'01' nIr. Coyo(le at Ir",inhoro, it
is clearly pro ved oy Jmnes 1\1. Gnffey (p. 404,) al1el hy Eli l\feCorllliek,
(pp. 388, 389,) inspector" of that eleetioll, voted un framlnlcllt papers,
anu on t11at ground his yote was rt:'jeete(l at Ule N o\,(,ll1lH'l' ('lpetÍon,
the inspector8 oHly ditl:i>!'ing in tlwir evi!1PlwP as to whl'thn 01' HOi.
\Villiallls prodnl'ed the 8ame papnI's nt tlte No\'emhel' elect.lOll as ¡lO rlid
at thc Oetohel' eledioll, amI ia thit~ Williams ltilll8l'lf (see p. 418) eoI'-
roborates MI'. (¡nfie,'. 'Ve lJan'l tlllÜll(~tllü this vot.e frolll tlm eoullt of
.MI'. Co,·ode. "


28th. James l\le\VilJiams, it appi'ar~ :'1'0111 ¡h~\ testimoll'y of Hobert S.
Robinson, (p. 4W,) \'oü,(l t'Ol' (J",'o(ll\ in í>¡'llil TO\VllShip, h(\ tltell he-
ing a l'esidellt oi' tl18 eity OI I':ülalL'lplli:,. '1'úis vote sltould 0<" de-
dlleted from }fr. Co\'011e.


Israel Gintelsbel'g't'l' amI TohhlS Gilltel:,;hel'ger are bot1l pro ved (sen
HOl'l'ell, p.410, antl Bellllett, ¡J. ·lOH,) to han~ votell rOl' .:Irr. Coyode in
Fairfield TO\YIlShip, am] tllat hotÍl :¡re 01' lln';Otllld lllim1. Horrell
(p. 410) does not eOllsitler tht,1tl capabll' of jndgillg' bptlH'ell rigllt allfl
wrong. \Vhile \Ye do 1l0t aeeept tlle cOllelm;ioll of the lllajOl'i ty upon
the objcctioTl to pel'SOIlS 01' ult,;olllld 1Ililld; ,Yd, if tIH'Y ,1m jo df'tlnet
sueh votes from MI'. FO:-ltl'l', llllllllí'stiollabl,v liiw votes sllOll]el lí(~ (11'-
dueted fl'orn 1\'11'. COYOlle.


J. vVei'ley l"ee, it is sl!o"'lt by .l\lillhollallll (p. ,1~()) and I"ntz, (p. 424,)
voted in Hostraver Towllship ti)r :\Ir. CO\'OIIe, amI i8 a Illllatie. His ea~e
is prccisel.v similar to ·tlto"e illllllelliately pl'eeeding thi8, ando even a.
stronger case, his IUllacy bcing' so strongly mal'keü as 1,0 prevcnt him
from even knowing hi~ OW11 ud".


2Dth. J01m Barner yoted at the e1eetion in l?ostraver TOWTlsllip fol'
Covode; he was a foreiglll'r, am] \Ya8 Iloí natUl'alized. He ehlünetl tite
rigbt to yo te OTl the gl'ound, as he allegell, t.lmt !tis f"ther \Va.8 natural·
izetl when he ",as a minor, w1lie1l gayo hilll t.he l'ig!tt oí' citizeIl8!tip.
This wonld be true i1' tite natl1ralization certificate of hi8 father lIad
heen prodnced to the board, hnt it. \Yas noto In t11e absen('c oí' it his
own oath \Yas taken as to the fact; thitl ",as ill1]1ropel' alllI illeg-al. Tlle
fatller himself eould not vote, under the statnte oí' Pel111sylnlllill, OH his
O\\'ll oath that he was naíllrali;r,ed; i t l'l'!}uil'c,; t he produetion ol' t1le cer-
tifieate of nuturalizatioll, exeept wuen he lVa~ a. votel' ill tllo distl'iet for
t.t'11 COTl8pcutiyC years. lf this killd of [ll'ooj' coultlllotaYllil t1lc father,
it is ditlicult to perceive how it conll] avail tlll' SOll. (::lee testillloll'y of
I.JoWI'~', p. 4:3:3, and Housemall, j). 4~[j.) Tllis vote was illlpl'opel'l'y re·
ceivel! aud shonld hc dedlleted fl'olfl 1\1 ... Co\"oI10.


30th. Levi lIalllill \'oh'd in East l\fahoning' 'l'oww;:hip fol' Ur. Co\"()dc.
Tlll\ e\'i(lenee of Ric]¡ardson (p. 43ü) :,01101\'8 that t his lila n ,yas Hot a,
resident oí' that district at that time, aml not entilleu to \'ote therein.




COVODE YS. FOSTER. 17
He had been there but a few uays, and has never been seen there since
the election. This vote we are compelled to ucduct ll'om MI'. Covode.


31st. Wilson l\'liller, it appears from the testimony of BIue, (p. 440,)
and Brady, (p. 440,) voted in Payne Townslüp for Mr. Covode. From
his own declarations it is very clear that he was Jet a minor at the time
of that electioll. Tbis vote we deduct from .:\fr. Covode.


32d. Wm. Butterbaugh voted, it would appenr, at the election in
Green TOWllSbip, when his residellce, as is ShOWll by vVagoner, (p. 444,)
was in Grallt TOWllShip, to w.hich district he had moved in the sprillg
prior to tbat election. He is proved also to haye beell a republican,
and it is not unfair to assume that he yoted for MI'. Covode. ",y e have
deducted this vote from him.


RECAPITULATION.
Foster's majority _____ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - _____ . ______ . __ . ___ . 41
Add illegal votes cast for Covode, as apllf'arR in arguments, not em-


bracillg persons of unROlllld mind, twenty of which are conceded
by the majorit'y report, as per schedule s marked A and B _ _ _ . _ _ 54


Add votes oftered to be cast for 1'oster, lmt illegally rejected by
the election ofticers- - - - - - - - - - ____ . _ .. _____ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3


Foster's majority ___ - - - _ .. ___ . _________________________ . . 98
Deduct ilIegal votes cast for Foster, including those votes cast


by lUllatics, .claimed and established by lIH\jority report as
per schedule e _ .. _ .. _ . __________ . _____ . __ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 36


Add votes offcrcd to be eu,'lt for Covode, but illegally rejected
by the election officers. ___ . - ___ . __ . _ . __________________ . 6


Add vote supposed fol' Foster in cxccss of tally list oí' names
in Sewickly Township __ . _____ . _____ . _. _. _____ . _________ . 1


Also one of like chal'acter in South Huntingdon ___ .. _ . __ .. _ 1


. Actual majority for Poster .. _____ . _. _ .. _. _.. 54
If individual cases are to he inquired iuto, and deductions made, less


than this majority upon a fa ir cxamination of the evidence in each case
MI'. Foster cannot have.


If anything more is lleeded in t.11is case, it is to be found in the fact
that at thc same clcction General Hartranft, the l'epublicall candidate fol'
auditor general, received in tIlis district a majority of two hundred. ando
sevellty-nille, aml this Ilotwithstanding the fact that .l\fr. Boyle, the
democratic candidate for that ofilce, was a residcnt of Fayette County,
one of the counties that eompose the district, and ran conRiderably
ahead of his ticket.


The vote fol' auditor general was as f(¡llows :
Indiana County-Hal'tranft. _ . - _. - . _____________ . _ . ____ . _ . ____ 4,842
Fayette COllnty-Hartrauft .. _ . _ . __ . _ ... _________________ . _ _. 3, 745
Westmoreland County-Hal'trallft ________ .. _____ . __ . _____ . _. 5,335


13,922
Indiana County""':Boyle ____ . ____ . _______ . _____ .. _ .. _. _ 2,301
Fayette County-Boyle __ . _ . ________ . ____________ ... _ 4, 773
Westmoreland County-Boylc. _________ . _ .. __ . __ .. __ . _. 6, 569


-- 13,643
Hartranft's majority. _ . _ .. ____ .. _ .. _____ . ___ _ 279
H. Rep. 15, pt. 2--2




18 COVODE VS. FOSTER.
In the same countics-


Foster received ............................ _ . __ ............. 13,807
Covode reccivcd ................... _ . _ ...................... 13,766


Foster's majority ................ _ .......... _ .. _ . . . . . . 41


Still further to illustrate the weakness of Mr. Covode's case, let me
refer you to th~ vote in this district at the election in October, 1869, for
governor:
In Iudiana County-Packer had _ ...... _ ..... _ ......... _ . .. . . .. 2, 062
In Fayette County-Packer had. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. 4,217
In \Vestmoreland County-Packer had ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6, 195


Total ....................................... : . . . . . . .. 12, 474
In Indiana County-Geary had _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4, 003
In Fa;yette Coullty-Geary had. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3,339
In Westmoreland Coullty-Geary had. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 4, 853


12,195


Packer's majority..... ................................. 279


SCHEDULE A.
Thc following table exhibits thc votes admitted by the majorityreport


to have been illegally cast _ for lV[r. Covode, which, OH exarnination on
our part, satisfies us are well established by the evidellce :


Name. Place of votillg. IlIcgalíty. Evidence.


FAYETIE COUNTY.


Martin Lutz ................. Uniontown Borough ............ Minor ............ 98,99,328,329,330
Jacob Sandera............... Connellaville ........................ do.... . .... .... 320
Griffith Wells ................ ]<'ayette City .................... ~on·re8ident...... 336


WEBTMORELAND COUNTY.


Andrew Rahl. ............... North Huntington .............. Non·resident .... ..
Jacob Martz ................. Penn Borough ...................... do ........... ..
J. M. Clemento ............... Washington .................... JlUnor .......... ..
AaronJeft'ries ................ North Huntington .............. Non·rcsident .... ..
Bennett Van Kirk ........... Rostravr ........................... do ........... ..
~ili~':nC~~~~:::: ::::::::::: ::::::g~:::: .............. : ::.:::: :::::: . N¿~~:.·: :::::::::
William R. Snyder ........... Bolívar ......................... Votc<l twice ..... ..


INDIANA COUNTY.


John Mullen ................. Saltzb~rr""""'" ............ Minor ........... .
HenryH. Seger .............. North Mahoning ................ Non·payrn'toftax.
John 'Vinebark .................... <lo ......................... Minor .......... ..
George R. Bobler ............. Center Township_.............. Non·resident ..... .
Geor.ge W. Kephart ........ Cherry Hill ...................... Minor ........... .


~::r:~~ ~~~;,;;~::::::::::::: ir¿~~t'~!~~n1~~~~~~:::::::.-.-:::: :g~ .......... ::::::::
David Proctor ............... Greenc ......................... Negro .......... ..
AdamBowers ................ Brush Valley ................... Non·assessment .. .


104, 373, 415
370,383
377,438


416
421,424,433


427
432


417, 444, 445


383
434,446
434,435
437,438
438,439
440,441


441
442,443, 447


442


I
.,




COVODE VS. FOSTER. 19
SCHEDULE B.


The following table exhibits the votes which, in our judgment, the
evidence clearly shows were illegally and improperly cast for l\fr.
Covode, in addition to the twenty shown in Schedule A, and admitted
by the majority in theirreport :


District. Namo of voter. Reason. Eddence.


FAYETl'E COUNTY.


W'harton TOWD.ship ................... . Isaac J ohnson .............. N on·resident.. '313. 313
Do .............................. .


=.:~:~:hli; ::: :::::::: ::::::::::
James Choming ................ do .......... 313,314,311;312
Azariah Shaw .................. do.......... 330,331
James Kean .................... do ..... '"'' 309


WE8TMORELAND COUNTY.


Iilewickly TOWllShip .................. .. .J ohu M. Larimer .............. ,do ........ ..
Frnnklin Township .................... John M. Haymakor ............. do ........ ..


INDIANA COUNTY.


l'ayue TOWllShip ....................... Frank Heiser ................... do ......... .
WESTMORELAND COIDITY.


trDity ~~,,:,:,s~~:. ::::::: :::: :::::: :::::: J. D. Davis ..................... do ......... . 'Vm. Harttord.aliasFlctchcr ..... do ......... .
:Monnt Pleasant Borough .............. .


Do ..................•............
Do ............................. ..


Alleghany Township .................. .


Jacob Justice ................ " .do ........ ..
Lyman B. Sherrick ............. do ......... .


~~~,'hlnl'F~':Ykr.:: ::::::::: ::: :~~::::::::::
INDIANA COUNTY.


lllairsville .............................. John C. Panl. ................... '10 ......... .
Do ............................... Samuell'rlcCune ................. do ........ ..
Do ............................... Wm.J,McCune ................. do ........ ..
Do ............................... Nol"on ITenry ................... do ........ ..
Do ............................... Milton Bartley .................. do ......... .
Do ............................... Jobn Decker .................... do ......... .
Do............................... David Ransom .................. do ......... .
Do ............................... Ephraim Taylor ................. do ......... .


WESTMORELAND COUN1'Y.


374
378,379


106-107


358
358
223
223
223


243,386


247,248
247


247,246
248
247
248
~48
248


Irwin .................................. JamcsBoyd ..................... do .......... 385,386,367,271


FAYETTE COUNTY.


Gei-man Township ..................... J. F. Worthington ............... do ........ ..
Do ............................... .rohuConnelly .................. do ......... .


WESTMORELA).'D CÜUNTY.


WestNcwton .......................... W.C. Kaufman ................. do ........ ..
Penn Township ...... ............ ...... Rev. Wrn. Ewing ................ do ........ ..
Irwin .................................. Wm. Williams .............. Alien ....... ..
Penn Township .............. __ .. __ .... James McWilliarns ......... Non·resident ..
Rostraver Township .. __ ........ ____ ... ,Tohu Bamer .. ____ .. __ __ __ __ Alien ______ ...


L'fDIANA COUNTY.


East Mahoning;. __ ... __ .. ______ ........ Levi Hamlin .... __ ........ __ Non·resident ..


tre: :¡~:::.ah~:::::::::::::::::::::::: ~:'°B~i1~~b~-,;g:i.':::::::::: ~:no;~~¡de;;t::


232, 233, 234
232, 233, 234


361,362
383


388, 418, 404
416


433,425


436
440,440


444




20 COVODE VS. FOSTER.


SCHEDULE O.


The following table will show the votes that, in the judgment of the
minority, are t'rl'oneously deducted by thc majority from .!\ir. Foster, as
stated in their report on page 11 ;


í~O', ______ N_a_m_e_' _____ 1 Place oí voting. Ground of illcgality.
1 .James T. Martill .. _ .. ------ --_ .. _1 DUllbul' - ...... -.... _ .. Minor .... _ .. -_ ..... - ..


~ t:~~:eWF~~~~rs;)~;~:: :::: :~::: ::: -:iil:(~Il'~,~iú~: ::~::::::: _~~d:~~~~~~~::: ~::.:~:".
4 Connclly Westcott _______________ Fayette City __ : _______ Minor ________________ _
5 Reason Dean .. _ .... _ ... _ .. _ .... 0·0 Mena~leIL T())VIlShip ....... do . _ .. _. __ .... _. _ .. I
6 W. S. Jobnson __________ . ________ Union Borougb ___________ do _________ o ______ _
7 -eriah yauger1jr .............. __ . ~orth Uniull .......... Non-rcsident ... ___ ._._ 8 Wm. ScarigbL ___________________ UnionBorougb __________ do __ . _____________ _
9 James Searigbt ______________________ do ______ . __ ._. ___ ._ . ___ do __ ... _____ .. __ . __


10 IsrarlPainter,jr _______________ S.Huntingdon ____________ do ____ __
11 Jaeou mUllt _____________________ Frankliu_ .. _________ . _____ do _ . _. __ .. ________ _
12 Samucl Pattrrson _____ . ______________ do ________ .. __________ do _______________ _
~: ~aCO.l\\i;eitzel.-. -.. - .... _. _._ ... ~}let~lHIY t='"a: -_ .... iil.m.paymenL oftax ...


H ~:~~:.~~~;ti~:~: ~: -:~:::: ~:::: ~ _ ~~i~~~~0~;~~d~:: ~: _ :~~~i~~i:~-~'~~~~::::: ~:-
~~ !1oasi!~~í~~~e}:: ::::: :::::::::::: ::~~ : ::::::: :::::::: :~lid~ :::::::::::::: :::
20 Jobn :llclntyre .. _ .. _____ ... __ .. ___ . _do __ .... _ .... ___ . ___ . __ uo _ ........ _ ... _ .. _


Evidence.


310
302
319
335
326


59,97
85
98
98


102,361
407
407


120,121
185,372


172
416


414.415
383


180, 182
180,182


~~ f~~~~~ ~ti~~~~~~ ~ ::::: ~......... ~~~~.~~t.o.'~~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~~: ~ .~~~~l~~~i.~~~~~: ~ .. :::::: ...... . 230
~ J~h~~~~ ~~~~';i------:::---.--::.::: ::: ~1.le(f(~~~~: ::::: ::::: _?,:°d;;ay.~_e.~~ ~.f.~~~.::
25 Frank Heisel' __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ }{ayne __ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ Alien _ ..... __________ _
26 PeterAdams ................... Lnity ................. 11inor ................ .
27 Charles Wilson ........ _ .. _..... Rostl'aver __ .. _ _ _ _ _. _do .. _. _ ........... .
28 Leander Coruett ___________ .. _. _ _. __ <lo _ .... _ .. _ .. _____ .. __ do _ .... __ ... ___ . _._
29 Georg" Chalfant __ . ________ .. __ "["nion Borongh ____ . _. _ Non-resident _________ _
~~ i~~~!I~d ~~fIi~'::::: ~ ~:::: ~::: ~ ~ ~' ~~~~{~typ.r ........ - .... _ ~~l.idg ~~l_~ _]_l~)~l.-~·e~~(~~~l~
~23 W. F. JOlles .. ____ .. __ . _ .... ______ Sewi"kly_ .... _ .. ______ NOll-l""sidenL ....... __


tTohnRoyle ._ ... _ ... _,, _____ .... _ ... do._ _ .... do ................ .
34 W. MeMicbaeL _ .. ___________________ do ____ .... __ .. _ ... ____ do ____ .. _ .... __ ... _
a5 Pat'k Harkius __ . ____ .. _______ .. _ _ ___ do _ _ ___ do ____ .. _________ __
36 David Robinson ____________ . _________ do __________ .. _______ do _________ .. _____ _
37 Jno_ Turner ..... _ .... _____ ... _ .. _ Conncllsvillc _____ .. __ Alien __________ .. __ ._:


242.380
- 243
106


272,273
420
275
323


172, 426, 427
172, 426, 427


376,419,392,235
41!J, 376, 392, 235
419, 392, 376, 235
41!J, 392, 376, 235
419, 392, 376, 235


38 George Coloman -~~= -~~.:..:..:l~nzerne ~-~:~- _____ I Non-resident_= __ -_----'.-__ _
55,56
8~


As to the vote of Peter Small, an alJegctl lunatic, it is not shown,
even ii' it be concluded that persons of that class are to be excluded from
voting, for whom he yoted, and we cannot dcduct t.his vote from either
of the padies to this contesto


The minol'ity of the COllil1littee of Elections, therefol'e, recommend the
adopt.ion oí' the following resolntion ;


Resolved, That by reason of the foregoing facts, Henry D. Foster is
entitled to represent the twcnt,Y·first congrcssional district oi' Pennsyl·
vania for tbe forty·first Oongress in the House of Representatives of
tbe United States.


, 'C;


<'I~.,.


'"


o


SA~L J. RANDAI,L.
ALBERT G. BURR.
P. 1\1. DOX.




41ST CONGRESS, t HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
2d Session. ~


HEOUGIA ELECTION CAS8S .


.}ANU.\.RY 28, Ul70.-0rdered to he printetl.


{ REPORT No. 16.


Mr. ClIURCIIILL, fl'om the Committee of Elections, made the following


R,EPORT.
The Oomntittee ol Elections, towhom uyere t~letred tite crec7erttials o/ P.


M. B. Yonn.q, Nelson Tílt, llT. P. Edw(trds, ,J. W. Olí/t, 8mnuel F.
Go/}e, and G. H. Prince, claimin.rJ scats as reprcscntati¿'cs ¡roln the State
o/ Georgia, submit tTte following :
In ~overnbe~', 186i, undel' the reconstruction acts of Congress, lllelll


bers of a cOllventioll to forlfl a cOllstitntioll of the ::;tat.e of (}porgia
were eledecl. This ronvention cOllvened on the Dth dav of Decrmbel',
180i, an.! proceeded with tllC onl,\' dnty whieh, under those aets, they
}¡ad to perfonn, amI on tllc 11 th Jfarch, 1868, they atloptc(l a (iOIl"t,i~l1.
tion to be submitted to tIle people under the aets ahoye l'efeITed too


OH the llt.h 01' Mareh, 1808, Congress passed an art, the seeond see·
tiotl of which l'eads as follow.-; :


:-;¡';C. 2. A I/(l 11/1 it flll'tlWI' rllactCll, That· t he eOllst.itut.iollal CUll yentioll of ally of the
State8 melltiolled in the aet~ to \\'lüeh t11i.,; is allll'lHlatory may proyide t11at at the timo
of yotin§.( UPOll the ratiticatioll of tI", CO'lstitntion, tlw regiskre,l yok.rs lllay vote 'llso
fol' mero bers of tl1<' HOllst\ of R"pl'e.slmtat.iyes of tite lTllite<l Sta tes, allll ful' all eledive
officers proyitlml ful' lJy the said eOllstitutioll: allrl the Salll() electioll uffiecl's ",lw "hall
make the retllrI! uf the Yutes cast OH t,lle ratitication 01' rejection of the cOllstltntioll
shall ellumemte ami certi(y the YOtl'8 ea,;t fin' memhel'H of COllgr!'ss.


Unüel' the authority of this .-;eetioll, aIt.hong-It a,nticipating- itto\ pal-5.-;agc,
tIle eonventioll on tIle 10th of 31m'ch, 1868, adopted an ol'dinallCe ,yhich
pI'ovidcd tItat. aH eleetioll shouhl he held, beg-illllillg Oll the 20th oí' Apl'il,
1868, "fol' voting Oll tilo ratification oi' tlw coltstitutioll, amI for goYcl'-
nor, members of the general a~~elllhl'y, repl'eseutatiTes to tIle COllg'l'eSS
oí' the Ullited Htate.-;, alld aU other oftkers to be eleded as proYideü in
the constitutioll." It was further proyidetl "that the persons so elt'cted
shall enter npon tlHl duties of tile seyeral oíllces to which they haye
been l'espectiyely elected, whell antllol'izeü '-;0 to do hy aet.-; oi' Congrc.-;s
01' by the o1'(le1' of tlle general eommalltlillg; amI 81wll contil/ue in o,.tfice
till the regular succelision prol'illecl Jo), a¡ter the year 1868, alld uut.il '-;l1C-
cessors are elected and qnalified; 80 th((t said officers shall eaoh of them
hold their offices as tllOugU tltey wel'e elected on the Tllescla.y after the
first Monday of Noycmber, 1868, 01' elected 01' appoiut.ecl by the general
assembly next t,hereafte1'."


General Meade was fUl'ther 1'equested by tIle same ordillance t.o cause
due rctnrns to be made, alld eertifieates of clectioll to be i.-;sued by the
proper offieers. Uncle1' this ordinanee a11 election was Ileld, begill11ing
on tIte 20th April, 1868, at whieh l'epl'eseutatives in UOllgress were yoted
fol' in tIle seyeral eong1'essional districts, each yotor so yoting deposit-
ing bnta single ballot, 011 whieh was illseribed "for representativc in
Congl'ess," witIl tIle nallle of tIle perSOll for whom he voted. At thi.-;




GEORGIA ELECTION CASES.


time there ¡ras no act 01' COllgress in existeuce, gíVÍllg l'epl'esl:'lltatíon in
COllgress to Gc@rgia, amI thercfore no time when, by tlle terms of tIle
aboye ordinanee, the tcrms of the persons so voted for eould comlllence.


On the 2Jth 01' ,Tune, 1868, COllgress passeu a law which dedal'ed that
Georgia SI ould (lB cntitled ami admittcd to rcpresentatioll in Congress
wIlen the legislature of the State sllould have dnly ratified artic1e fom·
teen o1'the amendments to tIle COIlstitution, and shonld also hayo givcn
thc lt>1sent of the State to eertaia fundamental conditiolls specifie'd in
the aet; and tlle Prcsidellt was required, witIlín ten days after tlw l'el~eipt
01' offieiaI intelligenee of the faet, to ísslle a proelamation announeing
the ratitieation by tho legislature of the foul'teentIl amendmeut.


On the 1st of July, 1868, General Meade issned certificates of electioll
to the several persons w110 had reeeived a ma.iority of yotes for repre·
1'if'lltative in COllgress in their respeeti ve distl'ietH, whidl eeytifieate, fOl"
the first congressional distriet, was in t11e following' form:


HgADQUAUTEHR TrUUD MILITJ.HY DISTRICT,
(GgOH<rIA, FLO]{[IH, A .... D AL\B.L\U.)


Frolll the returllS made to thesc hcadquali.el'8 uy the uoanls of regiHtratioll of tlw elee·
tion held in the St.ate ofGeorgia for civil otlicel's oí' said State, alld fin' Ilwlllbers 01' COll-
gress, uneler the proviHiollS of General Onler No. 40, isslle(l frolll thcRn he,ul'l"art"n;,
which election couuuenced ou tho 20th day o[ April alld eUltt.illlletl fOllr ,bys, il iH hereby
ce:rl~fied that it appí'ars that in sai<l elef,tion ,L ,Y. Clift re('cived a lllajorHy of tite votes
cast 1'01' a 1'eprcselltative to tite CongreHR uf the Unitecl St"Ü('H from the ji/'st COJlgI'C8-
siol/al distdet in said State oí' GE'orgia,


ATLA:"!TA, GA" JI/ly 1, 113613.


GEORGE G. MEADE,
.Jfajol' () en era I U. S. A" Commal/d¡¡¡g,


, TIte eertifieates were similar in form, with changes only 01' the name
of tlle person eertifierl to he eleetell.


l'11e convent.ion adjonrned on thc nth :\Iareh, 1AGS, tite cOllstitntioll
providing tbat tIle general aNilclllbly "llOUlü l11('pt \ritlüll lIilld,r days of
the acliournment of tlle eOlly('ntioll, ¡Illl] alllmally thcrcaftcr OH the see-
oad \Vellnestlay in J anuary, o/' on s/(ch otila dl!y ((S tilo ,l/moral asscmúly
rnight provide. Tllis la~L faet i" illlport<lllt, 8illl:e it has 1>(,I'!l daill1cd
befOl'e tlle eOlllIllittee tltat, mlder tIte eOll"titutioll of (}c()l'g'ia, no eleetioll
for members of Congl'ess could be held ulItil tIlO yeal' lS¡O. Tlw dan se
of the eonstitutioll so referred to is as follo\Y.~-<Il'tide :!, ¡.;eetion 11 :


Tlle electloll of g-o\"(ornor, members of COllgl'CSS, alld the general as-
sembly, after tlle year lS68, shall COllllllelwe OH thp TUf'sday, nfter tlle
first Monday in Non>mbcr, W¡lOS8 otllCJ'/ciso proridel.l uy lale.


Hut this puts no lilllitation \rhaten~r UpOIl tlw power8 of the gelleral
assembly to regulate t.lw tillle anIJ Ü'C1llWIII',y of eledi()II";~ mil], ta ken in
eOllueetion with the general graut 01' po,,"er to the general assclllbly (al'·
tiele 3, seetioll 5,1) to pass aur la", I:Oll~Íi,t,el1t with tlle eom;titlLtioll
they might deem necessary to tlle ,,'el fa re of tlle State, gayo them full
control of the sllbject, alld tIle eOllycnLioll ha\'ing reqnired tite gpueral
¡t;;sembl'y to Illeet within nillf'ty days oí' tlwir OWIl alljolll'IlIlIPIlt., allll al150
Oll tite seeond 1Vednesday of the follo\Ying' ,Jannary, tIte fullest opportl1-
nit,') \Vas given to tbe latter to lH'OYid" hy flll't!JPl' iegislatioll, ifnecI'sHary,
101' the proper representatioll of the State in COllgTC~S,


Ou tlle Rth of July, 1868, tlle general assembly oi' Georgia organiz;ed,
and soon after rati1ied tite fonrteenth alllCll(llllLmt, :;1I(] asscllted to the
fundamental conditions mentioned in tlle flmellllatOl'\' reeollstrnetioll
aet oí' June 25, 1868; alld tlle J:>l'esillellt tlle¡'PllpOII, (~n tite 27th {hl~'
01' Jnly, 1868, issued his pl'oelamatioll oí' the fad oí' slleh ratifieatioll.
TIte memhcl'¡'; eleet frolll Georgia thereupon, ¡in ,¡ nIy, J808, l're~Plttetl




GEORGIA ELECTIO~ CASES. 3


tlteir certificateR of eleetion reeei ved from G ellel'al 1feade, and, so
far as eligible, were thereo!l admittell to scats in the fortieth OOllgress.


Afterwards, In Noycmber, 1868, the governor of the State issued
eommissions to each of these parties, based npon the same eleetioIl, a
copy of whieh is as fol1ows:


* * *


These commissions are now prescntcd to the forty-first Oongress, and
the persons holding thcm daim that, by the eleetion of April 20, 1868,
amI the ordilllwee of the eOllvention 11llllcr whieh that elcetion was held,
they have a right to seats in the forty-first Congress, althongh they have
already by virtne of tho salUe eleetion taken and held seats in the fol'-
tieth OOllgrcRR.


This eOl1lmission, as cvirlcllec of an clection Hndel' the ordinanee in
questioll, is nnauthorizf'd. The ouly person who was authorized by that
orl1illanee to issne eertifieates of election was Gencral Meade. That
ordillftllee was adoptcd by tlle eonvention itself, prior to the adoption of
the constitntion of tlw State, anll is the only law goYel'lling that elec-
tion, amI its force is preseryed by the constitution itself, which provided
(sec. l:!of arto 11) tIlat the ordinallees of the cO!lyelltioll on the sul~iect
of tlÜi\ fil'st eloetioll shouhl haye the foree of la\Ys, until they expired by
theil' OW1) limitation, amI as the orclinanee is nnlimited in this l'espeet
it fullo\YR tlmt tite ollh nllid certifica te oí' deetion umler that onlinance
Iltllst COlttO frOltl Gcne~'al :\Ieade.


Hut by compal'illg tllC eOtlllllission issued by GO\e1'l101' Bullnck wit.h
tIte eertificate oC eledion gi\'cn by Gmte1'al l\feaue, it. lí'ill be seen that
tltp~- relate to the same elcetion, tIte saml' offieer, and the sallle ofliee;
tItat tlte comtlli~sion of GÓYPrltor Dnllock is issued llttller his g'cncral
Po\\,('1' <11t1l dnty to gnlllt eOIl11t1issiolts to perSOllS clected to office in tIte
Sta te ; tltat it cOllfers amI attempts tn c011fer no powers uot alreatly COIt-
ferred by tite certifkah~ oí' f}p!l(~ral ::\le<1110; amI tlwt the rights of the
daimants ,,'hose case" haye beell referred to tho cOllllllittee are the sallle
H:'l tltongh the papel'l'~ ref'l"lTell jo t lH:' eommitt ee haü heea the eertificates
of Gpltpnll J\fe,lIle an<l not tite eOlllmis"iom; of GoYel'nor TIulloek. It iH
a case ot' tlllplieate eredential" to tIte samc iltdiyidual, of whieh tbis
committee JIU n) airead.)' üall mOrfI tltalt (me exalllple.


For tlw trne intel'}ll'etatiolt oY tlwHc papen; ,,-e must look to the la",
of COllgl'eSS amI tlle onlill:lllcc of t11e cOllyentioll of Georgia llJl(lpl' which
tIle eledioll wai'l lwld, ami also to tILe aetion of tIte yoters themsolyes, of
the pen;olls elaiming to han' 1)('en elect!'d, amI to the })l'eyions aetioll oi'
tile lIouse. "VI", slmll tltns asenrtain ,,'hen tllp tel'lll of offiec of these
parties commenecd, for, tllat (ldel'mined, tho laws alld Ooutltitntion of
tite Uniteü States \Vil! determine whell it encIed.


The aet of l\'lal'eh 11, ISG8, anthol'izell the yotcrs of Georgia to yote
f()l' members of thc House of Represt'ntatives, w]lÍeh was done on the
:!Oth of April followillg, WliPll tlwse el:lüwmts \H'l'C oleetcd. On the :?5th
of ,} lIIHl following' COllgn'H" cnaeted tImt GeoJ'gia ShOllld be admitted to
l'epl'osentation in Oongress whell eel'taill eOll<litions were eOlll}llied wit.h,
amI tlmt the aet should take pf1:'eet npOll RlWh eompliallce. Thesc eondi-
tioas were eOlllplierl \Yith in Jnly, 1808, amI thel'enpon Geol'gia beeume
at onee l'lltitled to represelltatioll in UongTe"s, for whieh slw had already
ehosell her l'I\l'I'cseutati\'es. In whut Congl'e,,:.; '\'('1'c they entitled to
take tlleil' seattl UpOll sueh eompliallce'~ Certaillly uot in tIle fOl'ty-first
COltgreRs, ,yhich lYolllllllOt c01lle into existetl('c fol' sen:,ralmollths, aud a
Sl'(\t in wltieh eould llOt allSWl'l' thi:'\ rigltt of Georgia llllller theil' nets to
ill1JJ1ediate n~pl'esl'ntation. It eoulll ol1l,r be the f01'tieth COllgress, thcn




4 GEORGIA ELECTION CASES.
in existen ce, then in session, in fact. To cIaim that a right. of iml1ledi-
ate repl'esentatioll upon tlle happenillg' of a certain event, which was
guaranteed by the Iaw of June 25, 18G8, could be satisfied with, 01' be
intel'preted as referring to a right to a Reat in a fnture Congl'ess, whell
a present Congress was in existence and legislating with resl'eet to the
peopIe to whom this right was conditionally gllaranteed, is ausurd; to
state the proposition is to answer it.


To the same efrect is the ordinance itself, which recites in its pream·
bIe as reasons for its passage "that all civil offieers are onIy provisional
until the State is represented in Congress," and that" tlJe interest oí'
Georgia requires t,hat an civil offices should be filled by loyal citizens,
aeeording to the provisions of the cOIlstitlltlon beillg framed uy this
convention, at the earliest practicable moment."


The objeetof the Iaws of CongreRs of }1areh 11, Junc 25, 1868, as
well as of the ordinanee of the convention, was to pro vidE' for and s~­
cure immediate represelltation, and not flltnre represelltatioll, w1lieh
could be attended to by the legislature whcll the State had fnlly re-
tnrned to ch'il rule. The objeet as well as the term~ of botlt laws alld
ordinanee require us to interpret thern as provi/lillg' only fol' the eleetion
of members of Uongrcss who shonld be members oí' whatevel' Congress
was in existenee, when the right of repreRelltation in CongT6ss "'as re-
stored to G-eorgia. The aetion of the people of Gcorgia, voting at that
election, seems conclusive on this poiuto In aeeordanee with the law
of Congress of Fehruary 28, 18G8, aull of tIte ol'dinFLllCe of their OWIl
convention, they votcd for l'eprcsclltatÍ\'es in Congress, llaming no
Congress as that to whieh they were eleeted, hut lmwing that to be de-
termincd by events.


The action of the persons elected, as well as of the Honse, was in en-
tire harillony with this view. IIllIllediately npoll tIte eOlllp1ianee of
Georgia with tbc reqnircd conditions, tIteir mcmbers prescntcd them-
selves, and the HOLlse received them as l'epresentatinls from that Stat6.


It is too late for these dailllallts to deny tItat, their elÜ(ltion elltitles
them to sit in the forticth COllgl'CSS. Tlleir OWIl aetion has estopped
them from such denial, and unless tItey ean sltow tlwlll~eh'e$ entitled
by the elcction of Apl'il 20, lRGR, to hold ti)r t,,'o tef'lllS, tIIe force of
their eleetion is exhaustecl.


The aetion of the people in voting for them as representatives in Con-
gress, and their certificates of ele0tion as ¡.;ncll representative¡.;, have
been fully answel'ecl by admitting them as sueh representatives to the
fortieth Congress. Nor was it a matte1' of e1loiee with these men
whether they should present thenlRelves fo1' aclmissioll to the fortieth 01'
to the fort,Y·fÜ'st COllgress. By the onlillanep of tlle cOllyention muler
whieh this eleetion was held, and the law of Congress oI' Jnne ~;¡, 18G8,
they were to enter UpOll the dnties of their offiee whellever the State of
Georgia had eomplied with tlte eonditiollS melltioned in thp last mell-
tionecl aet. These eonditions were complied with during thc following
month of ,luly, 1868, and therefore it became tIte duty of these men to
enter upon the cluties of the office to whieh thcy had been ellOsen. This
they dicl, ancl beeame membe1's of the Honse of Representatives of tIle
fortieth Congress, aud aeted as sllch dnring t1le elosing days of the
seeond session of that Congress, and for the rcmainder of the teI'Ill of
its existen ce.


Having taken thcir scats as mcm bers of tlte fortieth Congress, it was
not in the power of the cOllventioll 01' Georgia to extend their term so
as to iuclude the forty-fil'st COIlg'l'ess. The oftiee oI' representative to
the fortieth COllgress is entirely distillct frOll1 that of representatiyc in




"T
ir;'-


GEORGIA ELECTION CASES. 5
the forly-ftrst; Congrcss, and made so by the Uonstitution of the United


i, States.
t:, . It is not pretellded that t11ere was anyt11ing in the conduct of t11e


election of April20, 1868, or in t11e aetioIl oftho voters, ,>;hieh illdieated
a purpose to choose 1'01' more than a single Ooug'1'ess, amI tlle ordiuance


. of tbe convention canllot affect t11e resulto IlIdeed, an exulllination of
< theordinance will show that it was tlle State offieers, am] llot members


,é '~_" :ot'Congress, the duration 01' whose offiees was attempted to be regulated
. ~ ;-by tbat acto .
~::.1lhe conclusion of the committec, therefore, is tliat the force 01' t11e
:,~,election of Apl'il 20, 18GS, was exhausted wheu these gentlemen were
,>admitted membors of the fortieth COllgress, and they thel'efore recom-


::'\fil.end the adoption of the followillg rcsolutiou: .
. ';, :'¡Reso,lved, That the claimants to seats in t1le forty-first Oong1'ess of


{j'tbe United States, from the State of Georgia, Hndel' the eledion held
in tllat State Oll the 20th day of April, lBtiB, are not entitlecl to sneh


,.: ;seats.


H. Rep. 1()--2






41ST CONGRESS, ~ HOUSE ,Ol!' REPRESE~TATIVES.
211 SeS8'¡'on. ,


WAI,LACE VI'. STMPSON.


,r,IXF\RY 28, 1870.-0rderl'd to he printed.


{
' REPOR~'


No. 17.


)Ir. P AINE, frmll the CommiUee of ElcctiOllS, macle the following-


HEPORT.
T/w Committcl' of ElcctiOI/S, to ?('holl/u'as rejared tlw Cllse of A. 8. 'Wltllace


V8. lV. D. Simpson,jrom the /ourt1l congre8sionnl district oj the State oj
Routh Camlina, by vidue (!f t1/C foZlowin!J resolution o/ the House of
Represenfati¡,es, adopted Jamta.ry 25, 18íO-
Re.~olt'f(7, '1'hat tho claims of H. '1'. (A. S.) 'Yallace amI 'VilliallL n. Simpsoll to a seat


in this hOlISA lHl agaill referred tn the Cornmitten of ElncHous, to be examiuell aIHI
reported OH tlw rnorits of tlle case as l'rcsented-


Ueport that the.r have considercd said casc'aud reaffirm their report
made on the 1st day of April, 18ü!), (Heport No. 5, hIt session üll'Íy-first
Congress,) shúwing- that the said Simpson js nnablc tú takc thc oath of
oflice prescribed b.r the act of Jllly 2, 1862; al1d ask to be discharged
from tite fnrther consitleratioIl of tIJe elaim of said Simpson, cxecpt so
far as his allegations ancl proofs may llegative thc elaim of said Wallace
to a ¡;;rat in this honRe.






T'·· ; ':" '~.:.,,:::'. ... ,,;~, 41sT OONGRESS, } HOUSE OF HEPRBSENT ATIVES.
{


HEPOR'l'
No. 18.


1•'.'If./ " ... '., 2d Session. . ;- .. ,)~ , , . . ~.; ~. - ----------- -------- -====~~--~===== NAPOLEON B. GIlJDINGS, [To a~eOIllp:llly 1ill n. R. ::'lo. 100D.]
JANUARY 28, 1870.-0nleretl to he pl'intetl alltll'eeOllllllitted.


Mr. AsPER, from tite COllllllittec Oll J\lilitar.r Affainl, made tite followillg


RE POR re.
'T/t.e Oommittee un JIilita¡,y A.tlcti1'8, to n'1Iom lOas nferrecl tlw clnim of
. Napoleon B. Girldin{fs, fo/' 7JO/Dller taken (tt Santa Pé, Ne1l' Jl1e.l'ico, ú¡


1847, luwing liad the saine wnler eonsitlemtioll, 811bmit the following
report:
It appcars, in 18i7, tlw elaimant was a merchallt at Santa Fé, New


Mexico; that Colonel Stcrliug' Price was in COlnlltaJH1 oí' the Hl'lny oi'
.occupation tllere, and as :'mch issued au 01'(1cr, date<l at tIte headqnarters
of tlle army of New J\lexi(~o, .blllua1'y ~J, 1847, direeting' ull merchants
in Santa Fé, having powcler amI lead, to la bel tlw same and tUl'll the
same oye1' ío the ordlHlllCC officer,\\'ho was direeted to storc thc same ;
and sncll ammllTlitioll eOllld after\\anls onl.)' be drawn out OH a permit
signed by tIte commanding offieer; that the ('laimant, luwing one lmn-
dred amI fOl'ty kegs of po\\'dcr in the pOS808Sio11 of Collml'll and Smith;
that the same was turne(1 over to A_ R_ DyPl', ol'dllanee officer, who ga ve
his receipí therefor, bearillg (laíe ,JanllHl'y 21, 1847, au(1 for one hllmlred
and forty kcgs of powdcl'; tllat thp said deliyer,\- was compulsory, and.
agaillst tlle consellt of the oWller; and that it, was in an ellcmy's COUll-
try, amI in the Opillioll of lllilitary anthorities there at the time there
was a Ilecessity for the onler of Colonel Priee, aud for the storage of the·
powder in the magazine, uuder the coutrol of the commamlant oí' the·


- place.
Thaí afterwards, when }fl'. Cirldings was about io lcaye Santa Fé,


he mrttIe demand rOl' a permit for a re-deliyery oí' the powl1er, buí he was
l'efused sneh order, amI tIlO preRuJIlptioH arü;es that the gOYerlll1lC'nt has.
nsed the powder. The clailllunt, 011 oath, staÜ's that he demanded the
powdcr of the eOIHlIlatHlant, Colonell'rice, auout the 1st oí' March, 1847,
and was refused, mlll eame away ilIllIwdiatel.r aner, alld has never becn
notified whaí disposition has ueen made of it sincc. He sweal'S the
powder \Vas tllc lwst "í'fP powder, each keg cOlltaining twcnty-five
pounds, worth $1 50 per pound.


Under thesc cil'cumstances, yonr committec believe that :Mr. Giddings
has a just claim agaÍlIst tlte gOYel"lllllfmt foI' his powder. The account
for same is as follows: 140 kegs powder, of 20 lbs. caeh, 2,800 lbs.,
which, at $1 ,~o per pOlllld, makes a SUIIl of $4,200; but as tbe clairnant
neyer furllished evidellce to complete his ('Jaim until recently, yonr com-
mittee do not believe that he should be allowcd inÍL'rest.


Your committce rceornmend the passage of tIte aunexed bill, aH of
wmch is respeetfnlly submitted.


J. F. ASPER.


,/




2 NAPO·LEON R. GIDDINGS.


SAVAKNAII, AC'lDREW Uo., )ero., December 1,1851.
DEAR SIR: '1'11e inclosed papers wil\ show that there was taken out


of thc possc:,;:,;iolJ of l't1ess1's. Colhurn & Smith one lmn dred ami forty
kegs 0(" powder helonging to llly8elf. The same was takcn by muer of
COIOllel S. Price, Commandcr at Santa Pé; N. 2\1., and placed iuto t11e
gOYCTllJ1lCnt magaílinc, l!,!1(1 lJeyer l'etnrned to me, 1I0r its valne 01' an,\'
part thereof, and was remaining in said magazine when 11eft tite coun·
try, altllOugh demanded by me before leaying, that 1 might make sorne
disposition of it, alld up to this time has heen au entire loss to lIlyself;
It is against common scnsc, law, and jllstiec, tbat 1 -slloulu losc it, amI
is, in fact, more than 1 am ahle to lose. ]Hy ah:,;mwe to California for
sevcral years has pl'evented me presenting t,11is matter soonel', lmt hope
thc luteness of the date will not haye any infincllce against its aUow·
ance. The tost to lIlysplfwas $1,H50, though waR \Vorth at that time, at
wholesale, $20 pcr keg.The amonnt paitl by IIIC i8 llOt mcntioned in the
receipt from Colbllrn & Smith, the reason is that at the time they were
lal'gely inuebted to myself, amI the pnrcha8e 01' bargaill wa8 tIte original
eost, insurance, earriage, and per cent., anu t11e means of aseertainillg
at the time, the amoullt, was llOt at hand, hut 1 presume it wiU make
no (Iifference in gettillg a settlement.


M1'. Dyer, the ordnmlee officer'8 receipt to myself is imperfeet in 110t
melltioning my name, it was giyell to }IeRsrs. Colburn & Smith for me,
and 1 pl'e8Ume thl'ough rnistake the liante was omitted, yet is good fol'
the one hundred and forty kegs.


Please examine this matter alld see what VOll thillk can be done with
it, and whether 01' not it can be' liqnidated by getting au allowauce by
Uongress or whether the evÍdence is sufficiellt with IDy statement 01'
oath if rcquircd. It wil! aImost be impos8ible fOl' me to proenre an}
other proof without gOillg to Santa Fé, as 1 have written fonr 01' fivc
times withont aeeolIlplishing ltnythillg; twiee to the ordll:lUCe offieer.
Please act in thi8 matter as it were yonr own, amI if this \ViII not do,
let me kllOW what elsc will be rcqnired, aml if this can be mad~ to do,
fix the price yourself. I~et me hear frolll yon oeem'lionally, either bylet-
tp,r 01' cloellments.


Your obedient servallt,
N. TI. GIDDI~GS.


P. S. \Ve have Just hcld a eonnty meeting lUId llomim1teü 'l'. L. Price
for goyernor, alld A. A. King to represent this di8triet in Congress.


N. B. G.
Buchanan for President.
Butlm- fol' Vice President.
PIease get \V. -P. Han to a8si8t yon in this mattel'. 1 would haY(~


written to him but 1 am better aeqnaillted with yOll.
Ron. J OHN S. PHELPS.


SAC'I'l'A 11'É, NEW .:\IEXICO, Jannary :.Jl, 1847.
Receiyed of Napoleon B. Giddillg'S the amount in full for Olle lmudred


and forty kegs of Beitties best powder.
COT,IHJlGf & Sl\'IITH.


The aboye powdcr, belollging to N. B. Gidding8, was taken out of our
possession by order of Col. S. Priee, amI deposited in the magazine at
this place, without the consent of said Gidding8.


COI,BURN & Sl\1TTH.
(Indorsed:) January 17,1854. Referred to Como on Military Affairs·


Mareh 10, 1856. Referred to the COIllIrtittee OH Milital'.)" Affairs.
---o Dec. 15, 1869. Referred to .the Committee on ~filitaI'y Atlairs.




NAPOLEON B. GIDDINGS. 3


Affidavit oi N. B. Gid(Ungs as io Ms claim before Oonunittee on illilitary
A.tfairs.


STATE OF lffmsoulU, Ommty oi A_nürcw, 88 :
Re itremembered, that 011 this, the thirteith day oi" Deeember, A. D.


1869, persollalIy appearcd before me Napoleon TI. Giddillgs, of Savalln~h,
county alHI State at(wcsaid, who beillg by me lluly SWOl'll, aeeording to
law, deposcs and states as follows, to wit: That the one hundl'cd and
forty (140) kegs of powder taken from 11is possession about the tirst day
of January, A. D. 1847, in Santa Fé, New =rlexieo, by Lieutcnant
Dyer, ordnánee offieer, by orllcr of Colonel Sterliug 1'riee, eommandiug
the post, were never retnrned to hiJn; that about the tirRt day oí' .:\lareh,
A. D. 18±7, he demallded said property of Colonel Priee but that said
Price positively refnsed to (leliver it up; that in two (~) 01' three (3) days
thereafter deponent left Santa Fé and returne<l to his home in }lis-
souri, and ha¡, UPVPl' retUl'ued to Santa Fé in N ew J\'Iexieo, alld sinee
which time, deponent has llt·yer boeu llotitied that the property would
be delivered np to him, llor has he ever been notiticd what disposition
was made oi" it; depollent flll'thel' states, that it was the best " fff"
powder, each keg containing tweuty-tive (2.5) poumls, and sneh was
retailing at that time in Santa Fé at one dollar alld tifty cents ($1 50)
pcr ponud. Deponellt bclieves he informed honorable ,J. S. Phelps,
who presented the claim to the IIouse of Representatives for allowanee
that it was worth twellty 01' twenty-fiye dollal's a keg whell takell as
aforesaid.


N. B. GIDDL~GS.
Subscribed to in my preseilce the day alld date aforemelltioned.
"\Vitness my hmltl all(lllotal'ial seal, at office in Savauuah, Missouri.
[SEAL.] WM. C. SJ\HTH,


Notary Publ-ic.
DEcE~rnER 24, 1856.


DEAR SIR: Sillee yonr letter informing me the l'equil'ements of the
committee in relation to my claim, 1 haye written to Oaptain Dyer, WIlO
was the orduanee oftieer at Santa Fé, aud he iuforms me (whieh appears
by tIte inclosetlletter) that, at this time, he does uot recolloet whether 01' not
1 demallded the powder in question. 1 have also sent twice to Santa Fé
to learn what use was made nf it, 1mt as yet ha ve failed to he informed.
Two ye¡trs sinec tho honorable chairman of the eommittee illformed me
that aH they required was to be shown that the property had not been re-
turned, whieh 1 did; amI it does appear to me to be a hardship that 1
should lose my l'ights beeause 1 may not be able to prove what dis
position was made oi" my property .. fler haviug been arrested by force,
and aught tbat 1 know or cOllld know beell appropriate d, lawfully m'
unlawfully. It does occur to me that its appropriation, 01' disposition, is
nothing to me, and should Bot be in the settlemellt of my claims. In
addition to my receipt 1 have established a negative proposition, that
the powder was not retllrned, amI to l'equll'e me fllrthcr tú do something
that possibly 1 cannot do, appoars to be a hardship. If the eommittee
wiU not give me a favorable report from the facts befol'e them, 1 will
have to ask that lt be laid over lmtil 1 make a further effort.


l\íy aeeonnt stands thllS :
140 kegs of powder, at $25 per keg, __ . ____ . ___ . _ .. ___ . _ _ _ _ _ $3, 500
lnterest to 1st January, 1857~ ten years, at 6 per cent. . . . . . . .. 2,100


Total ...... _ . _ ......... _. _ .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ...... . 5,600




4 NAPOLEON B. GIDDINGS.


rrbis alllount will not be ha1f l'emuneration fol' my loss at the time
anc1 undel' the cil'eumstanees; double would not more thau be full recom-
pense.


Yonrs respectfully,
N. R. GIDDINGS.


Hon. E. B. OIlAP~IAN.


FORT J-IONROE, VIRGINIA, November 26, 1856.
DEAR SIR: Yours of the 25th of October haR just beeu l'eceived. 1


do IlOt reco]]ect whdhel' yon demamled t11e powdel' in question after it
had been stored in the magazine and before yon left Santa Fé. lt is
like yon may llave done so, amI the fact have eseaped my l'eeolleetioll.


Respectfully, your obediellt servant,


Captain N. E. GWDlNGS.


A. E. DYEH,
Captain 01 Orclnance.


fn thc case of Napo1eol1 B. Giddings, it appcars, that he was a mer-
ehant of Salita Fé, New Mexico. Tbat OIl the 21st of Januar.r, 1847, by
au ol'der issued by C010u(>1 Sterliug P1'iee, then eOIIllllaudillg the anny of
oecupation in N ew ::Uexieo, 1w comllwm1ed aH perSOJlS to deliyer aU gUll-
llowder oyer to the ol'dnallee officer. That, in complianee with this 01'-
der, the petitione1' deliye1'ctl O1'C1' to Captaill A. B. Dyer, of the army,
one hundred amI forty kegs oí' gUllpowtler, on the aboye date. This is
pro\'ed bytbe reeeipt of Uaptaill D'yer. That the deli\'erJ' \Vas a COIl1-
pnlsory one, suggcsted by motives of prndcllee in the mü!t-;t oí' a 11Osti1e
people. .


It does not appear, howcyel', that he m-el' sullsequent1y dernanded res:
titution of the powder; amI he no w claims ]lay fol' the same. N 01' does
he prove its va1ue at the time iL was taken, though he states its va1ue to
be at tIle rate of twcllty-fiye dollars'per keg.


eSpecial Onler~ Xo. 37.]


HEAD-QUAR'I'RRS ARMY IN NEW MEXIeo,
Santa Fé, Janua,t>y 21, 1847.


AH rnerchants in Santa Fé having powder and lead, will imlllediatel~'
have the same labelled alld turucd over to tllC ordnance officer, wIto will
furnish the requiRite storage. The ammunition will be drawn out on
permits signed by tho eomnumding' officer.


STERLING PHICE,
Co{onel (Jo1n1ncwuHng the Anny in New j'flexico.


1 certify the above to be a true copy of special orders No. 37.
R W ALKER, Adjutant.


Reccived, Santa Fé, January 21, 1847, on deposit in the magazine, by
order of Colonel S. Price, one hundl'ed amI forty kegs of powder.


Hon. 13. B. CHAPl\1AN, Washington, D. C.


A. TI. DYER,
Lieutenant 01 Ordnance.




NAPOLEON B. GIDDINGS.


ORDNANCE OFFICE, WASHING'l'ON,
Feb}'Ultry 2, 185,5.


5


Sú~: The ol'dnanee returns of the Santa Fé depot have been examined
froTll the seeonll quarter of 1846, nntil 184U, but no powder, snch as ;you
spoke of Itere, yesterday, eould be found. 1 will write to Captain Dyer,
howeyer, who is now in eommand of Little Roek arsenal, and if any.
thillg of importance should be elieited, 1 will eomllllluicate it to you.


T haye the 1101101' to be, sir, yonr obedient servant,


Ron. N. B. GIDDums,
HOllse o/ Representatires.


A. K. CRAIG,
Cnptain Ordnance.


r~JTTLg RoeK ARSENAL,
February 20,1855.


t:llR: Tile last mail brought your note of tiLe 3d instant, to which 1
hasten to reply.


Tile powclel' "hiel! was takclI out of the posessioll of Colbnrn & Smith,
at Santa I<'é, in JaIwary, 11:\±7, and tleposited in the public magazine by
order of Colone1 Priee, rcmaineu there OH deposit np to the time of my
departure from t:lallta Fé, in Fehrnary, 1848. None of it had been used
for puhlic purposps, aml 1 suppose no part of it has heen so applied nI'
to the present tillll'. ft was turned over by me to m'y Rueeessor, Ord-
nance Sergeallt nTeLnre, as property be10llgillg to ,ron whieh had been
deposited in thc magazine by order of Colone1 Priee.


1 am sir, y(']'~' respp('tfully, &c.,


Hon. X B. (}IDDI"G~,
W((sllil1gfon ('ity.


11. Hpp. lS--'.!


A. B. DYER,
Captain Orduarlce.






,.
41sT (JON~RESS, t


2ll 8es8wn. j
HOGSE OF HErRESENTATIVBS.


líNITED STATES SHI P WYOl\lI~G.
[To aecolllllany bilJ H. R. Xo. 1072,]


{
REPOR'L'
~o.19.


FEBRUARY 2, 1870,-Ref'll'l'cd to the COlluuittee on Xa \'a1 Affair~ an<1 ol'del'eLl to be
l'l'inted,


~Ir. ARCHER, fi:'OlIl tlte COlllmittee on :x antl Affai1's, made tüe follmYillg


REPORT.
That in the ll10nth of .July, 18G3, tIte ,American steamer rembroke


was fired UpO!l in tlw Straitll of Simollolleki, i11 the .JaprLn Spa, by two
ves¡.;els of war, a brig of ten gllns au!! a 1m1'k of t'ight gnns, belollging to
the Ja]lalleSe prillce of ~agato. Commamlcr }IcDongal, then in COUl-
mand of the \Vyomillg, in tIte China ancl .Japan Seaf;, heiug' imfOl'Hled
of thfl attack, ordered tlte yesHcl to sea alld pl'o('('eded to tllC loeality of
the outrage. On tlw 1lI0I'llillg' of thü lGth of .Jnly, he allproached tIle
SIraits of SilllOllo8eki alld npon entering the straitf; he dif;COH'I'ed a
f;tflamel', bark, aml brig of \yar, and aH lw a])1I1'O<lc1l('Ü t1lüll1 and passed
between the brig aud ha1'k, waH fire<l npOll by the yessels aud six hat-
teries on s1101'e. Commauder JHcT>ong'a1 retnrllpd tIw tire at ,,1101't, l'allge,
amI placing 11is yessel in prope1' positicm mailltaiul'c1 t11e figl1t for ahont
an hour. The bojle1'H of the hostile stealller were explorlpd by tile Hhl:'l1
of t11e \Vyoming, anel t11e othel' vessels \\('1'() helÍl'H'(l to be ha!lly disa-
bled, and tIte brig to hn Sillkillg, amI COlllmallder }IeDongal reporletl
that hn had aeeolll]llishcd great dcstrnetioll OH HII01'e. ll,lvillg thus
maintainetl the fight, COllJ1WllHlel' }[d)onpll witlldrc\y from tIle action,
the fire bcing eontillup(1 hy tlle h'lttcries as long a" 1lf' was in rangc. T11e
Wyoming lost fonr lllün kil1ed autl 8eyen WOLUH.h~(l, nr)(l 1'eeeiY('d (~onsid­
erabIe damage in he1' sllloke-stad:, amI tIte rigging aloft was hulled
eleven times, amI sllstaille<l otlH:r in.inl'ies, as palle1's will sl1ow. The
straits were three-q,nartel's of a mi1e wide, with a Htl'Onp: enrrent, antl
the waut of ehart8 g1'eatly illercllsefl the (Iiffienlties of the positioll in
the pre"ence of a mllch snperior force. TIte action waf; lllaintaillell by
Commander MeDougal, hiil officel's atHl IllPlI, with skill alld brayery. In
tIle Japau OommereirLl ~mYs of tllO 2Jth of July, 1863, it is tlnm de-
Rcribed: "The captain, aU his oilicel's ami erew, bella\'e<1 \\'ith the ut-
ltlost eoolness and bravcry. 1'1w \Vyolllillg' waH rnn into the midst of
the enemy's vessels, receiving' antl returnillg' broadsides at pistol range,
flt the smne time sustaining a hot, and eontiuuol1s fire f¡'om the shore
hattcriEs." The commiUeebelieye that UOlllmander JUeDouga1, his oftl-
cers and men, punished the outrage committed upon au AlIlerican Yes-
sel skil1fully and gallantly, aud that theil' (mnduet mltit1es them to the
gratitude of their eountry.


The memorialist asks that there shall be allowed to him, his oftlcers
alHl men, the value of the thl'ee yesse]s, as pl'ize money. Can that be
aUowed ~ The hostilities agaiust onr steame1's alld ships of war were
uot tIte aets of belligerentR, and tberefol'e the claim eannot rest upon
the laws regulating bclligercllt prize 01' bounty. 'Ve were at peaee




2 UNITED STA TES SHIP WYOMING.


with Japan, amI <lid Tlot l'cgard t11e hostilities of the Princc of Nagato
as those of a belligerent. The firing into the Pcm broke and the attack
upon tlw 'Vyoming were piratical acts, and haye becn so treated, both
by the United States and J apall. Prize is allowed in piratical cases,
only ,,'hen tile eraft is captured and condcmned, in which case tIle pro-
ceeds of the capture are eqnally divided between the govcl'Tllnellt alld
tIle captors. In this case there was no capture, although the bencfits
which accrued to our govermnent were infinitely greater than if an ac-
tual ca,ptllre 11acl been made, alld it does not come within the lctter of
1he law. Can the claim tIlen rest upon the equity that the "oflicers and
cl'ew, constrained by a discreet and patriotie seTlse oi' dnty," fought
"thrce piratieal 01' hostile .Japanese vessels," and sunk and dl,,,,troyed
two, alld th[,t the Unitc(l States snbsequelltly justiJied their eonduct,
by eone1udillg a cony(mtion with Japan, whereby s]¡e received a full in-
denmity'e The cOllduet was gallant; it aided to suppress formi<lahle
Ilostilities ti) our eommerce, and eontrihu ted to seclll'Íug t11e cOIi\Tention
of Oetober, 18ü1, whereby au indelUuity was reeeivcd far heyOIul the
injnries done tu the PpIllbroke and \Vyomiug. The sum oí' $ü30,OOO
has he en paiel tu OHr gonmmwnt by Japan, as illdl~mllity, alld is llOW
in l'egistered bond,,;, ¡;;n~ieet to appropriation by COllgl'e;;s. 'l'hn UOJll-
mittcc thillk it pl'opel' tltat prizp 1Il0lH'y be aIlo,ved out of thc lIloney
reeejyetl undel' tlle eOl1yelltiOll.




41sT CONGlmSS, t HOUSE OF ImPRESENl'A'l'lVES.
2d Session. J


EMIL l~UGBR.


• REPORT
I No. 20.


FEBInJAHY:!, 1 t<i l'.- Laid 011 the tallle and ordered to lle Illinted.


Mr. JUDD, from tlle (1olll111ittee OH Foreigll AfTairs, malle the following


REPORT.
The Committcc on l/ol'ci[Jn A.tj'airs, to Iclwm Ice/'e referretZ the memorial and


accompmlJJ1:ny p((pas o/ Emil Ru,r¡cr, pl'qferl'ill[J a claim of tU'o hundrell
tlwllsand doll(r1'8 agaillHt the gm'ernment (!f Denmark, fOl' alleged wrong
done 1cithin tlwt killgdom, bC[Js larre fo I'CpOl't :
l'hat frolll t11e llwlllorial amI accomllanying papen; it appears tlJUt


tIle llw\[\o1'i:llist ,ya8 a eitizen of tite United States, amI a memlJer of the
til'm oí' Ruger & Bl'otlters, oí' Kew York City.


l'hat in estahlishing ~t steamship line hetween ;{ew York and t1le
Baltie tlle fil'ltl failpd in bnsiJlc8s; that 1\1e881'8. Britners & Oo., of Bre·
men, hall a elaim llgainst the tirm of Hnger & Bl'othel's; tha.t in l\Iarch,
18W, tIle memorialist visited Oopenhagen and was tIlere arrested fol'
said deht, llIHlpl' .in(lieial proeess, lmt in pl'ison amI hehI until he COIn-
llromiRed a11(I settled the e1ailll.


It app<'tu'¡;; fl'olll tIIe palw1'8 tllat tl)(\ arr('st amI imprisolllllellt w<,re in
the regular eourse oí' a judicial llroeeediug amI in aecortlallce with tite
laws oí' tite kiJlgdom; tltat UpOIL applicatioll tn the DaniRll go\-el'lllllpnt
for Iris release frolll slleh arrest, the l'cs]lon:-:e \Yas tltat tlle exeentive
gOYernmellt oi' the killgdolll conhl ltot illterfere witll the eonrU:l ¡JI the
a(llllilli"tratioll of jnsti[;p, ,\"]¡Pl1 tlH='Y \\"('re pl'oeeeding regularIy aceord-
iug to tlle laws.


YOUl' COllllllitJee is oi' opinioll that the actioll of the Danish gO\-ern·
ment, in leayj¡lg tIw lIIl'lIIOl'ütlist to defeml hill1Relf in dne course of law,
was the ouly positioll that tIle execntiyc departmcllt of that government
could justly take.


The papers presellte(l :-;how 110 elaill1 01' reasollable pretense for a
claim against that g"tWel'llIllPJlt; amI tIle eOlllluittee asks to be dis-
charged frOIll tite fl1l'tltel' eOllsÍ<!eratioll of the matter.


\




,


\jqnl~


j
j


'yj




41sT CONG;RESS, }
2d Sesswn.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.


EXECUTION 01' THE LAWS IN UTAH.
[To accompany bill H. R. No. 1089.J


{
REPORT
No. 21.


l'EBlWARY :3, 1870.-Recornmitted to the Committee on the Territorics and orderetl to
be printetl .


.1\11'. CULLmr, from the Committee on the Territories, made the
follo Will g .


REPORT.
Tlle Oommittee on tite Territories, to ~vh01n tcas 1'eferred House biU No. 696,


"A. bill 'in aid 01 the execution 01 tlte laulS in the Territory o/ Utah, and
for otller ]lur]loses," .have eonsiderell the same, and make tite follOlring
1'eport:


There are hnt few questions illvolved in the bill abont which there
lllay be auy controvcrsy. As to the power of Congress over the Ter-
ritories, tho COllstitntion says that "Congress shall haye power to
dispose oí' alld make aU lleedful ruleR amI regulations respectillg the
territory 01' other property belonging to tho United States." The power
is vested in COllgress by the COllstitutioll to pass s11eh laws governillg
thc Territorics as shall be dcemcd for the best interests of the people.
The right to exercise snch power has never been denicd; though in
thc days of t1le famons Kallsas amI Nebraska bill tlle question of tllll
policyoí' COllgress cxercisillg control over the Territories was donbtffi'r,
amI tlle l'csult of tIte legislation of those days upon the snbject was
to leavc the peopIe (Jf the Territorics free to determine whet11e1' Rlavery,
the qnestion abont which the people of the country were then clivided,
shonld he allo",ed to exist in tlle Territorips 01' noto From tbe earlicst
period of tIte history of OIU legislation in reference to Territories
Congress bas, either by direct legislation 01' by implieation, claimed
the right to control t.Ite legislatioll of t11e Territories. The fact oí'
ownersbip by the goyernment oí' tlle Territories carries witb it lleces-
sarily tbe idea of control. Numerous acts passed by Congress frOID
time to time show the trnth oí' t11e POSitiOll tbat it has the rigbt and
has exercised the power. 'fhe act oí' Congress approvecl July 1, 1836,
declaring tltat acü; oí' territoriallegislatures incorporating banks shonld
have no effect untiI approved 01' conü1'med by (Jonb'Tess, is one instance
oí' the eXel'CiRe of this power. The aet of January 25, 1867, entitled
"An aet to regnlate the elective frallcbise in the Territories of the
United States," which declared that the1'e 8honld be no clenial oi" tbe
elective franehise in any ol' t11e Territories of the United States to any
citizen thereof on account of race, color, 01' previous condition of serv-
itncle, aud that an acts 01' parts oí' acts, eithel' by Congress 01' the
legislat.iye assemblies of said Territories, inconsistellt with the pro-
visions of that act, shonld be null and yoid, is anot1ter instance in which
tlle COIlg'ress of the United States exercised positive cont.rol. The act
ol' }larcb 2, 18(;7, in which it was declared that. the legislative assem-




2 EXECU'PION OF LAWS IN UTAH.


blies of tbe several Territories of tbe Ullited States should not, after
the passage of tbat aet, grallt priva te charters 01' special privileges,
but tbat tbey might, by general incorporation acts, permit perSOlIS to
associate themselves together as bodies corporate, for milling, manu-
facturillg, and otber industrial pursuits, and aIso regulating the juris-
dietion of the local courts in the Territory of Montana, was another
instancc in which Congress claimed and exercised the right to legislate
for the Territories. "ti


Again, the act of Congress approved July 1, 1862, "to punish aml
prevent the practice of polygamy in t,be Territories of the United
States and otller places, and disapproving and annulling cerfain act~
of the Iegislative assembly of the Territory of Utah," by which it was
declared "that every person having a husband 01' wife living, wIto
shall many any otber person, whether married 01' single, in a Territory
of the United States, 01' other place over which the United States haye
exelusive jurisdietion," sha11 be adjudged guilty of bigamy, aud upon
convi,ct4m shall be punished by a fine IIOt exceeding·five lllllldred dol-
lars, 01' lmprisonment not exceeding fiye years, and the second section
of which act annuIs all actsa1Hlla\vs of the 'rerritory of Utah "whieh
establish, maiutain, protect, 01' eountenance the practiee of polygallly,
evasively called spiritual marriage, however disgu-ised by legal 01' eeclesi-
ástieal solemnities, sacrameuts, ceremonies, couseerations, 01' other COll-
trivallces," is still another illstance in whieh Congress has elaimed alld
exereised the right of legislation for the Territories of the United
States. '


The committee might proceed to cite instances almost withont nUTIl-
ber in support of this position, where Congress has exereised this right.
They might also give the opinions of the comts of t11e United States,
showing tbat snch legislation and exereise of power by Congress was
strictly within the pmyiew of the COllstitlltion itsPlf. In 1860, when
the disons8io11 npoll the sllqjeet of slavcry was going on in the Senate
of the Uuited States, that hody having uuder eOllsideration a resolution
relative to the expedieney oi' maintaining the Utah and New l\1exieo
territorial organie aets, so as to dispense with the snbrnission of the
territorial laws to Congress for approval, Senator Green, of JUissonri,
said: "As long as we have tIte aeknowledged power to repeal, as long
as we have the conceded power of amendmcnt, and that Jlower eOIl-
tinues as long as the territorial condition remaius, it i8 useless to stop
to illquire over the construction of a padicular aet that has been passed;
it is idle to specnlate upon the extent of the power that the Territory
may exereise, becallse if we lmye giyen them too mneIt, nI' if they Lave
been a disobedient amI disloyal people, and llave abused their power, nI'
if they have exereised it to the wrongful destruetion of auy individual's
right, then Congress may and onght pl'omptly to illterpose to apply the
necessaI'y correetive. Sueh illterference is botl! a l'ight amI a dnty, of'tt'n
exereised and never denied."


It has always he en the reeognized duty of Congress to c41ntrol the
taxation of property in the Territories, as, for installce, ill the Kansas
amI N ebraska aet, proyided in the following words: "N 01' shall the
propert,y of non-residellts be taxed higher thall the propert,r of resi-
deuts."


The eourts seem to ha,-e settled the qnestion of tIte jurisllicLiou of
Congress over the Territories by decisiom; deelared in 1 Peters, ¡)42-3;
14 Peters, 537; 16 Howard, 194; in the Dred Seott deeision, aud in
varions other decisions, to whieh the eornmittee might refer.


'I'be powerof Congress being conceded, what is pro po sed to be done?
By the bill referred to the cornmittee, it is proposed, in the first plaúe,




EXECUTION OF LA"\VS IN UTAH.


to clothe the eourts of the United States in the Territol'Y of Utah with
sueh power and authol'ity as will enahle tbem and tIte other offiee1's oí'
tIte Territo1'Y to enfo1'ee the laws of the United States already upon the
statute books. It is a well-known faet that the law ofthe lJnited States,
before cited in thi!\ report; approved July 1, 1862, declaring bigamy to


, be a eriminal offense, and providing forthe punishment thereof, while it
has remained upon the 8tatute book now for nearly eight year8, amI
while it is an admitted and avowed faet that the practice of polygamy
has been going on Ín that Territory ever since, and long hefore the
passage of tbat law, yet theI'e nevel' has been a single eonvietion fol' any
violation of the law in the Territory; amI the cvidenee before the
countI'y is, that undel' the present eondition of thmgs, with the law as
it now stallds, a eonviction is a moral impossibility. One of the oqjccts
of this bill is to provide sneh legislation as will enable t1le United Sta tes
courts in that TeI'rito1'V to cnforee that law.


The eommittce }uwe"not deemed it necessal'y to inCHI' the expense of
summoning witnesses from the Territory fol' the purpose oí' provillg
by recent testimony (as might he done) that the praetiee of polygamy
goes on in the faee of and in defianee of the offieel's of the law in the
Te1'rito1'Y, for the fad is admiHed, amI i8 so well known tn all the world
that the1'e can be no question as to the state of thingR existing' the1'o.


To show the, utter inability of the office1's of the law in that Territo1'Y
to enfo1'ce the laws of the U nited StateR, the eommittee have deeme<1 it
proper to gather together a few of the statements that have been mude
upon this point, sorne of them, it is' true, made manJ' years ago, lmt
neverjhelesR Rhowing the RaIlle condition oi' things as i8 8ho\\'ll by testi-
monf'to exist to-day.


On the 30th of l\farch, 1857, tIle Hon. vV. vV. Drummond, then a
judge of t1lat Territory, resigned his office, and gave to tbe goveru-
ment his reasons therefor in the following letter, which has before been
read and referred 1,0 in ddmte upon the subject of what leg'islation
should be enactecl by UOllgress fúr the suppression of the practice oí
polygamy in that 'rerritory :


MARCH :10,1857.
My DEAR Sm: As Ilmve eOIlCllldea to resign the office of justice of the snpreme


conrt of the Territory 01" Ctah, ",hieh positioll 1 aceeptec¡ A. D, 1tl!l4, llnder the ao-
mini~tration of Presillent Pierce, 1 demn it due to the públic to give some of the rIltl-
Bons why 1 do so. In tltc'JirHt place, Brigham Young, the governor of 'Ctah Territory,
is the acknowledged head of the Chl1reh -of J esns Chl'ist of Latter nay Saints, c, "1I-
IDonly calle<l Mormons; an<l aH Huch he:ul, tite Mormons look to hilll, and to him al',;le,
for the law by which they are to be governed. Therefore, no law of Congress is hy
them consiclerecl hinding in any maUller. Seeondly, 1 know that there i, a secrpt oat,h-
bound ol'ganization amollg all the male mmnhers of tbe church to resiHt the la\VR of
tbe eountry, amI to acknowledgT' 110 law save the la\\' of the holy l'nesthood, which
eorneR to tho pl\ople, throngh Brigham Young, l1il'eet from (Jod; he, Young, being the
vicegcrent of God, aul! prophet, vi",: sneeeSRor of Joseph Smith, who \VaR the tounder
of this hliud and treasonable orgoniztüion. Thirdly, 1 am fullyaware that there is a
set of men set apart by apeeial or(ler of the church to tnke both t he lives and l)roperty
of persoua who may IllleRtion tlH\ anthorHy of thA c,hnrch, the ll:11lleS of WhOlll 1 ,vil!
prolllpt1y make knowIl nt a fllt.llre time. FOllrthly, that th(' r('cords, papers, &e., of
thn sllpreme cOllrt have heen (lpstroyel1 by onle1' of the chu1'eh with the di1'e,ct kllowl-
edge aud appro]¡ation of (Jovel'nor B. YOllllg, anrl t.he federal ofticers grossly inslllt.ed
tor prc'8llming to mise a single question ah"llt tite treasollahle ad. Fiíthly, that the
federal oftic('rs of the Territory are eOIl~taut1y insnUed, hamsse<1, amI annoyecl by the
Morrnolls, amI for thí\se insnlts thne is no redress. Sixth, tilat tile fe(leral officera are
daily compelled to hear the pnhlic Illell of the AIllerican go\'cnuucnt tra<lllced, tht'l
chip,f (lxeentivcs of the na1,ion, both living amI rlead, slallllered and abusecl from the
ma~ses as well 3R from the leading members of the chureh, in thp most vulgar, loath-
~O\lle, and wiekerl lIIauner that the evi1 passions of men ean eoneei ve. 1 also charge
flovernor Young with eonstantly interfering with the federal eOlll'ts, clireeting the
grand jnry whom to imlict, and whom not, ana after the juclges chal'ging the grand
jlll'ors as to their duties; that this man Young invariably has sorne mernber oí" the




4 EXECUTION 01<' LA WS IN UTAH.
grand jnry allvised in allvance as to his will in relation to their labora, amI thia charge
t1ms giyen is tho only charge known, obeyetl, or receiyed by all the grand jllrors of
the fed"ral courts of Utah Territory.


While this testilllony of J udge Drummond was given many years
ago, yd it is just as applicable to the presellt eonuitiOll of things in the
Territoryas it was when the lctter was writtell. AH the information
tlmt the cOllllJlittee have been able to obtaill frolll the examination of
witne~ses, from correspondence with elllillellt gentle-'" in the Terri-
tOl"y, 01' from any sourcc whatcver, ostablishes tho fact that, notwith-
standing tho law of 1862 upon the statute-books of tho country de-
claring bigamy 01' polygallly to be a criminal offense, anu providing for
its puuishlllcnt, it is utterly illlpossible for tho courts of the Territory,
however earnest, energetic, and ueterlllined tItey may be, to enforee the
laws of the United States, which it is Illade their dnt;v to enforce.


In 1867 General .]\f. B. Hazen, of the regular arllly of the United
States, wrote a letter to the Hon: Johll Bidwell, of the HOllse oí" l~ep­
rescntatives, (General Hazen having spent n1uch time in the Territory
of Utah,) in which he says, referring to the goYeI'llnWilt of Erigham
Young, in the Territory, that hc would caU thcir govcrnlllcnt a thco-
cratic dcspotism.


"B1'igham Young, 01', as he is called there, President Yonng, is atthehel1d ofehnrch
and state, and is the supreme and absolute ruler III eyerythiug, temporal and spiritual.
The eivil officers of onr government appointed there have 110 powe1' whateyer, and
thnir positions I fOllIlll in the highest llegree contemptible. I eOllyersed freely with
nearly all of them. They \Yere fully eOllscions of their insignificallce. The chnrch,
which is also the state, i8 very cOl1l1'letely organized with as)"st!'m of high eounei!-
llien, bishops, priests, and wl1nlens, that exteIHLs to eve1'y Immlet, controla the aetious
and illlluences the thonghts of eyery ilHliYidllal. From the 1'1I1pit the people are
diI'ected how to sow their c1'op8, !low to woI'ship Gorl, and foI' wllom to vot .. , in the
salIle sermono Im!llicit confid,mce is their first rnle. Brigham Young watches closely all
new-comers until he know8 th .. ir pnrposes." "1 fou1l(1 iu Salt Lake City l1bOllt three ....
hUllllred people whom they tcrmed gentiles, nearly ail tra(le1's. Tbey had estahlished a .,
church, a newspaper, and a school, ana 1 was infonnc(l:tt OHe time that they excl'ted so me I
influence there. But at tbe time of my Yi~it tbey were broken up into seYl·ml tilCtiollS,
prohably brought abont by the ingellllHy of tile MormollR, alHI their illfiuellce was
scarcely perceptible. 1 llotiee since, tltat the MOrlllOnl'hll1'ch ha, prohibite<1 tnute with
thelll, ttwlllegotiations have been begun with them to ~dl evel',ythiug out tu tile )[01'-
mons una leave the country." "Tlw ClIrSPK of Go,l are nvoke,l (\,",;ry HahlJath lIpon the
melllorieH of PI'esidents Polk and I3uehalltlU, awl ThollltlS Belltou, ,\"110m t1wy l'onceiyc
to have heen their special persecutors." Crimes against liS is to thelll ohe<lience. "Origi-
nally polygamy seerned to haye been intro(llH,erl to mor" speedily"popuhLte their Tcrri- 1
tory ,,·ith their own people, and there is a power in this best lIllde1'stood by stmlying
the progress of the early :Nloors in Spaiu, and p:t1'tly from sensual reasolls, thCl'e being
no preventing power." lts effects on cnltivatell soeiety wOllM he to degrade it, espc-
cially the women, but wif,h the pcople of l;tah it appears ollly to retara culture, they
being originally fouud ver'y low in the moral seale. 'Yheney,'l' womell tho1'e lwcollle
sufficiently cnltivated to appreeiate the trne dignity of a lady, they at once rcnOUllCC
polygamy. "'fhe murrler of Doctor HobillSOll oCl:ul'reü while 1 was in Salt Lake Cit.y,
and thl1t of Brassfield sorne time previous. 'fhe1''' is no douht of tlwir mUl'Ilel' from
Mormon church infinenees, although j do llOt helieve hy dire(·t (;()]IlInalHl. Principies
are taught in their chul'chcs which WOllh1 lcad to sllcll lllun1er"." There i8 11 '¡<'pth of
ignorance there that will take many generatiOllS of light to l'each fal' into it. "They
ouly acknow ledge allegianc;c to n8 through proteHt, :Lll(l thell sccondary to their OWIl
government. And they lmte UB with au uucollcealed bittcruess, aUlI eOllstalltly l'ray in
their churches for our dowllfall."


The practice of polygallly was not originalIy oue of the doctrines of
the l\formon church, but,on the contrary, the "Book of JUormoll," and
tbe book called "Doctrine amI Coycnants," cOlltaillillg the creed and (lis-
cípline of tbe Mormon cburch, declareu in direct opposition toit. The
following extract is from the Enok of Mormoll alluded to :


And were it not that I must speak unto you cOlleeruillg a g'rosser crime. my heart
wOllla rejoice. exceedingly, hecause of yon; lmí the word of GoiL Imrdells me beeause of
your grosser crimes. For hehold, thns saith thc Lord, this people begiu to wax in iniquity;
they ullderstanc1 not the Bcriptnres, for they seek to excuse themsel ves in COlllllutting




EXECUTIOX OF LA WS IN UT AH. 5
whore(loms, because oi the thillg-s whieh were writtcn concerlling Dayitl, allÚ Solomon,
his son. Hehold, David and SolomoJl trnly hall many wiyes and eoncubincF, whieh
thing was all abomillatioJl lJcforc IIlC, saith tll() Lord; whercfo1'o, thlls saith tlw Lord,
1 have leel this people forth out of the lawl of Jerusalem, by Ow power of minI' a1'm,
thnt 1 might raise np unto me 3, righteous b1'aneh fmm the fruit of the loius oi' JOHCl'lt;
wherefo1'e, I, the Lord Gud, willuut suffer that this ¡leople shall <10 like unto thpllI of
olel. \Vhereforc, m'y lJrethren, he'1r me, atHl hcarkcu to the word of the Lor<1; fnr there
8hall not any man a,mong )"on lmye saye but one wife; amI concubines he slwll have
nono; filr.I, the Lord, delig-ht!'th in theehastity ofwomen, amI whoredoins al'<' an ahom-
ination before me; thns saith the Lord of Hosts: whercfore this people shall k~('p my
eornrnandmellts, saith tite LOrfl of Hosts, OJ' curseu be the lan<1 for their sak,'~.


And frorn the "Doctrines amI Covonants" the following passagc is
cxtracted: -


Inasmuch as tllis elmrch of Christ has becll rC]J1'oachod with tho criruc of forllioa-
tioll amI pOlygUlliy, we (]f,clam that \Yf' helieve that olle mau ShOllldhaye oue wife, a11(1
one WOlllUU but oue husballd, except, in case of (le:.tth, when either is a1, liberty to Illarry
again.


The practice of polygamy by the }Iorrnon people oí Utah is the
l'esult of a pretended rcyclation of God to Bl'igham Young. T1Iis
practi(~c is abborrcnt to tbe ddlization oí tbe age, and to eycry
Christian nation upon the globe. As has been said, it is 111:111e a
criminal offenso in any of tbe Territorios by tho laws of the Ullited
Statcs. It is also deciared to be a cl'ime in' the District oí Columbia,
over wbicb the Congross oi' t1le United States exereü;es complete jmis·
dietion. As to tbo Distriet of Columbia, tbe act of Congress d(~elares
tbat "whoever shaU be eon vieted of the offellse of bigamy shall be
sentelleed to stl.f'f:er imprisonment and hard labor fo1' the iirst offeIlRe,
for a period of lIOt less than two nor more than soycn years; amI for the
second offense, for a period. of uot less than five nor more than twelve
yea1's."


It is mad.o a criminal offense by every S